Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 895193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952531

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can disrupt the gut microbiota balance, and patients usually have intestinal disorders. The intestine is the largest immune organ of the human body, and gut microbes can affect the immune function of the lungs through the gut-lung axis. Many lines of evidence support the role of beneficial bacteria in enhancing human immunity, preventing pathogen colonization, and thereby reducing the incidence and severity of infection. In this article, we review the possible approach of modulating microbiota to help prevent and treat respiratory tract infections, including COVID-19, and discuss the possibility of using probiotics and prebiotics for this purpose. We also discuss the mechanism by which intestinal micro-flora regulate immunity and the effects of probiotics on the intestinal micro-ecological balance. Based on this understanding, we propose the use of probiotics and prebiotics to modulate gut microbiota for the prevention or alleviation of COVID-19 through the gut-lung axis.

2.
Nature ; 607(7917): 119-127, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915276

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987 plus REGN10933, COV2-2196 plus COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is similar to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron BA.2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Hydroxylamines , Indazoles , Lactams , Leucine , Mice , Nitriles , Proline , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Triazines , Triazoles
3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 899842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834491

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disrupts the intestinal micro-ecological balance, and patients often develop the intestinal disease. The gut is the largest immune organ in the human body; intestinal microbes can affect the immune function of the lungs through the gut-lung axis. It has been reported that tea polyphenols (TPs) have antiviral and prebiotic activity. In this review, we discussed TPs reduced lung-related diseases through gut-lung axis by inhibiting dysbiosis. In addition, we also highlighted the preventive and therapeutic effects of TPs on COVID-19 complications, further demonstrating the importance of research on TPs for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in humans. Based on this understanding, we recommend using TPs to regulate the gut microbiota to prevent or alleviate COVID-19 through the gut-lung axis.

4.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824550

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can disrupt the gut microbiota balance, and patients usually have intestinal disorders. The intestine is the largest immune organ of the human body, and gut microbes can affect the immune function of the lungs through the gut-lung axis. Many lines of evidence support the role of beneficial bacteria in enhancing human immunity, preventing pathogen colonization, and thereby reducing the incidence and severity of infection. In this article, we review the possible approach of modulating microbiota to help prevent and treat respiratory tract infections, including COVID-19, and discuss the possibility of using probiotics and prebiotics for this purpose. We also discuss the mechanism by which intestinal micro-flora regulate immunity and the effects of probiotics on the intestinal micro-ecological balance. Based on this understanding, we propose the use of probiotics and prebiotics to modulate gut microbiota for the prevention or alleviation of COVID-19 through the gut-lung axis.

5.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810050

ABSTRACT

Plant polysaccharides can increase the number and variety of beneficial bacteria in the gut and produce a variety of active substances, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Gut microbes and their specific metabolites have the effects of promoting anti-inflammatory activity, enhancing the intestinal barrier, and activating and regulating immune cells, which are beneficial for improving immunity. A strong immune system reduces inflammation caused by external viruses and other pathogens. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still spreading globally, and patients with COVID-19 often have intestinal disease and weakened immune systems. This article mainly evaluates how polysaccharides in plants can improve the immune system barrier by improving the intestinal microecological balance, which may have potential in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use
6.
Foods ; 11(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699554

ABSTRACT

Although all countries have taken corresponding measures, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still ravaging the world. To consolidate the existing anti-epidemic results and further strengthen the prevention and control measures against the new coronavirus, we are now actively pioneering a novel research idea of regulating the intestinal microbiota through tea polyphenols for reference. Although studies have long revealed the regulatory effect of tea polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota to various gastrointestinal inflammations, little is known about the prevention and intervention of COVID-19. This review summarizes the possible mechanism of the influence of tea polyphenols on COVID-19 mediated by the intestinal microbiota. In this review, the latest studies of tea polyphenols exhibiting their own antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities and protective effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier are combed through and summarized. Among them, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the main monomers of catechins, may be activated as nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The agent inhibits the expression of ACE2 (a cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2) and TMPRSS2 to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, inhibiting the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, preliminary reasoning and judgments have been made about the possible mechanism of the effect of tea polyphenols on the COVID-19 control and prevention mediated by the microbiota. These results may be of great significance to the future exploration of specialized research in this field.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315709

