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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , /metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8529, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195628

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the levels of health-related behaviours (physical activity, screen exposure and sleep status) among Chinese students from primary, secondary and high schools during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as their changes compared with their status before the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of 10,933 students was conducted among 10 schools in Guangzhou, China, between 8th and 15th March, 2020. After getting the informed consent from student's caregivers, an online questionnaire was designed and used to obtain time spending on health-related behaviours during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as the changes compared with 3 months before the pandemic, which was completed by students themselves or their caregivers. Students were stratified by regions (urban, suburban, exurban), gender (boys and girls), and grades (lower grades of primary school, higher grades of primary schools, secondary schools and high schools). Data were expressed as number and percentages and Chi-square test was used to analyse difference between groups. Overall, the response rate of questionnaire was 95.3% (10,416/10,933). The median age of included students was 13.0 (10.0, 16.0) years and 50.1% (n = 5,219) were boys. 41.4%, 53.6% and 53.7% of total students reported less than 15 min per day in light, moderate and vigorous activities and 58.7% (n = 6,113) reported decreased participation in physical activity compared with the time before pandemic. Over 5 h of screen time spending on online study was reported by 44.6% (n = 4,649) of respondents, particular among high school students (81.0%). 76.9% of students reported increased screen time compared with the time before pandemic. Inadequate sleep was identified among 38.5% of students and the proportion was highest in high school students (56.9%). Our study indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the school closure exerted tremendous negative effects on school-aged children's health habits, including less physical activity, longer screen exposure and irregular sleeping pattern.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Screen Time , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193666

ABSTRACT

Fangcang hospitals, as tentative hospitals built to treat a huge turnover of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, have played a pivotal role to slow down the pandemic spread in China in 2020. However, anxiety and sleep disorders remain tough to address during the treatments. In this study, group psychological intervention in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation exercises were conducted in the trial group for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in a Fangcang Hospital to mitigate the patients' anxiety and sleep disorders, while conventional nursing methods were done in the control group, with 70 randomly picked patients in each group. Effects were assessed through questionnaire method using state anxiety questionnaire (SAI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PQSI) rating investigation. Results showed that both SAI and PSQI scores of the trial group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The SAI scores of the trial group and the control group were 38.5 ± 13.2 and 45.8 ± 10.4 points (t = 3.600, P < 0.001), respectively, and the PSQI scores were 5.6 ± 3.0 and 7.1 ± 3.0 points (t = 2.982, P < 0.01), respectively. Our methods have significant advantages over conventional nursing methods to mitigate anxiety and sleep disorders for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in the Fangcang Hospital.

4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(8): 944-953, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19 to improve treatment guidelines. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on 313 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were classified into two groups based on disease severity (nonsevere and severe) according to initial clinical presentation. Laboratory test results and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to detect potential risk factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 289 patients (197 nonsevere and 92 severe cases) with a median age of 45.0 (33.0, 61.0) years were included in this study, and 53.3% (154/289) were male. Fever (192/286, 67.1%) and cough (170/289, 58.8%) were commonly observed, followed by sore throat (49/289, 17.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that patients who were aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.725, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.317-5.636; P = 0.007), were male (OR: 1.878, 95% CI: 1.002-3.520, P = 0.049), had comorbid diabetes (OR: 3.314, 95% CI: 1.126-9.758, P = 0.030), cough (OR: 3.427, 95% CI: 1.752-6.706, P < 0.001), and/or diarrhea (OR: 2.629, 95% CI: 1.109-6.231, P = 0.028) on admission had a higher risk of severe disease. Moreover, stratification analysis indicated that male patients with diabetes were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, χ2 = 8.183, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of those with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 were significantly different. The elderly, male patients with COVID-19, diabetes, and presenting with cough and/or diarrhea on admission may require close monitoring to prevent deterioration.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Adult , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Endocrine ; 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159631

