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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the protective and medical resources were limited, while a limited number of studies have concentrated on the influences of COVID-19 on the treatment of cancer patients. This survey aimed to explore the protective awareness about COVID-19, the incidence and factors influencing treatment delay, and expected treatment modality of cancer patients, so as to assist cancer patients. METHODS: A current prospective, online survey was conducted through the WeChat platform on cancer outpatients at the Department of Peking University Third Hospital in China from March 4 to April 4, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients completed the survey after excluding 35 patients with an incomplete questionnaire. Note that 100% of the patients wore masks and paid attention to hand hygiene during the hospital visits, 73.0% of the patients had a strong desire to treat cancer, and 41.8% experienced treatment delay. The rate of treatment delay among the patients treated in other departments was markedly higher than that in our department (64.7% vs. 38.7%, p = .042). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the previous treatment department was independently correlated with treatment delay. Moreover, 51.8% of the patients preferred to receive chemotherapy in the day ward, 54.6% hoped to receive a strong contact with doctors, and 83.7% would like to receive online therapeutic consultation. CONCLUSION: The rate of treatment delay was remarkable, which may be related to previous treatment departments. Promotion of "active management of attending physician" and "telemedicine" may be highly advantageous for cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Scientometrics ; : 1-15, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530361

ABSTRACT

Research on COVID-19 has proliferated rapidly since the outbreak of the pandemic at the end of 2019. Many articles have aimed to provide insight into this fast-growing theme. The social sciences have also put effort into research on problems related to COVID-19, with numerous documents having been published. Some studies have evaluated the growth of scientific literature on COVID-19 based on scientometric analysis, but most of these analyses focused on medical research while ignoring social science research on COVID-19. This is the first scientometric study of the performance of social science research on COVID-19. It provides insight into the landscape, the research fields, and international collaboration in this domain. Data obtained from SSCI on the Web of Science platform was analyzed using VOSviewer. The overall performance of the documents was described, and then keyword co-occurrence and co-authorship networks were visualized. The six main research fields with highly active topics were confirmed by analysis and visualization. Mental health and psychology were clearly shown to be the focus of most social science research related to COVID-19. The USA made the most contributions, with the most extensive collaborations globally, with Harvard University as the leading institution. Collaborations throughout the world were strongly related to geographical location. Considering the social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, this scientometric study is significant for identifying the growth of literature in the social sciences and can help researchers within this field gain quantitative insights into the development of research on COVID-19. The results are useful for finding potential collaborators and for identifying the frontier and gaps in social science research on COVID-19 to shape future studies.

3.
J Clin Virol ; 145: 105025, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514205

ABSTRACT

An unbiased metagenomics approach to virus identification can be essential in the initial phase of a pandemic. Better molecular surveillance strategies are needed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and potential co-pathogens triggering respiratory symptoms. Here, a metagenomics workflow was developed to identify the metagenome diversity by SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (npositive = 65; nnegative = 60), symptomatology status (nsymptomatic = 71; nasymptomatic = 54) and anatomical swabbing site (nnasopharyngeal = 96; nthroat = 29) in 125 individuals. Furthermore, the workflow was able to identify putative respiratory co-pathogens, and the SARS-CoV-2 lineage across 29 samples. The diversity analysis showed a significant shift in the DNA-metagenome by symptomatology status and anatomical swabbing site. Additionally, metagenomic diversity differed between SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected asymptomatic individuals. While 31 co-pathogens were identified in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, no significant increase in pathogen or associated reads were noted when compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. The Alpha SARS-CoV-2 VOC and 2 variants of interest (Zeta) were successfully identified for the first time using a clinical metagenomics approach. The metagenomics pipeline showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical metagenomics can be employed to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants and respiratory co-pathogens potentially contributing to COVID-19 symptoms. The overall diversity analysis suggests a complex set of microorganisms with different genomic abundance profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients compared to healthy controls. More studies are needed to correlate severity of COVID-19 disease in relation to potential disbyosis in the upper respiratory tract. A metagenomics approach is particularly useful when novel pandemic pathogens emerge.