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have drawn great concern due to widespread contamination in the environment and application in treating COVID-19. Most studies on GC removal mainly focused on aquatic environment, while GC behaviors in soil were less mentioned. In this study, degradation of three selected GCs in soil have been investigated using citric acid (CA)-modified Fenton-like processes (H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA and CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA treatments). The results showed that GCs in soil can be removed by modified Fenton-like processes (removal efficiency > 70% for 24 h). CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA was more efficient than H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA at low oxidant dosage (< 0.28–0.69 mmol/g) for long treatment time (> 4 h). Besides the chemical assessment with GC removal, effects of Fenton-like processes were also evaluated by biological assessments with bacteria and plants. CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA was less harmful to the richness and diversity of microorganisms in soil compared to H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA. Weaker phytotoxic effects were observed on GC-contaminated soil treated by CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA than H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA. This study therefore, recommends CaO 2 based treatments to remediate GC-contaminated soils.

8.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still in a global epidemic, which has profoundly affected people's lives. Tea polyphenols (TP) has been reported to enhance the immunity of the body to COVID-19 and other viral infectious diseases. The inhibitory effect of TP on COVID-19 may be achieved through a series of mechanisms, including the inhibition of multiple viral targets, the blocking of cellular receptors, and the activation of transcription factors. Emerging evidence shows gastrointestinal tract is closely related to respiratory tract, therefore, the relationship between the state of the gut-lung axis microflora and immune homeostasis of the host needs further research. This article summarized that TP can improve the disorder of flora, reduce the occurrence of cytokine storm, improve immunity, and prevent COVID-19 infection. TP may be regarded as a potential and valuable source for the design of new antiviral drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea
9.
mBio ; : e0290621, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649374

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global health emergency. While most human disease is mild to moderate, some infections lead to a severe disease characterized by acute respiratory distress, hypoxia, anosmia, ageusia, and, in some instances, neurological involvement. Small-animal models reproducing severe disease, including neurological sequela, are needed to characterize the pathophysiological mechanism(s) of disease and to identify medical countermeasures. Transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) viral receptor under the control of the K18 promoter develop severe and lethal respiratory disease subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 intranasal challenge when high viral doses are used. Here, we report on SARS-CoV-2 infection of hamsters engineered to express the hACE2 receptor under the control of the K18 promoter. K18-hACE2 hamsters infected with a relatively low dose of 100 or 1,000 PFU of SARS-CoV-2 developed a severe and lethal disease, with most animals succumbing by day 5 postinfection. Hamsters developed severe lesions and inflammation within the upper and lower respiratory system, including infection of the nasal cavities causing marked destruction of the olfactory epithelium as well as severe bronchopneumonia that extended deep into the alveoli. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 infection spread to the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain stem and spinal cord. Wild-type (WT) hamsters naturally support SARS-CoV-2 infection, with the primary lesions present in the respiratory tract and nasal cavity. Overall, infection in the K18-hACE2 hamsters is more extensive than that in WT hamsters, with more CNS involvement and a lethal outcome. These findings demonstrate the K18-hACE2 hamster model will be valuable for studying SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has created a global health emergency. While most human SARS-CoV-2 disease is mild, some people develop severe, life-threatening disease. Small-animal models mimicking the severe aspects of human disease are needed to more clearly understand the pathophysiological processes driving this progression. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters engineered to express the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 viral receptor under the control of the K18 promoter. SARS-CoV-2 produces a severe and lethal infection in transgenic hamsters that mirrors the most severe aspects of COVID-19 in humans, including respiratory and neurological injury. In contrast to other animal systems, hamsters manifest disease with levels of input virus more consistent with natural human infection. This system will be useful for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease and the development of drugs targeting this virus.

10.
Nature ; 603(7902): 687-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641974

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of B.1.1.529, the Omicron variant1,2, has raised concerns of escape from protection by vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. A key test for potential countermeasures against B.1.1.529 is their activity in preclinical rodent models of respiratory tract disease. Here, using the collaborative network of the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), we evaluated the ability of several B.1.1.529 isolates to cause infection and disease in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. Despite modelling data indicating that B.1.1.529 spike can bind more avidly to mouse ACE2 (refs. 3,4), we observed less infection by B.1.1.529 in 129, C57BL/6, BALB/c and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice than by previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, with limited weight loss and lower viral burden in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In wild-type and hACE2 transgenic hamsters, lung infection, clinical disease and pathology with B.1.1.529 were also milder than with historical isolates or other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Overall, experiments from the SAVE/NIAID network with several B.1.1.529 isolates demonstrate attenuated lung disease in rodents, which parallels preliminary human clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Viral Load
11.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 80-85, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487792

