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1.
The Routledge Handbook of Public Health and the Community ; : 302-312, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879573

ABSTRACT

Health care systems around the world are now facing unprecedented challenges due to various factors including the tsunami of ageing populations, unhealthy lifestyles and diets as well as the recurrent and new emergence of infectious diseases such as flu and COVID-19. Government’s health policies need to be revisited in an attempt to put extra efforts and resources in primary care and public health. Despite the Alma-Ata Declaration of the international primary health care (PHC) conference signed in 1978, PHC models nowadays need to shift the paradigm from ‘sick care’ to ‘health care’ with the innovative model of ‘Smart Health Communities' (SHC). SHC address various stakeholders involved in enhancing the health of the citizens in the localities or cities. This initiative is within the domain of ‘Smart Cities’ with the adoption of ‘Internet of Things’ to enhance the collection of essential health data about the health status of patients and citizens in the community. SHCs are especially important in primary and community care. By means of case studies of Hong Kong and Australia, the values and impacts of using digital health and networked technologies such as wearables, electronic health record systems to facilitate SHC are highlighted to address the factors for success and the difficulties encountered. These experiences gained from Asia-Pacific regions are deemed to be the learning points for other cities to reflect about their health care systems especially in community care level so as to innovate and to further shift their focus from sick care to health care. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Ben Y.F. Fong and Martin C.S. Wong;individual chapters, the contributors.

2.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-338449

ABSTRACT

Physical interactions between viral and host proteins are responsible for almost all aspects of the viral life cycle and the host's immune response. Studying viral-host protein-protein interactions is thus crucial for identifying strategies for treatment and prevention of viral infection. Here, we use high-throughput yeast two-hybrid and affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to generate a comprehensive SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactome network consisting of both binary and co-complex interactions. We report a total of 739 high-confidence interactions, showing the highest overlap of interaction partners among published datasets as well as the highest overlap with genes differentially expressed in samples (such as upper airway and bronchial epithelial cells) from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Showcasing the utility of our network, we describe a novel interaction between the viral accessory protein ORF3a and the host zinc finger transcription factor ZNF579 to illustrate a SARS-CoV-2 factor mediating a direct impact on host transcription. Leveraging our interactome, we performed network-based drug screens for over 2,900 FDA-approved/investigational drugs and obtained a curated list of 23 drugs that had significant network proximities to SARS-CoV-2 host factors, one of which, carvedilol, showed promising antiviral properties. We performed electronic health record-based validation using two independent large-scale, longitudinal COVID-19 patient databases and found that carvedilol usage was associated with a significantly lowered probability (17%-20%, P < 0.001) of obtaining a SARS-CoV-2 positive test after adjusting various confounding factors. Carvedilol additionally showed anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in a human lung epithelial cell line [half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) value of 4.1 microM], suggesting a mechanism for its beneficial effect in COVID-19. Our study demonstrates the value of large-scale network systems biology approaches for extracting biological insight from complex biological processes.

3.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338085

ABSTRACT

We present spatial-CITE-seq for high-plex protein and whole transcriptome co-mapping, which was firstly demonstrated for profiling 189 proteins and transcriptome in multiple mouse tissue types. It was then applied to human tissues to measure 273 proteins and transcriptome that revealed spatially distinct germinal center reaction in tonsil and early immune activation in skin at the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine injection site. Spatial-CITE-seq may find a range of applications in biomedical research.

4.
Diabetes research and clinical practice ; 186:109370-109370, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877127
5.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875407

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a burgeoning demand for active travel (walking or cycling), which is a healthy, pollution-free, and affordable daily transportation mode. Park green space (PGS), as an open natural landscape, have become a popular destination for active travel trips in metropolitan areas. Pedestrians and cyclists are often at high crash risk when exposed to complicated traffic environments in urban areas. Therefore, this study aims to propose a safety assessment framework for evaluating active travel traffic safety (ATTS) near PGS from the perspective of urban planning and exploring the effect of the point-of-interest (POI) aggregation phenomenon on ATTS. First, links between ATTS and the environment variables were investigated and integrated into the framework using the catastrophe model. Second, the relationship between the POI density and ATTS was investigated using three spatial regression models. Results in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area as a case study have shown that (1) the population density, road density, nighttime brightness, and vegetation situation near PGS have pronounced effects on ATTS;(2) pedestrians near PGS enjoy safer road facilities than cyclists. Active travel traffic near PGS requires more attention than non-park neighborhoods;(3) among four park categories, using active travel to access theme parks is the safest;and (4) SEM has the best fit for POI cluster research. Increases in leisure facility density and residence density may lead to deterioration and improvement in ATTS safety levels near PGSs, respectively. The safety framework can be applied in other regions because the selected environment indicators are common and accessible. The findings offer appropriate traffic planning strategies to improve the safety of active travel users when accessing PGS. Copyright © 2022 Luo, Liu, Xing, Wang and Rao.