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on normal pituitary glands function or pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) have not yet been elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the impairment of pituitary glands and the development of PitNETs. METHODS: PitNETs tissues were obtained from 114 patients, and normal pituitary gland tissues were obtained from the autopsy. The mRNA levels of ACE2 and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for ACE2 in 69 PitNETs and 3 normal pituitary glands. The primary tumor cells and pituitary cell lines (MMQ, GH3 and AtT-20/D16v-F2) were treated with diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 agonist, with various dose regimens. The pituitary hormones between 43 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with 45 healthy controls. RESULTS: Pituitary glands and the majority of PitNET tissues showed low/negative ACE2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, while AGTR1 showed high expression in normal pituitary and corticotroph adenomas. ACE2 agonist increased the secretion of ACTH in AtT-20/D16v-F2 cells through downregulating AGTR1. The level of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to normal controls (p < 0.001), but was dramatically decreased in critical cases compared to non-critical patients (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on corticotroph cells and adenomas.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6811, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149746

ABSTRACT

High rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Importantly, CVD, as one of the comorbidities, could also increase the risks of the severity of COVID-19. Here we identified phospholipase A2 group VII (PLA2G7), a well-studied CVD biomarker, as a hub gene in COVID-19 though an integrated hypothesis-free genomic analysis on nasal swabs (n = 486) from patients with COVID-19. PLA2G7 was further found to be predominantly expressed by proinflammatory macrophages in lungs emerging with progression of COVID-19. In the validation stage, RNA level of PLA2G7 was identified in nasal swabs from both COVID-19 and pneumonia patients, other than health individuals. The positive rate of PLA2G7 were correlated with not only viral loads but also severity of pneumonia in non-COVID-19 patients. Serum protein levels of PLA2G7 were found to be elevated and beyond the normal limit in COVID-19 patients, especially among those re-positive patients. We identified and validated PLA2G7, a biomarker for CVD, was abnormally enhanced in COVID-19 at both nucleotide and protein aspects. These findings provided indications into the prevalence of cardiovascular involvements seen in patients with COVID-19. PLA2G7 could be a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/blood , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , /immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Data Mining/methods , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation
8.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 12(2):304-311, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1146270

ABSTRACT

Education for sustainable development is essentially a value education It is an educational process that aims at the value recognition, perception, practice and sustainable value tendency of sustainable development Language teachers' competences for sustainable development education is a professional ability manifested in sustainable development education activities based on their recognition of relevant concepts and willingness to practice sustainable values in their personal lives and educational activities in higher education The connotation, pedagogic goals and characteristics of sustainability education constitute the foundation of language teachers' professional competences in education for sustainable development, which fall into three major categories of professional knowledge, professional skills and professional attitude

9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 111998, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139497

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and brings significantly negative effects on human health. To fight against COVID-19 in a more efficient way, drug-drug or drug-herb combinations are frequently used in clinical settings. The concomitant use of multiple medications may trigger clinically relevant drug/herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assay the inhibitory potentials of Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD, a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating COVID-19 in China) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to assess the pharmacokinetic interactions in vivo. The results demonstrated that QPD dose-dependently inhibited CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 but inhibited CYP3A in a time- and NADPH-dependent manner. In vivo test showed that QPD prolonged the half-life of lopinavir (a CYP3A substrate-drug) by 1.40-fold and increased the AUC of lopinavir by 2.04-fold, when QPD (6 g/kg) was co-administrated with lopinavir (160 mg/kg) to rats. Further investigation revealed that Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi) in QPD caused significant loss of CYP3A activity in NADPH-generating system. Collectively, our findings revealed that QPD potently inactivated CYP3A and significantly modulated the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrate-drugs, which would be very helpful for the patients and clinicians to avoid potential drug-interaction risks in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Herb-Drug Interactions , Animals , Area Under Curve , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Male , Microsomes, Liver , NADP/metabolism , Phytotherapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Perfusion ; : 267659121995999, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119371

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already become a global pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Previous evidence from similar patient populations proved that carefully selected patients with severe ARDS who did not benefit from conventional treatment might be successfully supported with Veno-Venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). We now share the case reports of COVID-19 patients with ECMO combined prone position strategies.