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has significantly impacted people's lives. This study aimed to examine the influence of the unexpected second wave of COVID-19 on sleep quality and anxiety of Chinese residents in Beijing in June 2020, compared with the initial outbreak at the beginning of 2020, and to investigate the associated factors. METHODS: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 1,511 participants. assessed with demographic information, sleep quality and anxiety symptoms. The participants were asked to compare their recent sleep and sleep during the first outbreak. The Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess their current insomnia severity. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of sleep disturbance and anxiety symptom. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms were 50.8% and 15.3% respectively. People had significantly shorter sleep duration during the second wave of COVID-19(7.3 ± 1.3) h than the first outbreak (7.5 ± 1.4)h (p < 0.001). During the second outbreak, people were less concerned about infection and more concerned about financial stress and occupational inferference. Beijing residents did not have significant differences in sleep disturbance and anxiety compared with other regions, nor were occupations and nucleic acid testing associated risk factors. Home quarantine, health administrators, history of insomnia and anxiety-depression were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Female gender, home quarantine, history of insomnia and anxiety-depression were significantly associated with anxiety. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of sleep disturbance and depression symptom was common during the second wave of COVID-19 crisis in Beijing. Home quarantine and previous history of insomnia and anxiety-depressive risk factors were associated with sleep disturbance and anxiety. Female gender was impacting predictor of anxiety. We need continuous assessment of the sleep quality and anxiety symptoms of this epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Beijing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
12.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 132845, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458615

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have drawn great concern due to their widespread contamination in the environment and application in treating patients with COVID-19. Due to the lack of data about GC removal using advanced treatment processes, a novel paralleling and bubbling corona discharge reactor (PBCD) combined with iron-loaded activated-carbon fibre (Fe-ACF) was addressed in this study to degrade GCs represented by hydrocortisone (HC) and betamethasone (BT). The results showed that the PBCD-based system can degrade GCs effectively and can achieve effective sterilization. The removal rates of GCs were ranked as PBCD/Fe-ACF > PBCD/ACF > PBCD. The concentration of E. coli was reduced from 109 to 102 CFU/mL after 60 min of PBCD-based system treatment. The abundance of bacteria in actual hospital wastewater (HWW) was significantly reduced. Plasma changed the physical and chemical properties of ACF and Fe-ACF by etching axial grooves and enhancing stretching vibrations of surface functional groups, thus promoting adsorption and catalytic degradation. For GC degradation, the functional reactive species were identified as •OH, 1O2, and •O2 radicals. Possible degradation pathways for HC and BT were proposed, which mainly included defluorination, keto acid decarboxylation, demethylation, intramolecular cyclization, cleavage and ester hydrolysis, indicating a reduction in GC toxicity. Since GCs are widely used in patients with COVID-19 and their wastewater needs to be sterilized simultaneously, the intensive and electrically driven PBCD-based system is promising in GC pollution control and sterilization in terminal water treatment facilities.

13.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1104-1114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of serum creatine (sCr) and cystatin C (CysC) in kidney function evaluation of critically ill patients has been in continuous discussion. The difference between estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by sCr (eGFRcr) and CysC (eGFRcysc) of critically ill COVID-19 patients were investigated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan, China. Control cases were moderate COVID-19 patients matched in age and sex at a ratio of 1:1. The eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were compared. The association between eGFR and death were analyzed in critically ill cases. The potential factors influencing the divergence between eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were explored. RESULTS: A total of 76 critically ill COVID-19 patients were concluded. The mean age was 64.5 ± 9.3 years. The eGFRcr (85.45 (IQR 60.58-99.23) ml/min/1.73m2) were much higher than eGFRcysc (60.6 (IQR 34.75-79.06) ml/min/1.73m2) at ICU admission. About 50 % of them showed eGFRcysc < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 while 25% showed eGFRcr < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (χ2 = 10.133, p = 0.001). This divergence was not observed in moderate group. The potential factors influencing the divergence included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level as well as APACHEII, SOFA scores. Reduced eGFRcr (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was associated with death (HR = 1.939, 95%CI 1.078-3.489, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The eGFRcr was generally higher than eGFRcysc in critically ill COVID-19 cases with severe inflammatory state. The divergence might be affected by inflammatory condition and illness severity. Reduced eGFRcr predicted in-hospital death. In these patients, we advocate for caution when using eGFRcysc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(47): 67310-67320, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303358