6.
3rd International Conference on Electronics and Communication|Network and Computer Technology, ECNCT 2021 ; 12167, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874485

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new virus called COVID-19 broke out, and in 2020, it rapidly spread all over the world. The fast rate of the spread of the virus and high mortality have brought severe harm to the health of people and the economy of almost all countries around the world. Therefore, the virus has become the object of much researches. As the study moving on, treatment and vaccine have become the leading research directions at present. For treatment, measures should be taken to protect the most severe patients to reduce the death rate, and thus we are supposed to find patients with more serious illnesses. The decision tree and Xgboost are used to get the mathematical model about protease (an essential index in judging the severity of the disease) and realize the visualization of protease data. For vaccine, we solve the problem of predicting COVID-19 Vaccination Progress in the world in 2021 using the ARIMA model, which is obtained through the mean of time-series. Eventually, we got 10-day and 3-month vaccination forecasts. © 2022 SPIE

7.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 28(1_SUPPL):181-181, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1866073
8.
31st ACM World Wide Web Conference, WWW 2022 ; : 3755-3764, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861672

ABSTRACT

Malicious accounts spreading misinformation has led to widespread false and misleading narratives in recent times, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and social media platforms struggle to eliminate these contents rapidly. This is because adapting to new domains requires human intensive fact-checking that is slow and difficult to scale. To address this challenge, we propose to leverage news-source credibility labels as weak labels for social media posts and propose model-guided refinement of labels to construct large-scale, diverse misinformation labeled datasets in new domains. The weak labels can be inaccurate at the article or social media post level where the stance of the user does not align with the news source or article credibility. We propose a framework to use a detection model self-trained on the initial weak labels with uncertainty sampling based on entropy in predictions of the model to identify potentially inaccurate labels and correct for them using self-supervision or relabeling. The framework will incorporate social context of the post in terms of the community of its associated user for surfacing inaccurate labels towards building a large-scale dataset with minimum human effort. To provide labeled datasets with distinction of misleading narratives where information might be missing significant context or has inaccurate ancillary details, the proposed framework will use the few labeled samples as class prototypes to separate high confidence samples into false, unproven, mixture, mostly false, mostly true, true, and debunk information. The approach is demonstrated for providing a large-scale misinformation dataset on COVID-19 vaccines. © 2022 Owner/Author.

9.
Journal of Futures Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1858797

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the increasingly important role of clean energy metals in return and volatility spillovers across energy and foreign exchange markets. During the collapse of oil prices from 2014 to 2016, crude oil futures were at the center of the risk contagion;however, since the COVID-19 pandemic broke out, the spillovers of clean energy metal futures have become one of the main sources of the risk contagion. Additionally, crude oil and the US dollar are the most important contributors to the spillovers, but further spillovers are emerging between the Chinese yuan, euro, and Japanese yen with clean energy metals. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

10.
Mbio ; 12(5):21, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1854240

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic with astonishing mortality and morbidity. The high replication and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are remarkably distinct from those of previous closely related coronaviruses, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The innate immune defense is a physical barrier that restricts viral replication. We report here that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease targets RIG-I and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein via two distinct mechanisms for inhibition. Specifically, Nsp5 cleaves off the 10 most-N-terminal amino acids from RIG-I and deprives it of the ability to activate MAVS, whereas Nsp5 promotes the ubiquitination and proteosome-mediated degradation of MAVS. As such, Nsp5 potently inhibits interferon (IFN) induction by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an enzyme-dependent manner. A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor blunts the Nsp5mediated destruction of cellular RIG-I and MAVS and processing of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins, thus restoring the innate immune response and impeding SARSCoV-2 replication. This work offers new insight into the immune evasion strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and provides a potential antiviral agent to treat CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly evolving with better transmissibility. Understanding the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with host cells is of paramount significance, and development of antiviral agents provides new avenues to prevent and treat COVID-19 diseases. This study describes a molecular characterization of innate immune evasion mediated by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease and subsequent development of a small-molecule inhibitor.

11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(5):663-668, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1849485

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a rapid risk assessment tool for imported COVID-19 cases and provide reference evidences for prevention and control of COVID-19 at ports. Methods: The information about COVID-19 pandemic and control strategies of 12 concerned countries was collected during July to August 2021, and 12 indexes were selected to assess the importation risk of COVID-19 by risk matrix. Results: The risk for imported COVID-19 cases from 12 countries to China was high or extremely high, and the risk from Russia and the USA was highest. Conclusions: The developed rapid risk assessment tool based on the risk matrix method can be used to determine the risk level of countries for imported COVID-19 cases to China at ports, and the risk of imported COVID-19 was high at Beijing port in August 2021.

