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1.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608918

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading all over the world since the end of 2019, and no specific drug has been developed yet. 3C-like protease (3CLpro) acts as an important part of the replication of novel coronavirus and is a promising target for the development of anticoronavirus drugs. In this paper, eight machine learning models were constructed using naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) algorithms for 3CLpro on the basis of optimized two-dimensional (2D) molecular descriptors (MDs) combined with ECFP_4, ECFP_6, and MACCS molecular fingerprints. The optimal models were selected according to the results of 5-fold cross verification, test set verification, and external test set verification. A total of 5766 natural compounds from the internal natural product database were predicted, among which 369 chemical components were predicted to be active compounds by the optimal models and the EstPGood values were more than 0.6, as predicted by the NB (MD + ECFP_6) model. Through ADMET analysis, 31 compounds were selected for further biological activity determination by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method and cytopathic effect (CPE) detection. The results indicated that (+)-shikonin, shikonin, scutellarein, and 5,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone showed certain activity in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 4.38 to 87.76 µM. In the CPE assay, 5,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone showed a certain antiviral effect with an IC50 value of 8.22 µM. The binding mechanism of 5,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro was further revealed through CDOCKER analysis. In this study, 3CLpro prediction models were constructed based on machine learning algorithms for the prediction of active compounds, and the activity of potential inhibitors was determined by the FRET method and CPE assay, which provide important information for further discovery and development of antinovel coronavirus drugs.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23874, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569277

ABSTRACT

The worsening progress of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is attributed to the proinflammatory state, leading to increased mortality. Statin works with its anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the worsening of COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were retrospectively enrolled from two academic hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 01/26/2020 to 03/26/2020. Adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared between the statin and the non-statin group by CHD status using multivariable Cox regression model after propensity score matching. Our study included 3133 COVID-19 patients (median age: 62y, female: 49.8%), and 404 (12.9%) received statin. Compared with the non-statin group, the statin group was older, more likely to have comorbidities but with a lower level of inflammatory markers. The Statin group also had a lower adjusted mortality risk (6.44% vs. 10.88%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77). Subgroup analysis of CHD patients showed a similar result. Propensity score matching showed an overall 87% (HR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.36) lower risk of in-hospital mortality for statin users than nonusers. Such survival benefit of statin was obvious both among CHD and non-CHD patients (HR = 0.30 [0.09-0.98]; HR = 0.23 [0.1-0.49], respectively). Statin use was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. The benefit of statin was both prominent among CHD and non-CHD patients. These findings may further reemphasize the continuation of statins in patients with CHD during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 783135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555718

ABSTRACT

Online health communities have become one of the most important means for people to seek social support during the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study details content analysis of support-seeking strategies and social support offered on the online forum "Baidu COVID-19bar" across different stages of initial stage as well as during the entire initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that asking for support and disclosing directly were the main strategies used across the different stages and during the entire initial stage. Informational support and emotional support were the most common types sought in the first two stages and the entire initial stage, and informational support was the main type during the decline stage. Furthermore, asking for support was more likely to elicit informational support while disclosing directly was more likely to elicit emotional support. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

4.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550243

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is known that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, initiating the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Since its emergence, a number of SARS-CoV-2 variants have been reported, and the variants that show high infectivity are classified as variants of concern according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this study, we performed both all-atom steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments to characterize the binding interactions between ACE2 and RBD of all current variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) and two variants of interest (Epsilon and Kappa). We report that RBD of the Alpha (N501Y) variant requires the highest amount of force initially to be detached from ACE2 due to the N501Y mutation in addition to the role of N90-glycan, followed by Beta/Gamma (K417N/T, E484 K, and N501Y) or Delta (L452R and T478 K) variants. Among all variants investigated in this work, RBD of the Epsilon (L452R) variant is relatively easily detached from ACE2. Our results from both SMD simulations and MST experiments indicate what makes each variant more contagious in terms of RBD and ACE2 interactions. This study could shed light on developing new drugs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry effectively.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108254, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549846

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak and rapid spread of COVID-19, the world health situation is unprecedentedly severe. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease, which can cause multiple organ damage. Numerous studies have shown that immune factors have important roles in the pathogenesis of both COVID-19 and SLE. In the early stages of COVID-19 and SLE pathogenesis, IFN-α expression is frequently increased, which aggravates the virus infection and promotes SLE development. In addition, increased IL-6 levels, caused by different mechanisms, are observed in the peripheral blood of patients with severe COVID-19 and SLE, stimulating a series of immune cascades that lead to a cytokine storm, as well as causing B cell hyperfunction and production of numerous of antibodies, aggravating both COVID-19 and SLE. In this review, we explore the background immunopathological mechanisms in COVID-19 and SLE and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used SLE drugs for patients with COVID-19, to optimize treatment plans for patients with SLE who develop COVID-19.