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have drawn great concern due to widespread contamination in the environment and application in treating COVID-19. Most studies on GC removal mainly focused on aquatic environment, while GC behaviors in soil were less mentioned. In this study, degradation of three selected GCs in soil has been investigated using citric acid (CA)-modified Fenton-like processes (H2O2/Fe(III)/CA and CaO2/Fe(III)/CA treatments). The results showed that GCs in soil can be removed by modified Fenton-like processes (removal efficiency gt; 70% for 24 h). CaO2/Fe(III)/CA was more efficient than H2O2/Fe(III)/CA at low oxidant dosage (< 0.28-0.69 mmol/g) for long treatment time (> 4 h). Besides the chemical assessment with GC removal, effects of Fenton-like processes were also evaluated by biological assessments with bacteria and plants. CaO2/Fe(III)/CA was less harmful to the richness and diversity of microorganisms in soil compared to H2O2/Fe(III)/CA. Weaker phytotoxic effects were observed on GC-contaminated soil treated by CaO2/Fe(III)/CA than H2O2/Fe(III)/CA. This study, therefore, recommends CaO2-based treatments to remediate GC-contaminated soils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Chelating Agents , Ferric Compounds , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Soil
15.
Journal of Water Process Engineering ; 42:102175, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1275560

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) in the environment have been an increasing concern. Most recently, GCs have been shown to be an effective remedy to manage septic shock in patients infected with COVID-19. In this study, a self-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor integrating microbubbles and peroxymonosulfate (DBD/MB/PMS) was used to degrade the GCs in water. At neutral pH and ambient temperature, hydrocortisone (HC), betamethasone (BT) and fluocinolone acetonide (FA) were degraded effectively by the DBD/MB/PMS system with the 90-min degradation efficiencies of 77%, 80% and 82%, respectively (discharge power: 83.5 W;PMS:GC ratio: 20:1). In comparison, the 90-min degradation efficiencies for HC, BT and FA by DBD/MB system (discharge power: 83.5 W, pH unadjusted, flow rate 40 mg/L) were only 49%, 54% and 60% respectively;and the efficiencies by heat activated PMS (90 °C) were only 24%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. Hence, DBD/MB is an efficient approach for PMS activation, which resulted in increased removal efficiencies and energy yields for GCs degradation. The rate constants for GCs degradation also increased with the increase of PMS dosage and initial solution pH. Both SO4− and OH were prominent species for GCs degradation. Based on the results of scavenging experiment, the contributions of SO4− for HC, BT and FA degradation were roughly estimated to be 51%, 59% and 60%, respectively, and the contributions of OH were 30%, 29% and 27%, respectively. This work not only provides a novel approach in dealing with GCs contaminated water, but also highlights the synergistic effect of plasma, MB and PMS.

16.
Environ Res ; 201: 111488, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275304

ABSTRACT

Waste activated sludge (WAS) and animal manure are two significant reservoirs of glucocorticoids (GCs) in the environment. However, GC degradation during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WAS or animal manure has rarely been investigated. In this study, co-fermentation of WAS and animal manure was conducted to investigate the performance of AD in controlling GC dissemination. Effects of manure type on GC degradation and sludge acidification were investigated. The results showed that co-fermentation of WAS and chicken manure (CM) significantly enhanced the degradation of hydrocortisone (HC) to 99%, betamethasone (BT) to 99%, fluocinolone acetonide (FA) to 98%, and clobetasol propionate (CP) to 82% in 5 days with a mixing ratio of 1:1 (g TS sludge/g dw manure) at 55 °C and initial pH of 7. Simultaneously, sludge reduction was increased by 30% and value-added volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was improved by 40%. Even a high GC content of biomass (3.6 mg/g TS) did not impact both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. The amendment of WAS with CM increased soluble organic carbon, Ca2+, and relative abundance of anaerobes (Eubacterium) associated with organic compound degradation. Furthermore, 44 transformation products of HC, BT, FA, and CP with lower lipophilicity and toxicity were identified, indicating possible degradation pathways including hydroxylation, ketonization, ring cleavage, defluorination, hydrogenation, methylation, and de-esterification. Overall, this study provides a practical way to control GC pollution and simultaneously promote waste reduction and VFA production. Animal manure type as an overlooked factor for influencing co-fermentation performance and pollutant degradation was also highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sewage , Anaerobiosis , Animals , Bioreactors , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Fermentation , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manure , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Regional Science and Urban Economics ; : 103695, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1244808