4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292296

ABSTRACT

Monitoring new mutations in SARS-CoV-2 provides crucial information for identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets and important insights to achieve a more effective COVID-19 control strategy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been widely used for whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. While various NGS methods have been reported, one chief limitation has been the complexity of the workflow, limiting the scalability. Here, we overcome this limitation by designing a workflow optimized for high-throughput studies. The workflow utilizes modified ARTIC network v3 primers for SARS-CoV-2 whole genome amplification. NGS libraries were prepared by a 2-step PCR method, similar to a previously reported tailed PCR method, with further optimizations to improve amplicon balance, to minimize amplicon dropout for viral genomes harboring primer-binding site mutation(s), and to integrate robotic liquid handlers. Validation studies demonstrated that the optimized workflow can process up to 2,688 samples in a single sequencing run without compromising sensitivity and accuracy and with fewer amplicon dropout events compared to the standard ARTIC protocol. We additionally report results for over 65,000 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences from clinical specimens collected in the United States between January and September of 2021, as part of an ongoing national genomics surveillance effort.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292076

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed an increasing use of coordinated accounts on social media, operated by misinformation campaigns to influence public opinion and manipulate social outcomes. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective methodology for coordinated group detection to combat the misinformation on social media. However, existing works suffer from various drawbacks, such as, either limited performance due to extreme reliance on predefined signatures of coordination, or instead an inability to address the natural sparsity of account activities on social media with useful prior domain knowledge. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a coordination detection framework incorporating neural temporal point process with prior knowledge such as temporal logic or pre-defined filtering functions. Specifically, when modeling the observed data from social media with neural temporal point process, we jointly learn a Gibbs-like distribution of group assignment based on how consistent an assignment is to (1) the account embedding space and (2) the prior knowledge. To address the challenge that the distribution is hard to be efficiently computed and sampled from, we design a theoretically guaranteed variational inference approach to learn a mean-field approximation for it. Experimental results on a real-world dataset show the effectiveness of our proposed method compared to the SOTA model in both unsupervised and semi-supervised settings. We further apply our model on a COVID-19 Vaccine Tweets dataset. The detection result suggests the presence of suspicious coordinated efforts on spreading misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines.

6.
Cell Res ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 554, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Age has been implicated as the main risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Our objective was to utilize administrative data to build an explanatory model accounting for geriatrics-focused indicators to predict mortality in hospitalized older adults with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of adults age 65 and older (N = 4783) hospitalized with COVID-19 in the greater New York metropolitan area between 3/1/20-4/20/20. Data included patient demographics and clinical presentation. Stepwise logistic regression with Akaike Information Criterion minimization was used. RESULTS: The average age was 77.4 (SD = 8.4), 55.9% were male, 20.3% were African American, and 15.0% were Hispanic. In multivariable analysis, male sex (adjusted odds ration (adjOR) = 1.06, 95% CI:1.03-1.09); Asian race (adjOR = 1.08, CI:1.03-1.13); history of chronic kidney disease (adjOR = 1.05, CI:1.01-1.09) and interstitial lung disease (adjOR = 1.35, CI:1.28-1.42); low or normal body mass index (adjOR:1.03, CI:1.00-1.07); higher comorbidity index (adjOR = 1.01, CI:1.01-1.02); admission from a facility (adjOR = 1.14, CI:1.09-1.20); and mechanical ventilation (adjOR = 1.52, CI:1.43-1.62) were associated with mortality. While age was not an independent predictor of mortality, increasing age (centered at 65) interacted with hypertension (adjOR = 1.02, CI:0.98-1.07, reducing by a factor of 0.96 every 10 years); early Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR, life-sustaining treatment preferences) (adjOR = 1.38, CI:1.22-1.57, reducing by a factor of 0.92 every 10 years); and severe illness on admission (at 65, adjOR = 1.47, CI:1.40-1.54, reducing by a factor of 0.96 every 10 years). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that residence prior to admission, early DNR, and acute illness severity are important predictors of mortality in hospitalized older adults with COVID-19. Readily available administrative geriatrics-focused indicators that go beyond age can be utilized when considering prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1582-1588, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464140

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To analyze the liver injury and coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19 severe/critical type patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of adults across the globe with significant depressive symptoms has grown substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The extant literature supports exercise as a potent behaviour that can significantly reduce depressive symptoms in clinical and non-clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: Using a suite of mobile applications, at-home exercise, including high intensity interval training (HIIT) and/or yoga, was completed to reduce depressive symptoms in the general population in the early months of the pandemic. METHODS: A 6-week, parallel, multiarm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was completed with four groups: (1) HIIT, (2) Yoga, (3) HIIT+yoga, and (4) waitlist control (WLC). Low active, English-speaking, non-retired Canadians aged 18-64 years were included. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and weekly following randomisation. RESULTS: A total of 334 participants were randomised to one of four groups. No differences in depressive symptoms were evident at baseline. The results of latent growth modelling showed significant treatment effects in depressive symptoms for each active group compared with the WLC, with small effect sizes (ESs) in the community-based sample of participants. Treatment groups were not significantly different from each other. Effect sizes were very large (eg, week 6 ES range=-2.34 to -2.52) when restricting the analysis only to participants with high depressive symptoms at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: At-home exercise is a potent behaviour to improve mental health in adults during the pandemic, especially in those with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Promotion of at-home exercise may be a global public health target with important personal, social and economic implications as the world emerges scathed by the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04400279.

10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1446, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436465

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses a global health emergency, and cases entering China from Russia are quite diverse. This study explored and compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients from Russia with and without influenza A infection, treated in a northern Chinese hospital (Russia imported patients). Methods: A total of 32 severe and critically ill Russia-imported COVID-19 patients treated in the Heilongjiang Imported Severe and Critical COVID-19 Treatment Center from April 6 to May 11, 2020 were included, including 8 cases (group A) with and 24 cases (group B) without influenza A infection. The clinical characteristics of each group were compared, including prolonged hospital stay, duration of oxygen therapy, time from onset to a negative SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR RNA (Tneg) result, and duration of bacterial infection. Results: The results showed that blood group, PaO2/FiO2, prothrombin time (PT), prothrombin activity (PTA), computed tomography (CT) score, hospital stay, duration of oxygenation therapy, Tneg, and duration of bacterial infection were statistically different between the two groups (P<0.05). Multivariant regression analysis showed that the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, C-reactive protein (CRP), and influenza A infection were factors influencing hospital stay; SOFA score, CRP, and CT score were factors influencing the duration of oxygenation therapy; PaO2/FiO2, platelet count (PLT), and CRP were factors influencing Tneg; and gender, SOFA score, and influenza A infection were factors influencing the duration of bacterial infection. Conclusions: Influenza A infection is common in Russia-imported COVID-19 patients, which can prolong the hospital stay and duration of bacterial infection. Routinely screening and treating influenza A should be conducted early in such patients.

12.
Univers Access Inf Soc ; : 1-16, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371361

ABSTRACT

This study explores whether US post-secondary institutions (PPI) follow philosophies to foster inclusive communities, providing resources for those individuals with disabilities thrive socially, personally, and academically, while there have been no thorough studies conducted to determine web accessibility of the nation's top-ranked PPI library webpages. Additionally, this study pioneers in comparison with the accessibility of PPI's library homepages fighting COVID-19. The study evaluated the library homepages of the premium PPIs based on Money.com's 2019 list of "The Best Colleges in America" via the WAVE web accessibility evaluation tool. The outcomes determined that most of the library homepages analyzed were littered with numerous errors, and the shift to online-based research in learning had no significant impact on the number of errors WAVE detected. The disconcerting findings of this study demonstrate the overall failure to recognize the importance of web accessibility or perhaps even the indifference toward accessibility on the part of the PPI community.

13.
Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol ; 131: 103361, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370692

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the activity engagement and travel behavior of city residents have been impacted by government restrictions, such as temporary city-wide lockdowns, the closure of public areas and public transport suspension. Based on multiple heterogeneous data sources, which include aggregated mobility change reports and household survey data, this paper proposes a machine learning approach for dynamic activity chain pattern estimation with improved interpretability for examining behavioral pattern adjustments. Based on historical household survey samples, we first establish a computational graph-based discrete choice model to estimate the baseline travel tour parameters before the pandemic. To further capture structural deviations of activity chain patterns from day-by-day time series, we define the activity-oriented deviation parameters within an interpretable utility-based nested logit model framework, which are further estimated through a constrained optimization problem. By incorporating the long short-term memory method as the explainable module to capture the complex periodic and trend information before and after interventions, we predict day-to-day activity chain patterns with more accuracy. The performance of our model is examined based on publicly available datasets such as the 2017 National Household Travel Survey in the United States and the Google Global Mobility Dataset throughout the epidemic period. Our model could shed more light on transportation planning, policy adaptation and management decisions during the pandemic and post-pandemic phases.

14.
European Journal of Inflammation (Sage Publications, Ltd.) ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1367668

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymphopenia is a marker of immunosuppression after severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between persistent lymphopenia and ARDS. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 125 patients with COVID-19 admitted to government-designated treatment center between 14 January 2020, and 20 March 2020 was conducted. We recorded all complete blood cell counts during the day 0th, 3rd, and 7th following the diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients were grouped based on the depression of the lymphocyte cell count, their return, or their failure to normal. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ARDS, and secondary outcomes included developing vital organ dysfunction and hospital lengths of stay. Results: 17.6% (22/125) patients developed ARDS. The lymphocyte counts with ARDS and non-ARDS were 0.94 × 109/L, 1.20 × 109/L at admission, respectively (p = 0.02). On the 3rd and 7th day, the median of lymphocyte count in ARDS was significantly lower than that of non-ARDS. Multivariable logistic regression, which was adjusting for potentially confounding factors (including age, comorbidities, and APACHE II score), showed that persistent lymphopenia within the 7th day was independently associated with ARDS (OR, 3.94 [95% CI, 1.26–12.33, p = 0.018). Further, patients with persistent lymphopenia had longer hospital lengths of stay (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed persistent lymphopenia predicted ARDS after COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate whether immunostimulation of lymphocytes within 1 week can reduce ARDS occurrence in patients with COVID-19. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Inflammation (Sage Publications, Ltd.) is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(7): 774-778, 2021 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Xuebijing injection on the improvement of pneumonia severity index (PSI) and prognosis in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was designed. Adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of 28 designated COVID-19 hospitals in 15 provinces and cities of China from January to March 2020 were enrolled. All patients were treated according to the standard treatment plan of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. They were divided into Xuebijing group and standard treatment group according to whether they received Xuebijing injection or not. In the standard treatment group, routine medical care measures such as antiviral, respiratory support, circulatory support and symptomatic treatment were taken. In the Xuebijing group, on the basis of standard treatment, Xuebijing was used within 12 hours of admission to the ICU, 100 mL each time, twice daily. The minimum duration of Xuebijing administration was 1 day. The improvement rate of PSI risk rating on the 8th day and clinical outcome on the 28th day were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 276 COVID-19 patients were screened continuously, and the data of 144 severe patients who met PSI risk rating III-V were analyzed. Seventy-two cases were involved each in standard treatment group and Xuebijing group. The average age of the standard treatment group and Xuebijing group were (65.7±7.9) years old and (63.5±10.9) years old, and male accounted for 75.0% (54/72) and 70.8% (51/72), respectively. There were no significant differences in general conditions, comorbidities, PSI risk rating and score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory support mode and other baseline indicators between the two groups. Compared with the standard treatment group, the improvement rate of PSI risk rating in Xuebijing group on the 8th day after admission was significantly improved [56.9% (41/72) vs. 20.8% (15/72), between-group difference and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 36.1% (21.3% to 50.9%), P < 0.01], PSI score, SOFA score and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly improved [PSI score: 83.7±34.8 vs. 108.2±25.6, between-group difference (95%CI) was -24.5 (-34.9 to -14.1); SOFA score: 2.0 (1.0, 4.0) vs. 7.0 (4.0, 10.0), between-group difference (95%CI) was -3.5 (-5.0 to -2.0); PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 289.4±111.6 vs. 188.5±98.1, between-group difference (95%CI) was 100.9 (65.3 to 136.5); all P < 0.01]. The 28-day discharge rate of Xuebijing group was 44.5% higher than that of standard treatment group [66.7% (48/72) vs. 22.2% (16/72), P < 0.01], and the 28-day survival rate was 9.8% [91.7% (66/72) vs. 81.9% (59/72), P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in the combination of antiviral drugs, antibiotics, anticoagulants and vasopressor drugs between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the Xuebijing group and standard treatment group [41.7% (30/72) vs. 43.1% (31/72), P > 0.05], and no serious adverse events and adverse reactions of Xuebijing were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Standard treatment combined with Xuebijing injection can significantly improve the PSI risk score and clinical prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19 without increasing drug safety risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Adult , Aged , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 112, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, the origins and global transmission pattern of SARS-CoV-2 remain largely unknown. We aimed to characterize the origination and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on evolutionary dynamics. METHODS: Using the full-length sequences of SARS-CoV-2 with intact geographic, demographic, and temporal information worldwide from the GISAID database during 26 December 2019 and 30 November 2020, we constructed the transmission tree to depict the evolutionary process by the R package "outbreaker". The affinity of the mutated receptor-binding region of the spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was predicted using mCSM-PPI2 software. Viral infectivity and antigenicity were tested in ACE2-transfected HEK293T cells by pseudovirus transfection and neutralizing antibody test. RESULTS: From 26 December 2019 to 8 March 2020, early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 strains identified worldwide were mainly composed of three clusters: the Europe-based cluster including two USA-based sub-clusters; the Asia-based cluster including isolates in China, Japan, the USA, Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, and Italy; and the USA-based cluster. The SARS-CoV-2 strains identified in the USA formed four independent clades while those identified in China formed one clade. After 8 March 2020, the clusters of SARS-CoV-2 strains tended to be independent and became "pure" in each of the major countries. Twenty-two of 60 mutations in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein were predicted to increase the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2. Of all predicted mutants, the number of E484K was the largest one with 86 585 sequences, followed by S477N with 55 442 sequences worldwide. In more than ten countries, the frequencies of the isolates with E484K and S477N increased significantly. V367F and N354D mutations increased the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses (P < 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 with V367F was more sensitive to the S1-targeting neutralizing antibody than the wild-type counterpart (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 strains might have originated in several countries simultaneously under certain evolutionary pressure. Travel restrictions might cause location-specific SARS-CoV-2 clustering. The SARS-CoV-2 evolution appears to facilitate its transmission via altering the affinity to ACE2 or immune evasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Evolution, Molecular , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359955