6.
J Fam Econ Issues ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530352

ABSTRACT

This study investigates how American adults' personality and financial self-efficacy (FSE) beliefs contributed to how they used their COVID-19 CARES Act Economic Impact Payment (EIP) for spending needs, spending wants, and financial transactions (save, invest, debt repayment). The results from a sample of 1172 Amazon MTurk users collected in July 2020 suggest that both personality traits and FSE beliefs were associated with EIP use. Specifically, this study finds that FSE and conscientiousness emerged as the most robust predictors of EIP use across all categories of financial behavior with a greater allocation of EIP funds to saving and less to spending needs and debt repayment. Additionally, greater FSE is associated with investing, while greater conscientiousness is connected to more spending on wants. The results suggest that saving habits associated with personality and FSE persist in a crisis environment, and pre-crisis preparedness may allow for greater spending flexibility on wants. Significant relationships were also found for openness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The findings highlight how people use unexpected financial windfalls during crises and uncertainty and how personal characteristics contribute to this decision making. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10834-021-09804-1.

7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21768, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505016

ABSTRACT

Rapid design, screening, and characterization of biorecognition elements (BREs) is essential for the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics needed to combat the spread of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To address this need, we developed a high-throughput pipeline combining in silico design of a peptide library specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and microarray screening to identify binding sequences. Our optimized microarray platform allowed the simultaneous screening of ~ 2.5 k peptides and rapid identification of binding sequences resulting in selection of four peptides with nanomolar affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we demonstrated the successful integration of one of the top peptides into an electrochemical sensor with a clinically relevant limit of detection for S protein in spiked saliva. Our results demonstrate the utility of this novel pipeline for the selection of peptide BREs in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the broader application of such a platform in response to future viral threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Electrochemistry/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferometry , Kinetics , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Engineering , Saliva/immunology
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4650-4659, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441392

ABSTRACT

Air pollutant concentrations in the Xiamen Bay cities during the period before and after COVID-19 lockdown(from January 11 to February 21, 2020) were studied to determine the influence of human activities on air quality in this region. During the Chinese Spring Festival holiday and the lockdown period, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 decreased by 6%-22%, 53%-70%, 34%-48%, 47%-64%, and 53%-60%, respectively. However, the changes in O3 concentrations were not consistent with the variations of human activities. The reduction rates for PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 during the Spring Festival were greater than in previous years(2018 and 2019), but the reduction rates for SO2 were comparable. The concentrations of NO2 increased sharply(38%-138%), and much higher those of SO2(2%-42%), after the resumption of socioeconomic activities, indicating the importance of traffic reductions due to the lockdown measures on NO2. Higher wind speeds and rainfall after the Spring Festival were also favorable for the decline of SO2, NO2, and PM. The spatio-temporal distributions of the six criterial pollutants in the Xiamen Bay city cluster were obtained based on the Inverse Distance Weight method. The variability in regions with high NO2 concentrations was strongly linked to traffic emissions, while spatial patterns for CO and SO2 changed little over the six-week study period. The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased notably in the region, linked to more construction activity, but changed comparatively little in regions with dense populations and traffic networks. O3 remained relatively stable but low-value regions corresponded to those regions with high NO2 concentrations, indicating the significant titration effect of NO2 on O3. These results provide valuable information that can inform O3 pollution reduction measures.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bays , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Scientific Programming ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1416733

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has a great impact on human life security and global economic development. To deal with the rampant pandemic, many countries have taken strict control measures, including restricting gathering in public places and stopping the production of enterprises;as a result, many enterprises suffered great challenges in survival and development during the pandemic. In order to help enterprises monitor their own financial situation and realize their healthy development under the pandemic, this paper constructs an Enterprise Financial Early Warning Model, in which Quantum Rotation Gate is used to optimize four algorithms, namely, Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (QFOA), Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm (QABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO), and Ant Colony Optimization (QACO). The results show that the ability of the prediction model can be greatly improved by using the Quantum Rotation Gate to optimize these four algorithms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Scientific Programming is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3533-3543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409698