12.
Jisuanji Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Computers ; 45(5):993-1002, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847719

ABSTRACT

Media plays an important role in the information society and therefore, it should be fair, just, and objective. Media has been influencing the public's cognition of COVID-19 and their views of the actions taken by the government of different countries in 2020. After analyzing more than 260 thousand reports collected from search engines and published by both the Chinese and Western media about 10 countries, we found that Western media has prejudice when reporting the epidemic in China, and there exist obvious abnormal features when they reporting the epidemic in the United States. In addition, compared to Western media, Chinese media are more consistent and objective with the actual development of the epidemic in different countries. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

13.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846642

ABSTRACT

Jiedu Huoxue Decoction (JHD), a recommended traditional prescription for patients with severe COVID-19, has appeared in the treatment protocols in China. Based on bioinformatics and computational chemistry methods, including molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) calculation, we aimed to reveal the mechanism of JHD in treating severe COVID-19. The compounds in JHD were obtained and screened on TCMSP, SwissADME, and ADMETLab platforms. The compound targets were obtained from TCMSP and STITCH, while COVID-19 targets were obtained from Genecards and NCBI. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by using STRING. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment were performed with ClueGO and R language. AutoDock vina was employed for molecular docking. 100 ns MD simulation of the optimal docking complex was carried out with AmberTools 20. A total of 84 compounds and 29 potential targets of JHD for COVID-19 were collected. The key phytochemicals included quercetin, luteolin, β-sitosterol, puerarin, stigmasterol, kaempferol, and wogonin, which could regulate the immune system. The hub genes included IL6, IL10, VEGFA, IL1B, CCL2, HMOX1, DPP4, and ACE2. ACE2 and DPP4 were related to SARS-CoV-2 entering cells. GO and KEGG analysis showed that JHD could intervene in cytokine storm and endothelial proliferation and migration related to thrombosis. The molecular docking, 100 ns MD simulation, and MM/GBSA calculation confirmed that targets enriched in the COVID-19 pathway had high affinities with related compounds, and the conformations of the puerarin-ACE2, quercetin-EGFR, luteolin-EGFR, and quercetin-IL1B complexes were stable. In a word, JHD could treat COVID-19 by intervening in cytokine storm, thrombosis, and the entry of SARS-CoV-2, while regulating the immune system. These mechanisms were consistent with JHD's therapeutic concept of “detoxification” and “promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis” in treating COVID-19. The research provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of JHD. © The Author(s) 2022.

14.
19th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, ISBI 2022 ; 2022-March, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846116

ABSTRACT

Automatic medical report generation is an emerging field that aims to generate medical reports based on medical images. The report writing process can be tedious for senior radiologists and challenging for junior ones. Thus it is of great importance to expedite the process. In this work, we propose an EnricheD DIsease Embedding based Transformer (Eddie-Transformer) model, which jointly performs disease detection and medical report generation. This is done by decoupling the latent visual features into semantic disease embeddings and disease states via our state-aware mechanism. Then, our model entangles the learned diseases and their states, enabling explicit and precise disease representations. Finally, the Transformer model receives the enriched disease representations to generate high-quality medical reports. Our approach shows promising results on the widely-used Open-I benchmark and COVID-19 dataset. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
2021 International Conference on Computer, Blockchain and Financial Development, CBFD 2021 ; : 343-346, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846065

ABSTRACT

According to the unimaginable influence of Covid-19 and the essential of capital asset pricing in the market, this article analyzes the TV industry of the US stock market before and during the epidemic based on the Fama-French five-factor model. Fama-French five-factor model comprehensively considers the impact of market risk premium (Mkt-RF), market value scale factor, (SMB), book-to-market value ratio factor (HML), profit factor (RMW) and investment factor (CMA) on this industry. Meanwhile, it can conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of Covid-19 on the TV industry. The data in this article was selected from Kenneth R. French's databases and used multiple linear regression to obtain the results. The performance of factors is different due to the outbreak of Covid-19. By analyzing the result, it found that Mkt-RF, SMB are not significant in the model, but HML, RMW, CMA have changed from insignificant to significant. It indicates that during the Covid-19, investors are recommended to pay more attention to the firms with high book-to-market ratios, stable profitability, and aggressive investment style in the USA TV industry. Therefore, research on the stock market of the TV industry plays an important role in the steady development of the economy, the creation of social wealth, and the improvement of people's living standards. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
R-Economy ; 8(1):68-76, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841725