11.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for intubation and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We seek to examine the impact of clinical variables such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) on mortality and need for intubation, as well as demographic variables such as age, sex, and race on persons with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on 4413 patients with an International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and COVID-19. Survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test to compare subgroup analyses. RESULTS: In this multivariate analysis, male gender, older age, and hyperglycemia at admission were associated with increased mortality and intubation, but this was not seen for race, ethnicity, insurance type, or HbA1c. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, having comorbid conditions such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic levels at admission have a greater impact on health outcomes than HbA1c. Older men and those with comorbid disease are also at greater risk for mortality. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on type 2 diabetes.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(6): 1415-1422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110663

ABSTRACT

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 (originally named COVID-2019) pneumonia is currently prevalent worldwide. The number of cases has increased rapidly but the auscultatory characteristics of affected patients and how to use it to predict who is most likely to survive or die are not available. This study aims to describe the auscultatory characteristics and its clinical relativity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia by using a wireless stethoscope. Material and methods: A cross-sectional, observational, single-center case series of 30 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, were enrolled from March 9 to April 5, 2020. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, treatment data and lung auscultation were collected and analyzed. Lung auscultation was acquired by a wireless electronic stethoscope. Auscultatory characteristics of the moderate, severe, and critically ill patients were compared. Results: Kinds of crackles including fine crackles and wheezing were heard and recorded in these patients. Velcro crackles were heard in most critically ill patients (6/10). Besides, patients with Velcro crackles were all dead (6/6). There was no positive lung auscultatory finding in the moderate group and little positive lung auscultatory findings (4/10) in the severe group. Conclusion: Velcro crackles can be auscultated by this newly designed electronic wireless stethoscope in most critically ill patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and predicts a poor prognosis. Moderate and severe patients without positive auscultatory findings may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Auscultation/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/virology , Wireless Technology , Aged , Case-Control Studies , China , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stethoscopes
13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 517: 48-53, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still spreading worldwide, which may progress to pulmonary fibrosis (PF), leading to the worsen outcome. As the markers of lung injury, the correlation of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and fibronectin (Fn) with pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 was still unclear. METHODS: 113 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 were enrolled in this retrospective study, and divided into three categories as mild, moderate and severe cases. The concentrations of serum KL-6 and Fn at hospital admission were tested using the method of latex agglutination assay and immunoturbidimetic assay, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with that in the non-severe COVID-19 cases and normal control subjects, serum KL-6 concentration on admission was significantly higher in the severe group, which was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, and negatively correlated with lymphocytes count. Whereas, no obvious elevation in serum Fn concentration was investigated in COVID-19 patients with the different phenotypes. The severe cases displayed the higher incident rate of pulmonary fibrosis at hospital discharge. Compared with non-PF patients, the COVID-19 cases with PF had the higher serum KL-6 values. CONCLUSION: Serum KL-6 concentration was significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients, which may be useful for evaluating the disease severity. For early prevention of the development of pulmonary fibrosis, high concentrations of serum KL-6 in the early stage of COVID-19 should be paid close attention.