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite the availability of a vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), humans will have to live with this virus and the after-effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection for a long time. Cholesterol plays an important role in the infection and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2, and the study of its mechanism is of great significance not only for the treatment of COVID-19 but also for research on generic antiviral drugs. Observations: Cholesterol promotes the development of atherosclerosis by activating NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and the resulting inflammatory environment indirectly contributes to COVID-19 infection and subsequent deterioration. In in vitro studies, membrane cholesterol increased the number of viral entry sites on the host cell membrane and the number of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the membrane fusion site. Previous studies have shown that the fusion protein of the virus interacts with cholesterol, and the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 also requires cholesterol to enter the host cells. Cholesterol in blood interacts with the spike protein to promote the entry of spike cells, wherein the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) plays an important role. Because of the cardiovascular protective effects of lipid-lowering therapy and the additional anti-inflammatory effects of lipid-lowering drugs, it is currently recommended to continue lipid-lowering therapy for patients with COVID-19, but the safety of extremely low LDL-C is questionable. Conclusions and Relevance: Cholesterol can indirectly increase the susceptibility of patients to SARS-CoV-2 and increase the risk of death from COVID-19, which are mediated by NLRP3 and atherosclerotic plaques, respectively. Cholesterol present in the host cell membrane, virus, and blood may also directly participate in the virus cell entry process, but the specific mechanism still needs further study. Patients with COVID-19 are recommended to continue lipid-lowering therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Endocytosis , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/therapy , Inflammation , Macrophages/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11538-11548, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397825

ABSTRACT

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured by satellites is widely used to estimate anthropogenic emissions. The Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) operational SO2 product is overestimated compared to the ground-based multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements in China and shows an opposite variation to the surface measurements, which limits the application of TROPOspheric monitoring instrument (TROPOMI) products in emissions research. Radiometric calibration, a priori profiles, and fitting windows might cause the overestimation of S-5P operational SO2 product. Here, we improve the optimal-estimation-based algorithm through several calibration methods. The improved retrieval agrees reasonably well with the ground-based measurements (R > 0.70, bias <13.7%) and has smaller biases (-28.9%) with surface measurements over China and India. It revealed that the SO2 column in March 2020 decreased by 51.6% compared to March 2019 due to the lockdown for curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a decrease of 50% during the lockdown than those after the lockdown, similar to the surface measurement trend, while S-5P operational SO2 product showed an unrealistic increase of 19%. In India, the improved retrieval identified obvious "hot spots" and observed a 30% decrease of SO2 columns during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(7): 4115-4122, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392754

ABSTRACT

The frequent detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in healthcare environments, accommodations, and wastewater has attracted great attention to the risk of viral transmission by environmental fomites. However, the process of SARS-CoV-2 adsorption to exposed surfaces in high-risk environments remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the interfacial dynamics of single SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses with plasmonic imaging technology. Through the use of this technique, which has high spatial and temporal resolution, we tracked the collision of viruses at a surface and differentiated their stable adsorption and transient adsorption. We determined the effect of the electrostatic force on virus adhesion by correlating the solution and surface chemistry with the interfacial diffusion velocity and equilibrium position. Viral adsorption was found to be enhanced in real scenarios, such as in simulated saliva. This work not only describes a plasmonic imaging method to examine the interfacial dynamics of a single virus but also provides direct measurements of the factors that regulate the interfacial adsorption of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Such information is valuable for understanding virus transport and environmental transmission and even for designing anticontamination surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fomites , Humans
14.
J Proteome Res ; 20(9): 4475-4486, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333872

ABSTRACT

A method for representing and comparing distributions of N-linked glycans located at specific sites on proteins is presented. The representation takes the form of a simple mass spectrum for a given peptide sequence, with each peak corresponding to a different glycopeptide. The mass (in place of m/z) of each peak is that of the glycan mass, and its abundance corresponds to its relative abundance in the electrospray MS1 spectrum. This provides a facile means of representing all identifiable glycopeptides arising from a single protein "sequon" on a specific sequence, thereby enabling the comparison and searching of these distributions as routinely done for mass spectra. Likewise, these reference glycopeptide abundance distribution spectra (GADS) can be stored in searchable libraries. A set of such libraries created from available data is provided along with an adapted version of the widely used NIST-MS library-search software. Since GADS contain only MS1 abundances and identifications, they are equally suitable for expressing collision-induced fragmentation and electron-transfer dissociation determinations of glycopeptide identity. Comparisons of GADS for N-glycosylated sites on several proteins, especially the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, demonstrate the potential reproducibility of GADS and their utility for comparing site-specific distributions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Glycoproteins , Glycosylation , Humans , Polysaccharides , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
IEEE Access ; 9: 84783-84798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324871

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19 quickly spread across the world, infecting billions of people and disrupting the normal lives of citizens in every country. Governments, organizations, and research institutions all over the world are dedicating vast resources to research effective strategies to fight this rapidly propagating virus. With virus testing, most countries publish the number of confirmed cases, dead cases, recovered cases, and locations routinely through various channels and forms. This important data source has enabled researchers worldwide to perform different COVID-19 scientific studies, such as modeling this virus's spreading patterns, developing prevention strategies, and studying the impact of COVID-19 on other aspects of society. However, one major challenge is that there is no standardized, updated, and high-quality data product that covers COVID-19 cases data internationally. This is because different countries may publish their data in unique channels, formats, and time intervals, which hinders researchers from fetching necessary COVID-19 datasets effectively, especially for fine-scale studies. Although existing solutions such as John's Hopkins COVID-19 Dashboard and 1point3acres COVID-19 tracker are widely used, it is difficult for users to access their original dataset and customize those data to meet specific requirements in categories, data structure, and data source selection. To address this challenge, we developed a toolset using cloud-based web scraping to extract, refine, unify, and store COVID-19 cases data at multiple scales for all available countries around the world automatically. The toolset then publishes the data for public access in an effective manner, which could offer users a real time COVID-19 dynamic dataset with a global view. Two case studies are presented about how to utilize the datasets. This toolset can also be easily extended to fulfill other purposes with its open-source nature.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302305

ABSTRACT

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Personal Satisfaction , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Students
17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 640118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295672

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China. As of March 2021, there were more than 120 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 2.7 million deaths. The COVID-19 mortality rate in adults is around 1-5%, and only a small proportion of children requires hospitalization and intensive care. Recently, an increasing number of COVID-19 cases in children have been associated with a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Its clinical features and laboratory characteristics are similar to those of Kawasaki disease (KD), KD shock syndrome, and toxic shock syndrome. However, this new disorder has some distinct clinical features and laboratory characteristics. This condition, also known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, has been observed mostly in Europe and the United States. This emerging phenomenon has raised the question of whether this disorder is KD triggered by SARS-CoV-2 or a syndrome characterized by multisystem inflammation that mimics KD. This narrative review is to discuss the differences between MIS-C and KD with the aim of increasing pediatricians' awareness of this new condition and guide them in the process of differential diagnosis.

18.
Mol Omics ; 17(3): 376-393, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281750

ABSTRACT

Metabolomics has emerged as an invaluable tool that can be used along with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to understand host-pathogen interactions at small-molecule levels. Metabolomics has been used to study a variety of infectious diseases and applications. The most common application of metabolomics is for prognostic and diagnostic purposes, specifically the screening of disease-specific biomarkers by either NMR-based or mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. In addition, metabolomics is of great significance for the discovery of druggable metabolic enzymes and/or metabolic regulators through the use of state-of-the-art flux analysis, for example, via the elucidation of metabolic mechanisms. This review discusses the application of metabolomics technologies to biomarker screening, the discovery of drug targets in infectious diseases such as viral, bacterial and parasite infections and immunometabolomics, highlights the challenges associated with accessing metabolite compartmentalization and discusses the available tools for determining local metabolite concentrations.

19.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2299-2303, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260595

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid testing and antibody testing data from 143 recovered COVID-19 patients during the convalescent phase were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 23 (16.1%) recovered patients re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Three months after symptom onset, 100% and 99.3% of the patients remained positive for total and IgG antibodies, and the antibody levels remained high. IgM antibodies declined rapidly, with a median time to seroconversion of 67 (95% CI: 59, 75) days after onset. Approximately 25% of patients were seronegative for IgA antibodies at three months after onset. There was no statistically significant difference in antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-positive RT-PCR results during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(15): 3487-3497, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244995

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) combined with liver injury has become a very prominent clinical problem. Due to the lack of a clear definition of liver injury in patients with COVID-19, the different selection of evaluation parameters and statistical time points, there are the conflicting conclusions about the incidence rate in different studies. The mechanism of COVID-19 combined with liver injury is complicated, including the direct injury of liver cells caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication and liver injury caused by cytokines, ischemia and hypoxia, and drugs. In addition, underlying diseases, especially chronic liver disease, can aggravate COVID-19 liver injury. In the treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, the primary and basic treatment is to treat the etiology and pathogenesis, followed by support, liver protection, and symptomatic treatment according to the clinical classification and severity of liver injury. This article evaluates the incidence, pathogenesis and prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, and aims to provide countermeasures for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury.

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