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The rapid spread of COVID-19 around the world is disastrous to low-income countries. The pandemic was a serious threat to developing countries. In the case of Pakistan’s textile industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have been hit hard. Importantly, the textile sector is the largest industrial sector in Pakistan. Purpose of the study. The purpose of the article is to identify the challenges that SMEs are facing due to the pandemic and to consider trade credit as a possible tool to resolve them. Data and Methods. The data were collected through the questionnaire survey among the representatives of SMEs in the textile industry in Pakistan. In total, representatives of 150 textile industries were surveyed, but due to incomplete data only 115 were used for the analysis. The survey was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. Then, the structural equation model (SEM) was applied to ensure the accuracy of the results. Results. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the textile industry in Pakistan and the buying process as well as the satisfaction level. The study highlights the industrial safety issues during the pandemic which exacerbated the economic difficulties. The study also explains the mechanism how perceived control over buying, perceived satisfaction, and perceived trust in science relate to trade credit and COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions. The Pakistani government has taken many proactive measures, but there is still no consistent policy to attract more agents to the small textile business. Thus, a trade loan is the best solution for SMEs as it does not require immediate cash payments. The lack of government support has exacerbated the general pandemic-related economic crisis. In this light, trade loans may be considered as one of the most effective tools to keep SMEs afloat. © 2022, Ural University Press. All rights reserved.

17.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(5): 510-514, 2022 May 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two respiratory infectious diseases with a high incidence of transmission, mainly via respiratory droplets and both can weaken the immune system and lower the number of CD4+T cells in patients. COVID-19 can occur before, at the same time or after the diagnosis of TB. Patients with pulmonary TB are more likely to have co-infection when they have a history of epidemiological exposure to COVID-19. At present, many cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 caused by ineffective prevention and control measures in tuberculosis hospitals have been reported successively at domestic and overseas. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in tuberculosis hospitals. The superposition of the two diseases can lead to a worsening prognosis, aggravating the patient's condition and making treatment more difficult. In addition, in the context of the new coronavirus epidemic, early recognition of co-infection with new coronavirus should be made when TB patients in chest hospitals present with symptoms such as aggregated fever or progressive disease. At the same time, we should focus on identifying the clinical and imaging manifestations of TB and COVID-19 co-infection. At present, research on COVID-19 complicated with pulmonary TB is scarce, and there are disputes on many aspects. As a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, it is of great practical significance to identify the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment of the two infectious diseases in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
18.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335448

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, the highly contagious respiratory disease, has become a major threat to humanity, and its extrapulmonary effects were also evident. Heart failure (HF) may be the result of myocardial damage associated with COVID-19. Methods: : To understand the relationship between SARS-COV-2 and HF, we used bioinformatics analysis to identify common pathways and molecular biomarkers for HF and COVID-19. In this study, two datasets (GSE152418, GSE57338) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of SARS-COV-2 infection in HF patients to find common pathways and drug candidates. Results: : A total of 123 common DEGs were identified in the two datasets. Using a variety of bioinformatics tools, we first constructed protein-protein interactions (PPI) and then identified hub genes that could be served as potential biomarkers or novel therapeutic strategies. In addition, some common associations between HF and the progression of COVID-19 infection were found by using functional under ontological terms and pathway analysis. Through the datasets, we also identified transcription factor-gene interactions, protein-drug interactions, and co-regulatory network of DEGs-miRNAs with common DEGs. We built gene-disease association network to represent diseases associated with mutual DEGs. Conclusions: : Our study has identified the candidate hub genes and drugs that might become a new therapeutic target for novel coronavirus vaccine development and treatment in COVID-19 and HF.

19.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334688

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is known that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, initiating the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Since its emergence, a number of SARS-CoV-2 variants have been reported, and the variants that show high infectivity are classified as the variants of concern according to the US CDC. In this study, we performed both all-atom steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments to characterize the binding interactions between ACE2 and RBD of all current variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) and two variants of interest (Epsilon and Kappa). We report that the RBD of the Alpha (N501Y) variant requires the highest amount of force initially to be detached from ACE2 due to the N501Y mutation in addition to the role of N90-glycan, followed by Beta/Gamma (K417N/T, E484K, and N501Y) or Delta (L452R and T478K) variant. Among all variants investigated in this work, the RBD of the Epsilon (L452R) variant is relatively easily detached from ACE2. Our results combined SMD simulations and MST experiments indicate what makes each variant more contagious in terms of RBD and ACE2 interactions. This study could help develop new drugs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry effectively. Abstract figure:

20.
Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1825833

ABSTRACT

A sequential protocol of α-diazophosphonates with isatins to access a series of α-diazo-β-hydroxyphosphonate derivatives via the inorganic base catalysis was reported. The resulting α-diazo-β-hydroxyphosphonates could then be readily transformed to 4-phosphonylated-3-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones with moderate to excellent yields through a catalyst-free regioselective ring-expansion rearrangement. Control experiment demonstrates that intramolecular cyclization pathway is more reasonable for the ring-expansion process. In addition, a benzo[b]thiophene-derived isatin featured with the inhibition of SARS-CoV Mpro was also suitable for this transformation and generated the corresponding scaffolds with potential anti-virus activities for further development. © 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

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