Subject(s)
Fibronectins/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
J Affect Disord ; 284: 98-103, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to mental disorders due to COVID-19 pandemic than adults. This study aimed to identify correlated factors for depression/anxiety among children and adolescents after COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. METHODS: An online survey by cluster sampling was conducted after lockdown in 5175 Chinese children and adolescents with informed consents from their parents. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scales with 10-point cutoff were used to measure depression and anxiety, separately. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted. Stata 15.1 Version was used. RESULTS: 12.33% and 6.26% of all participants reported depression and anxiety after lockdown, separately. Suicidal ideation, quarreling with parents, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating during online learning, and anxious and depressed mood during lockdown were positively associated with depression and anxiety after lockdown. Missing teachers was negatively associated with both depression and anxiety. Living in urban and not living with parents were positively associated with depression. LIMITATIONS: The past history and familial history of mental disorders have not been collected. The recall biases for collecting self-reporting information might exist, and the causal inferences cannot be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents might decline a bit after lockdown but is still at a high level after lockdown. Gatekeepers should pay more attention to modifiable factors of psychological well-being in children and adolescents, including family and school contexts and even feelings and behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans
15.
Pancreatology ; 21(1): 31-33, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists on the association or prevalence of pancreatitis in children with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of pediatric patients admitted to a large health system in New York (Northwell Health System) from March 1, 2020-June 1, 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 8159 pediatric patients were admitted to our healthcare system during the study period, of which 112 were diagnosed with COVID-19 (1.37%). Thirteen were diagnosed with pancreatitis for a point prevalence of 0.16% (13/8159) for all patients admitted. Of the thirteen patients admitted with pancreatitis, two patients were COVID-19 positive for a point prevalence of 1.8% (2/112) among COVID-19 patients compared to 0.14% (11/8047) in the non-COVID-19 population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that pancreatitis can occur in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and may be more common in the COVID-19 population.


Subject(s)
/complications , Pancreatitis/etiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , New York/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 25: 100478, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047557

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health. New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease. Methods: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol. Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group). The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262. Findings: A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group. Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups. No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups. CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5.0 days (IQR 3.0-9.0) in the experimental group versus 8.5 days (IQR 3.0-17.0) in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4.5 days [IQR 2.0-7.0]) than the control group did (10.0 days [IQR 6.0-21.0])(p<0.005), in viral RNA reversion of 6.0 days (IQR 2.0-13.0) in the experimental group vs 9.5 days (IQR 3.0-23.0) in the control group (p < 0.05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12.0 days (IQR 7.0-20.0) in the experimental group vs 15.0 days (IQR 10.0-25.0) in the control group (p<0.001), respectively. Interpretation: Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization. These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2. Funding: National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.

17.
J Burn Care Res ; 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043031

ABSTRACT

In response to coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the Shanghai Burn Clinical Quality Control Center organized experts to formulate and implement a set of rapid, simple, and effective prevention and control measures, and there have not been any cases of healthcare professionals or inpatients in burn units suspected or confirmed with COVID-19. This article elaborates on the specific measures in burn units in response to the epidemic, including the implementation of standardized procedures, remote consultations, strengthened follow-up, exchange of experience, and popular science, among others. We share experience from Shanghai to benefit related disciplines in other countries and regions.

18.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036223

ABSTRACT

Bat coronavirus (CoV) RaTG13 shares the highest genome sequence identity with SARS-CoV-2 among all known coronaviruses, and also uses human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) for virus entry. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated from bat. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 emerged from bats directly or through an intermediate host remains elusive. Here, we found that Rhinolophus affinis bat ACE2 (RaACE2) is an entry receptor for both SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13, although RaACE2 binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is markedly weaker than that of hACE2. We further evaluated the receptor activities of ACE2s from additional 16 diverse animal species for RaTG13, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in terms of S protein binding, membrane fusion, and pseudovirus entry. We found that the RaTG13 spike (S) protein is significantly less fusogenic than SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and seven out of sixteen different ACE2s function as entry receptors for all three viruses, indicating that all three viruses might have broad host rages. Of note, RaTG13 S pseudovirions can use mouse, but not pangolin ACE2, for virus entry, whereas SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions can use pangolin, but limited for mouse, ACE2s enter cells. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues 484 and 498 in RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2 S proteins play critical roles in recognition of mouse and human ACE2. Finally, two polymorphous Rhinolophous sinicus bat ACE2s showed different susceptibilities to virus entry by RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions, suggesting possible coevolution. Our results offer better understanding of the mechanism of coronavirus entry, host range, and virus-host coevolution.

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