ABSTRACT

More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has created massive economic policy uncertainty (EPU). EPU and its economic fallout have been a hot topic of study; however, the impact of EPU on CO2 emissions has been seldom addressed to date. This paper investigates the effects of the EPU on CO2 emissions. It elucidates the role of EPU in moderating the environmental regulation-CO2 emissions nexus at the national and regional levels using the panel data model and provincial panel data from 2003 to 2017 in China. The main empirical results are as follows. The EPU has a negative impact on carbon emissions; however, this relationship is non-significant even at the 10% level in the central and western region datasets. Environmental regulation positively increases the CO2 emissions implying that the green paradox occurs in the whole and western regions datasets. From the perspective of the moderating effect of uncertainty, EPU exerts a positive impact upon the environmental regulation-CO2 emissions nexus in the whole and western region datasets. The moderating effect is not significant in the eastern and central regions. The results demonstrate that the re-examination of the EKC hypothesis is inconclusive. Kuznets relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions for the national, eastern, and central samples was confirmed. In contrast, CO2 emissions monotonically rise as GDP grows for western datasets. Based on the overall findings, some policy implications were put forward. We recommend that the local government should consider EPU to improve the institutional environment. Further, different regions should implement various environmental policies according to regional conditions maximizing the emission reduction potential.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 647483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348562

ABSTRACT

Infertility usually causes mental health problems for patients and unfavorable emotions such as anxiety and depression can have an adverse effect on women's normal pregnancy. We aimed to compare the anxiety level between infertile female patients in quarantined and non-quarantined areas during the second wave of COVID-19 epidemic. A total of 759 infertile women were included in this cross-sectional study conducted through an online survey. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) tool. Participants were divided into the quarantined group (QG) and non-quarantined group (Non-QG). Independent sample T-test and chi-square test were performed to examine the difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the average STAI score of the two groups of infertile women, but responses to the emotional state showed that women in the QG had a higher tendency to be anxious. Participants in QG spent more time paying attention to the dynamics of the epidemic every day, and their sleep (p < 0.01) and mood conditions were worse (p < 0.01) than in the Non-QG. The family relationship of QG is more tense than non-QG. Through the research on the infertility treatment information of the overall research population, it is found the average STAI-State (STAI-S) (p = 0.031) score and STAI-Trait (STAI-T) (p = 0.005) score of women who were infertile for more than 3 years were significantly higher than those of women with <2 years. The STAI-T score of infertile women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) was higher than that of non-IVF women (p = 0.007), but no significant difference was observed with the STAI-S score. To conclude, although the second wave of quarantine during COVID-19 epidemic did not significantly increase anxiety in infertile women, it did lead to an increase in other negative emotions and worse family relationships. Patients with long-term infertility treatment and those who have had IVF are more anxious subgroups.

19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(11): 2438-2440.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328704

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are highly prevalent in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranging from 17.6 % to 53 %.1-4 The proposed mechanism for GI symptoms involves SARS-CoV-2 virus binding to the host cell's angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, commonly found in GI tract epithelial cells.5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e30709, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, experts in mental health science emphasized the importance of developing and evaluating approaches to support and maintain the mental health of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether a group-based exercise program relative to a personal exercise program (both delivered online) and waitlist control (WLC) can improve the psychological health of previously low active older adults during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Seniors COVID-19 Pandemic and Exercise (SCOPE) trial was a 3-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted between May and September 2020 in which low active older adults (aged ≥65 years) were recruited via media outlets and social media. After baseline assessments, consented participants were randomized to one of two 12-week exercise programs (delivered online by older adult instructors) or a WLC condition. A total of 241 older adults (n=187 women) provided baseline measures (via online questionnaires), were randomized (ngroup=80, npersonal=82, ncontrol=79), and completed measures every 2 weeks for the duration of the trial. The trial's primary outcome was psychological flourishing. Secondary outcomes included global measures of mental and physical health, life satisfaction, and depression symptoms. RESULTS: The results of latent growth modeling revealed no intervention effects for flourishing, life satisfaction, or depression symptoms (P>.05 for all). Participants in the group condition displayed improved mental health relative to WLC participants over the first 10 weeks (effect size [ES]=0.288-0.601), and although the week 12 effect (ES=0.375) was in the same direction the difference was not statistically significant (P=.089). Participants in the personal condition displayed improved mental health, when compared with WLC participants, in the same medium ES range (ES=0.293-0.565) over the first 8 weeks, and while the effects were of a similar magnitude at weeks 10 (ES=0.455, P=.069) and 12 (ES=0.258, P=.353), they were not statistically significant. In addition, participants in the group condition displayed improvements in physical health when compared with the WLC (ES=0.079-0.496) across all 12 weeks of the study following baseline. No differences were observed between the personal exercise condition and WLC for physical health (slope P=.271). CONCLUSIONS: There were no intervention effects for the trial's primary outcome (ie, psychological flourishing). It is possible that the high levels of psychological flourishing at baseline may have limited the extent to which those indicators could continue to improve further through intervention (ie, potential ceiling effects). However, the intervention effects for mental and physical health point to the potential capacity of low-cost and scalable at-home programs to support the mental and physical health of previously inactive adults in the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04412343; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04412343.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Exercise , Female , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
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