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the real estate market using a community-level panel dataset of 34 major cities in China. We find that the average housing price in communities with COVID-19 infections decreases by approximately 1.3% compared to communities with no confirmed cases. The economic implication is that homebuyers are willing to pay a premium equivalent to approximately 1.3% of the average housing price to avoid health risks. The response of real estate markets to epidemic shocks is heterogeneous in community and city characteristics. Dynamic analysis shows that the declines in home prices, transaction volumes, and rents are all short-lived, returning to their original development paths a few months after the epidemic shock. Public interventions such as community closures and quarantines may have contributed to the rapid recovery of the housing market, reducing the volatility of housing assets in the household sector.

18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4818

ABSTRACT

A review. The "Statistics in Epidemic Prevention" National Statistical Online High-end Forum was successfully held on March 15th, 2020. More than 5,000 experts and scholars from 821 units or institutions around the world "Cloud" attended the forum. The format of this conference was novel and unprecedented in scale. In the form of invited reports, this conference focused on hot issues such as the statistical application in the prediction of COVID-19 epidemic, the statistical anal. in the predictionof economic trends, big data anal. technol., and the future development of the statistics. These show the important role played by statistics in the prevention and control of the epidemic. This onlineconference injected new thoughts, new ideas, new methods and new wisdom into statistical research inemergencies, enriched the theor. connotation of the development of statistics, and played an important role in enlightening the development of Chinese statistics in the new era.

19.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982503

ABSTRACT

Animal models recapitulating human COVID-19 disease, especially severe disease, are urgently needed to understand pathogenesis and to evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we develop novel severe-disease animal models for COVID-19 involving disruption of adaptive immunity in Syrian hamsters. Cyclophosphamide (CyP) immunosuppressed or RAG2 knockout (KO) hamsters were exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the respiratory route. Both the CyP-treated and RAG2 KO hamsters developed clinical signs of disease that were more severe than those in immunocompetent hamsters, notably weight loss, viral loads, and fatality (RAG2 KO only). Disease was prolonged in transiently immunosuppressed hamsters and was uniformly lethal in RAG2 KO hamsters. We evaluated the protective efficacy of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody and found that pretreatment, even in immunosuppressed animals, limited infection. Our results suggest that functional B and/or T cells are not only important for the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 but also play an early role in protection from acute disease.IMPORTANCE Syrian hamsters are in use as a model of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Pathology is pronounced in the upper and lower respiratory tract, and disease signs and endpoints include weight loss and viral RNA and/or infectious virus in swabs and organs (e.g., lungs). However, a high dose of virus is needed to produce disease, and the disease resolves rapidly. Here, we demonstrate that immunosuppressed hamsters are susceptible to low doses of virus and develop more severe and prolonged disease. We demonstrate the efficacy of a novel neutralizing monoclonal antibody using the cyclophosphamide transient suppression model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RAG2 knockout hamsters develop severe/fatal disease when exposed to SARS-CoV-2. These immunosuppressed hamster models provide researchers with new tools for evaluating therapies and vaccines and understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cyclophosphamide , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Immunosuppressive Agents , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2673-2684, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949517

ABSTRACT

Following emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 rapidly became pandemic and is presently responsible for millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. There is currently no approved vaccine to halt the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and only very few treatment options are available to manage COVID-19 patients. For development of preclinical countermeasures, reliable and well-characterized small animal disease models will be of paramount importance. Here we show that intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 into Syrian hamsters consistently caused moderate broncho-interstitial pneumonia, with high viral lung loads and extensive virus shedding, but animals only displayed transient mild disease. We determined the infectious dose 50 to be only five infectious particles, making the Syrian hamster a highly susceptible model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neither hamster age nor sex had any impact on the severity of disease or course of infection. Finally, prolonged viral persistence in interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain knockout hamsters revealed susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to adaptive immune control. In conclusion, the Syrian hamster is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 making it a very suitable infection model for COVID-19 countermeasure development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , RNA, Viral/analysis , Receptors, Interleukin-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL