Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
2.
Allergy ; 2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of chronic airway diseases on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are far from understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity on disease expression and outcomes, and the potential underlying mechanisms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 961 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a definite clinical outcome (death or discharge) were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical records. Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with various cytokines. RESULTS: In this cohort, 21 subjects (2.2%) had COPD and 22 (2.3%) had asthma. After adjusting for confounding factors, COPD patients had higher risk of developing severe illness (OR: 23.433; 95% CI 1.525-360.135; P < 0.01) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 19.762; 95% CI 1.461-267.369; P = 0.025) than asthmatics. COPD patients, particular those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells, and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-6 than asthmatics. COPD patients had increased, whereas asthmatics had decreased ACE2 protein expression in lower airways, compared with that in control subjects without asthma and COPD. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated but TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION: Patients with asthma and COPD likely have different risk of severe COVID-19, which may be associated with different ACE2 expression.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 2020 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started from Wuhan, China has infected more than 6.7 million individuals and killed more than 390,000 individuals globally. Due to the higher transmissibility and infectiousness, asymptomatic infection, and lack of effective treatment options and vaccine, fatalities and morbidities are increasing day by day globally. Despite physical health consequences, COVID-19 pandemic has created stress and anxiety, as result there is an increased risk of mental illnesses both in the infected and normal individuals. To eradicate these risks, it is necessary to determine the COVID-19 zoonotic source of transmission to humans and clinical manifestations in infected individuals. Although, identification or development of the highly effective therapeutic agents is necessary, however, development of protective strategies against the COVID-19 by enhancing immune responses will be an asset in the current scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we discuss the transmission, health consequences, and potential management (therapeutic and preventive) options for COVID-19 disease.

4.
Immunity ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-666144

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease that is a current global health threat However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19 and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients, and XAF1-, TNF- and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) vs IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors These factors include relatively increase of IL6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients, but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients

5.
Wellcome Open Res. ; (5)2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-658966

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has now spread to a number of countries worldwide. While sustained transmission chains of human-to-human transmission suggest high basic reproduction number R 0, variation in the number of secondary transmissions (often characterised by so-called superspreading events) may be large as some countries have observed fewer local transmissions than others. Methods: We quantified individual-level variation in COVID-19 transmission by applying a mathematical model to observed outbreak sizes in affected countries. We extracted the number of imported and local cases in the affected countries from the World Health Organization situation report and applied a branching process model where the number of secondary transmissions was assumed to follow a negative-binomial distribution. Results: Our model suggested a high degree of individual-level variation in the transmission of COVID-19. Within the current consensus range of R 0 (2-3), the overdispersion parameter k of a negative-binomial distribution was estimated to be around 0.1 (median estimate 0.1; 95% CrI: 0.05-0.2 for R0 = 2.5), suggesting that 80% of secondary transmissions may have been caused by a small fraction of infectious individuals (~10%). A joint estimation yielded likely ranges for R 0 and k (95% CrIs: R 0 1.4-12; k 0.04-0.2); however, the upper bound of R 0 was not well informed by the model and data, which did not notably differ from that of the prior distribution. Conclusions: Our finding of a highly-overdispersed offspring distribution highlights a potential benefit to focusing intervention efforts on superspreading. As most infected individuals do not contribute to the expansion of an epidemic, the effective reproduction number could be drastically reduced by preventing relatively rare superspreading events.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e016812, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647367

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 is spreading widely around the world. We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, SARS and MERS cases.Relevant reports updated to April 17 2020 were searcher from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library with no restriction on language. A random-effects model was used in this meta-analysis to obtain pooled proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19, SARS and MERS. A total of 22 studies (12 for COVID-19, 4 for SARS and 6 for MERS) were included in this analysis, and the average age of COVID-19, SARS and MERS was 46.41 ± 1.79 years, 39.16 ± 2.25 years and 52.51 ± 4.64 years, respectively. Proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in coronavirus diseases were as follows: COVID-19: proportion of hypertension was 17.1% (95% CI 13.2-20.9%), proportion of cardiac disease was 4.5% (95% CI 3.6-5.5%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 8.5% (95% CI 5.5-11.4%); SARS: proportion of hypertension was 4.5% (95% CI 2.0-7.0%), proportion of cardiac disease was 2.1% (95% CI 0.6-3.7%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 3.7% (95% CI 1.0-6.4%); MERS: proportion of hypertension was 30.3% (95% CI 18.3-42.2%), proportion of cardiac disease was 20.9% (95% CI 10.7-31.1%) and proportion of diabetes mellitus was 45.4% (95% CI 27.3-63.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities varies among different coronavirus-associated diseases. With the development of time, proportions of cardiovascular comorbidities in COVID-19 need further attention.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636704

ABSTRACT

To investigate the factors associated with the duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA shedding in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in Beijing was analyzed to study the factors affecting the duration of viral shedding. The median duration of viral shedding was 11 days (IQR, 8-14.3 days) as measured from illness onset. Univariate regression analysis showed that disease severity, corticosteroid therapy, fever (temperature>38.5°C), and time from onset to hospitalization were associated with prolonged duration of viral shedding (P < .05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that fever (temperature>38.5°C) (OR, 5.1, 95%CI: 1.5-18.1), corticosteroid therapy (OR, 6.3, 95%CI: 1.5-27.8), and time from onset to hospitalization (OR, 1.8, 95%CI: 1.19-2.7) were associated with increased odds of prolonged duration of viral shedding. Corticosteroid treatment, fever (temperature>38.5°C), and longer time from onset to hospitalization were associated with prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 164: 112316, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628702

ABSTRACT

Recent research suggests that SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals can be highly infectious while asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic, and that an infected person may infect 5.6 other individuals on average. This situation highlights the need for rapid, sensitive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assays capable of high-throughput operation that can preferably utilize existing equipment to facilitate broad, large-scale screening efforts. We have developed a CRISPR-based assay that can meet all these criteria. This assay utilizes a custom CRISPR Cas12a/gRNA complex and a fluorescent probe to detect target amplicons produced by standard RT-PCR or isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), to allow sensitive detection at sites not equipped with real-time PCR systems required for qPCR diagnostics. We found this approach allowed sensitive and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, with a sample-to-answer time of ~50 min, and a limit of detection of 2 copies per sample. CRISPR assay diagnostic results obtained nasal swab samples of individuals with suspected COVID-19 cases were comparable to paired results from a CDC-approved quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay performed in a state testing lab, and superior to those produced by same assay in a clinical lab, where the RT-qPCR assay exhibited multiple invalid or inconclusive results. Our assay also demonstrated greater analytical sensitivity and more robust diagnostic performance than other recently reported CRISPR-based assays. Based on these findings, we believe that a CRISPR-based fluorescent application has potential to improve current COVID-19 screening efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fluorescent Dyes , Genes, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Nat Med ; 2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602162

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown a markedly low proportion of cases among children1-4. Age disparities in observed cases could be explained by children having lower susceptibility to infection, lower propensity to show clinical symptoms or both. We evaluate these possibilities by fitting an age-structured mathematical model to epidemic data from China, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Canada and South Korea. We estimate that susceptibility to infection in individuals under 20 years of age is approximately half that of adults aged over 20 years, and that clinical symptoms manifest in 21% (95% credible interval: 12-31%) of infections in 10- to 19-year-olds, rising to 69% (57-82%) of infections in people aged over 70 years. Accordingly, we find that interventions aimed at children might have a relatively small impact on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, particularly if the transmissibility of subclinical infections is low. Our age-specific clinical fraction and susceptibility estimates have implications for the expected global burden of COVID-19, as a result of demographic differences across settings. In countries with younger population structures-such as many low-income countries-the expected per capita incidence of clinical cases would be lower than in countries with older population structures, although it is likely that comorbidities in low-income countries will also influence disease severity. Without effective control measures, regions with relatively older populations could see disproportionally more cases of COVID-19, particularly in the later stages of an unmitigated epidemic.

13.
Wellcome Open Res. ; (5)2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-596879

ABSTRACT

Background: Several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented across the world to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Social distancing (SD) interventions applied so far have included school closures, remote working and quarantine. These measures have been shown to have large impacts on pandemic influenza transmission. However, there has been comparatively little examination of such measures for COVID-19. Methods: We examined the existing literature, and collated data, on implementation of NPIs to examine their effects on the COVID-19 pandemic so far. Data on NPIs were collected from official government websites as well as from media sources. Results: Measures such as travel restrictions have been implemented in multiple countries and appears to have slowed the geographic spread of COVID-19 and reduced initial case numbers. We find that, due to the relatively sparse information on the differences with and without interventions, it is difficult to quantitatively assess the efficacy of many interventions. Similarly, whilst the comparison to other pandemic diseases such as influenza can be helpful, there are key differences that could affect the efficacy of similar NPIs. Conclusions: The timely implementation of control measures is key to their success and must strike a balance between early enough application to reduce the peak of the epidemic and ensuring that they can be feasibly maintained for an appropriate duration. Such measures can have large societal impacts and they need to be appropriately justified to the population. As the pandemic of COVID-19 progresses, quantifying the impact of interventions will be a vital consideration for the appropriate use of mitigation strategies.

14.
Wellcome Open Res. ; (5)2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-593970

ABSTRACT

We estimate the number of COVID-19 cases from newly reported deaths in a population without previous reports. Our results suggest that by the time a single death occurs, hundreds to thousands of cases are likely to be present in that population. This suggests containment via contact tracing will be challenging at this point, and other response strategies should be considered. Our approach is implemented in a publicly available, user-friendly, online tool.

15.
Clin Chem ; 66(8): 1102-1104, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592499
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200227, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-520055

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for a case of severe NCP. The patient was started on glucocorticoids and non-invasive ventilator treatment. After treatment, the patient's symptoms improved, and the status was confirmed as NCP negative. Our results may provide clues for the treatment of NCP.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cell ; 181(7): 1475-1488.e12, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-464128

ABSTRACT

Viruses are a constant threat to global health as highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, lack of data underlying how the human host interacts with viruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus, limits effective therapeutic intervention. We introduce Viral-Track, a computational method that globally scans unmapped single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data for the presence of viral RNA, enabling transcriptional cell sorting of infected versus bystander cells. We demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of Viral-Track to systematically detect viruses from multiple models of infection, including hepatitis B virus, in an unsupervised manner. Applying Viral-Track to bronchoalveloar-lavage samples from severe and mild COVID-19 patients reveals a dramatic impact of the virus on the immune system of severe patients compared to mild cases. Viral-Track detects an unexpected co-infection of the human metapneumovirus, present mainly in monocytes perturbed in type-I interferon (IFN)-signaling. Viral-Track provides a robust technology for dissecting the mechanisms of viral-infection and pathology.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Software , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Lung/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
18.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e323-e330, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260619

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to international concern. We aimed to establish an effective screening strategy in Shanghai, China, to aid early identification of patients with COVID-19. Methods: We did a multicentre, observational cohort study in fever clinics of 25 hospitals in 16 districts of Shanghai. All patients visiting the clinics within the study period were included. A strategy for COVID-19 screening was presented and then suspected cases were monitored and analysed until they were confirmed as cases or excluded. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Findings: We enrolled patients visiting fever clinics from Jan 17 to Feb 16, 2020. Among 53 617 patients visiting fever clinics, 1004 (1·9%) were considered as suspected cases, with 188 (0·4% of all patients, 18·7% of suspected cases) eventually diagnosed as confirmed cases. 154 patients with missing data were excluded from the analysis. Exposure history (odds ratio [OR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·74-6·33; p<0·0001), fatigue (OR 1·56, 1·01-2·41; p=0·043), white blood cell count less than 4 × 109 per L (OR 2·44, 1·28-4·64; p=0·0066), lymphocyte count less than 0·8 × 109 per L (OR 1·82, 1·00-3·31; p=0·049), ground glass opacity (OR 1·95, 1·32-2·89; p=0·0009), and having both lungs affected (OR 1·54, 1·04-2·28; p=0·032) were independent risk factors for confirmed COVID-19. Interpretation: The screening strategy was effective for confirming or excluding COVID-19 during the spread of this contagious disease. Relevant independent risk factors identified in this study might be helpful for early recognition of the disease. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

19.
J Drug Target ; : 1-5, 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245730

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases, the persistent potential for destabilising pandemics, remain a global threat leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The current outbreak of pneumonia caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) illustrated difficulties in lack of effective drugs for treatment. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are essential for early recognition and treatment of infectious diseases, allowing timely implementation of infection control, improved clinical care and other public health measures to stop the spread of the disease. CRISPR-Cas technology speed up the development of infectious disease diagnostics with high rapid and accurate. In this review, we summarise current advance regarding diverse CRISPR-Cas systems, including CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cas12 and CRISPR-Cas13, in the development of fast, accurate and portable diagnostic tests and highlight the potential of CRISPR-Cas13 in COVID-19 Pneumonia and other emerging infectious diseases diagnosis.

20.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244490

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL