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1.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; : 109297, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2180374

ABSTRACT

Aquaculture is regarded as one of the fastest methods for preparing food and may be relied upon more and more in the future. Production can be seeded from fish caught in the wild and can be maintained with imported fish food however, aquaculture output and quality is limited by cost and resources, and there is an incentive to make it more environmentally sustainable. If these goals can be achieved, we will produce better quality fish and in higher volumes. Microbial protein feed (MPF) offers a sustainable feedstuff solution for the aquaculture industry in China, with the net benefits of taking less time to prepare, using less water and land, being recyclable and also reducing carbon emissions. MPF provides stable and high quality proteins and is produced through the fermentation of microorganisms by utilizing agricultural and industrial waste as substrates and been extensively used in fish and shrimp production in China. This review describes the microorganisms, raw materials, fermentation processes and nutritional components used in MPF production in aquaculture. We shall discuss also MPF large-scale production processes in detail and then finally, what opportunities and challenges are faced by MPF in Chinese aquaculture in the context of "double carbon” targets and Covid-19. High-efficiency biosynthesis technology using mono-carbon gases to produce protein will become an important field in the future, as it shall facilitate sustainable and healthy feedstocks for the aquaculture industry, and allow China to achieve the goal of lower carbon emissions.

2.
Heliyon ; : e13190, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179065

ABSTRACT

The performance of an automated commercial CRISPR/Cas based technology was evaluated and compared with routine RT-PCR testing to diagnose COVID-19. Suspected and discharged COVID-19 cases were included and tested with CRISPR-based SARS-CoV-2 test and RT-PCR assay using throat swab and sputum specimens. The diagnostic yield was calculated and compared using the McNemar test. A total of 437 patients were included for analysis, including COVID-19 (n = 171), discharged cases (n = 155), and others (n = 111). For the diagnosis of COVID-19, the CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 test had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% (168/171) and 100.0% (266/266), respectively;the RT-PCR test had a sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (171/171) and 100.0% (266/266), respectively. No significant difference was found in the sensitivity of CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 and RT-PCR. In conclusion, the CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 test had a comparable performance with RT-PCR and showed several advantages, such as short assay time, low cost, and no requirement for expensive equipment.

3.
Medicine ; 101(51), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2168918

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has deep and wide negative mental impacts on the public, and studies on the impact of COVID-19 on social and mental well-being are necessary. This study aimed to evaluate mental distress, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its related risk factors in Chinese adults in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a large-scale cross-sectional design. A total of 2067 adult participants completed the online survey via REDcap from 1st to 15th of March 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Anxiety, depression, PTSD, and related risk factors, including self-efficacy, coping style, and social support, were measured using valid and reliable instruments. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. We found that 201 (9.7%) participants reported moderate-to-severe anxiety, 669 (33.8%) reported depression, and 368 (17.8%) reported symptoms of PTSD. Self-efficacy, coping style, and social support significantly affected anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Participants' sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 pandemic-related factors, low self-efficacy, low social support, and negative coping were predictors of mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study will help healthcare professionals carry out early predictions and identification of high-risk groups and provide appropriate interventions to target groups during public health emergencies that plague the world.

4.
Sustainability ; 15(3):2119, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200816

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development in online education and the recurrence of COVID-19 around the world, people have temporarily turned to online education. To identify influencing factors of online learning behavior and improve online education, this study used CiteSpace to visually analyze research on influencing factors of online learning behavior on WoS. It discusses the research status, hotspots, and trends. Then, through cluster analysis and literature interpretation, the paper summarizes the types of online learning behavior and the influencing factors of different online learning behaviors from positive and negative dimensions. The findings of this paper are as follows. (1) The number of studies on the influencing factors of online learning behavior has increased in the last decade, especially after the outbreak of COVID-19. The research countries and institutions in this field lack contact and cooperation. (2) Online learning behaviors mainly include online learning engagement behavior, continuous behavior, procrastination behavior, and truancy behavior. (3) Online learning engagement behavior is mainly affected by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, individual characteristic differences, and other factors. (4) Online learning continuous behavior is mainly affected by quality, perceived usefulness, learning self-efficacy, and other factors. (5) The influencing factors of online learning procrastination mainly include learning environment, individual characteristics, social support, and pressure. (6) The main influencing factors of online learning truancy behavior are social interaction, participation, and learner control. At the end of this paper, according to the action mode of the influencing factors of online learning behavior, some suggestions for teaching improvement are put forward from the two perspectives of promoting positive online learning behavior and avoiding negative online learning behavior, which can provide a reference for teachers and schools in the future when conducting online education.

5.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(2):1368, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200101

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore how pandemic-related media use relates to both protective and overprotective behaviors and to probe the underlying mechanisms. The data were collected online during the early outbreak of COVID-19 in China, and a total of 1118 valid cases, which covered the 30 provincial administrative divisions in mainland China, were collected. Results showed that official government media use was positively associated with protective behaviors and institutional trust was an important mediator. Commercial media use was also found to be positively associated with overprotective behavior, and anxiety mediated this relationship. Findings of this study suggested that different media sources could play completely different roles. Institutional trust in government institutions and medical care systems were equally critical in translating the media effect into public compliance with the preventive measures advocated by the relevant departments. Media outlets and practitioners should also be responsible in order to avoid causing unnecessary anxiety among the public so as to reduce irrational overprotective behaviors.

6.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 12(6):463, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204246

ABSTRACT

It has been more than 2 years since the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2).SARS-CoV-2 is a member of positive single-stranded RNA viruses and could infect multiple mammals.Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification of protein, which regulates protein localization and trafficking.Spike protein(S), envelope protein(E) and SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 have been identified of being palmitoylated.This paper reviews the research progress on the palmitoylation of S, E and ACE2, including the sites of palmitoylation of S protein, the enzymes involved in this process, and their functions.Through the integrated review of these contents, which would provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.

7.
Sustainability ; 15(2):917, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166897

ABSTRACT

Food supply chains (FSCs) have long been exposed to environmental variability and shock events caused by various economic, political, and infrastructural factors. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed and identified the vulnerability of FSCs, and promoted integrated optimization approaches for building resilience. However, existing works focusing on general supply chains (SCs) and FSCs have not been fully aware of the distinct characteristics of FSCs in green logistics, i.e., the expiration of fresh products. In reality, perishable food materials can be processed into products of different processing levels (i.e., multi-level processing) for longer shelf lives, which can serve as a timely and economic strategy to increase safety stocks for mitigating disruption risks. Motivated by this fact, we study the problem of enhancing FSC with a multi-level processing strategy. An integrated location, inventory, and distribution planning model for a multi-echelon FSC under COVID-19-related disruptions is formulated to maximize the total profit over a finite planning horizon. Specifically, a two-stage stochastic programming model is presented to hedge against disruption risks, where scenarios are generated to characterize geographical impact induced by source-region disruptions. For small-scale problems, the model can be solved with commercial solvers. To exactly and efficiently solve the large-scale instances, we design an integer L-shaped method. Numerical experiments are conducted on a case study and randomly generated instances to show the efficiency of our model and solution method. Based on the case study, managerial insights are drawn.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 979641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141709

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective ability of a chimpanzee replication-deficient adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine (BV-AdCoV-1) expressing a stabilized pre-fusion SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in golden Syrian hamsters. Intranasal administration of BV-AdCoV-1 elicited strong humoral and cellular immunity in the animals. Furthermore, vaccination prevented weight loss, reduced SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus titers in the lungs as well as lung pathology and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 live challenge. In addition, there was no vaccine-induced enhanced disease nor immunopathological exacerbation in BV-AdCoV-1-vaccinated animals. Furthermore, the vaccine induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral strain and the B.1.617.2, Omicron(BA.1), Omicron(BA.2.75) and Omicron(BA.4/5) variants of concern. These results demonstrate that BV-AdCoV-1 is potentially a promising candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to curtail pandemic spread in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , Administration, Intranasal , Pan troglodytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics
9.
J Comput Chem ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127771

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing COVID-19, has continued to mutate and spread worldwide despite global vaccination efforts. In particular, the Omicron variant, first identified in South Africa in late November 2021, has become the dominant strain worldwide. Compared to the original strain identified in Wuhan, Omicron features 50 genetic mutations, with 15 mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, which binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for viral entry. However, it is not completely understood how these mutations alter the interaction and binding strength between the Omicron RBD and ACE2. In this study, we used a combined steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation and experimental microscale thermophoresis (MST) approach to quantify the interaction between Omicron RBD and ACE2. We report that the Omicron brings an enhanced RBD-ACE2 interface through N501Y, Q498R, and T478K mutations; the changes further lead to unique interaction patterns, reminiscing the features of previously dominated variants, Alpha (N501Y) and Delta (L452R and T478K). Among the Q493K and Q493R, we report that Q493R shows stronger binding to ACE2 than Q493K due to increased interactions. Our MST data confirmed that the Omicron mutations in RBD are associated with a five-fold higher binding affinity to ACE2 compared to the RBD of the original strain. In conclusion, our results could help explain the Omicron variant's prevalence in human populations, as higher interaction forces or affinity for ACE2 likely promote greater viral binding and internalization, leading to increased infectivity.

10.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(23):14499, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123694

ABSTRACT

PEDV represents an ancient Coronavirus still causing huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Resveratrol has excellent antiviral effects. Triacetyl resveratrol (TCRV), a novel natural derivative of resveratrol, has been recently discovered, and its pharmacological effects need to be explored further. This paper aims to explore the relationship between PEDV and TCRV, which offers a novel strategy in the research of antivirals. In our study, Vero cells and IPEC-J2 cells were used as an in vitro model. First, we proved that TCRV had an obvious anti-PEDV effect and a strong inhibitory effect at different time points. Then, we explored the mechanism of inhibition of PEDV infection by TCRV. Our results showed that TCRV could induce the early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells, in contrast to PEDV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we observed that TCRV could promote the expression and activation of apoptosis-related proteins and release mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytoplasm. Based on these results, we hypothesized that TCRV induced the early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells and inhibited PEDV infection by activating the mitochondria-related caspase pathway. Furthermore, we used the inhibitors Z-DEVD-FMK and Pifithrin-α(PFT-α) to support our hypothesis. In conclusion, the TCRV-activated caspase pathway triggered early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells, thereby inhibiting PEDV infections.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115998

ABSTRACT

In the post-epidemic era, China's urban communities are at the forefront of implementing the whole chain of accurate epidemic prevention and control. However, the uncertainty of COVID-19, the loopholes in community management and people's overly optimistic judgment of the epidemic have led to the frequent rebound of the epidemic and serious consequences. Existing studies have not yet formed a panoramic framework of community anti-epidemic work under the concept of resilience. Therefore, this article first summarizes the current research progress of resilient communities from three perspectives, including ideas and perspectives, theories and frameworks and methods and means, and summarizes the gap of the current research. Then, an innovative idea on the epidemic resilience of urban communities in China is put forward: (1) the evolution mechanism of community anti-epidemic resilience is described through the change law of dynamic networks; (2) the anti-epidemic resilience of urban communities is evaluated or predicted through the measurement criteria; (3) a simulation platform based on Multi-Agent and dynamic Bayesian networks simulates the interactive relationship between "epidemic disturbance-cost constraint--epidemic resilience"; (4) the anti-epidemic strategies are output intelligently to provide community managers with decision-making opinions on community epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
12.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology ; 000(000):000-000, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100440

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised status and interrupted routine care may render patients with cirrhosis vulnerable to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A nationwide data set that includes more than 99% of the decedents in the U.S. between April 2012 and September 2021 was used. Projected age-standardized mortality during the pandemic were estimated according to prepandemic mortality rates, stratified by season. Excess deaths were determined by estimating the difference between observed and projected mortality rates. A temporal trend analysis of observed mortality rates was also performed in 0.83 million decedents with cirrhosis between April 2012 and September 2021 was included. Following an increasing trend of cirrhosis-related mortality before the pandemic, with a semiannual percentage change (SAPC) of 0.54% [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.0-1.0%), p=0.036], a precipitous increase with seasonal variation occurred during the pandemic (SAPC 5.35, 95% CI: 1.9-8.9, p=0.005). Significantly increased mortality rates were observed in those with alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), with a SAPC of 8.44 (95% CI: 4.3-12.8, p=0.001) during the pandemic. All cause mortality of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rose steadily across the entire study period with a SAPC of 6.79 (95% CI: 6.3-7.3, p<0.001). The decreasing trend of HCV-related mortality was reversed during the pandemic, while there was no significant change in HBV-related deaths. While there was significant increase in COVID-19-related deaths, more than 55% of the excess deaths were the indirect impact of the pandemic. We observed an alarming increase in cirrhosis related deaths during the pandemic especially for ALD, with evidence in both direct and indirect impact. Our findings have implications on formulating policies for patients with cirrhosis.

13.
Finance Research Letters ; : 103446, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095361

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of social distancing on the local bias of institutional investors. Using SafeGraph’s Social Distancing Metrics data and SEC’s EDGAR 13F filings, we find that stay-at-home duration ratio decreases institutional investors’ local holdings and firms’ institutional ownership in the U.S. We also exploit the lockdown orders across various states during the COVID-19 pandemic as exogenous shocks to conduct the stacked regression estimation, which yields a similar result. Our channel analysis using abnormal return indicates that social distancing mitigates local bias by constraining the information advantage of local investors rather than alleviating their cognitive bias.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(20):13497, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2082092

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 epidemic has affected the global sports industry to a certain extent, and health clubs are no exception. To avoid unsustainable operations, health clubs need to restructure their programs to suit members' needs. Therefore, this study constructs a two-stage framework model to evaluate health club members' purchase of coaching programs. The first stage is to construct a hierarchy of evaluation, using the modified Delphi method, to select suitable criteria and extended sub-criteria, and add and delete them through expert discussion. In the second stage, we use the pairwise comparison matrix to calculate the weight of each criterion and sub-criterion to influence each other. Next, we evaluate and compare physical, online and offline, and live-stream coaching programs, by using network hierarchy analysis to identify the best class purchase plan during the epidemic and provide relevant suggestions. The results of the study found that during the epidemic, the primary sales were for weight training among physical programs (0.314), and activity classes among online and offline programs (0.633) as well as live-stream coaching programs (0.280). These findings have implications for health clubs in deciding which mode they need to adopt for sustainable operations.

15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17600, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077096

ABSTRACT

To quantitatively evaluate the impact of domestic aviation control measures on the spread of COVID-19 in China. The number of international flights from March to September 2019 simulated the number of flights from March to September 2020 without implementing aviation control measures. In addition, the proportion of asymptomatic persons and the delay in case reporting were adjusted to estimate the prevalence of each country during the same period and calculate the estimated imported cases. The estimated imported cases were assigned each day with weight, and the estimated daily reported cases were obtained based on the actual daily number of domestic cases in China. Effective Reproduction Number ([Formula: see text]) was calculated based on delayed distribution, Basic Reproductive Number ([Formula: see text]) distribution, and generation time distribution were reported in previous studies. Gaussian Process was used to estimate the effect of time-varying on [Formula: see text], and the estimated [Formula: see text] was compared with the actual [Formula: see text]. The estimated imported cases increased significantly compared with the actual number of imported cases. The estimated imported cases were mainly concentrated in North America and Europe from March to April and gradually increased in many East Asian countries from May to September. The difference between predicted [Formula: see text] and actual [Formula: see text] was statistically significant. The estimated imported cases and the estimated [Formula: see text] have increased compared to the actual situation. This paper quantitatively proves that Chinese aviation control measures significantly suppress the COVID-19 epidemic, which is conducive to promoting and applying this measure.


Subject(s)
Aviation , COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology
16.
Frontiers in neurology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072905

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a well-known complication of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26. COV2.S (Janssen, Johnson & Johnson). To date, only a few cases of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine such as mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech)-induced VITT have been reported. We report a case of VITT with acute cerebral venous thrombosis and hemorrhage after a booster of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine in a patient previously vaccinated with two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine. A 42-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of weakness of the right upper limb with focal seizure. She had received two doses of AstraZeneca vaccines and a booster with Moderna vaccine 32 days before presentation. She had also undergone a laparoscopic myomectomy 12 days previously. Laboratory examinations revealed anemia (9.5 g/dl), thrombocytopenia (31 × 103/μl), and markedly elevated d-dimer (>20.0 mg/L;reference value < 0.5 mg/L). The initial brain computed tomography (CT) was normal, but a repeated scan 10 h later revealed hemorrhage at the left cerebrum. Before the results of the blood smear were received, on suspicion of thrombotic microangiopathy with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis, plasmapheresis and pulse steroid therapy were initiated, followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g/kg/day for two consecutive days) due to refractory thrombocytopenia. VITT was confirmed by positive anti-PF4 antibody and both heparin-induced and PF4-induced platelet activation testing. Clinicians should be aware that mRNA-1273 Moderna, an mRNA-based vaccine, may be associated with VITT with catastrophic complications. Additionally, prior exposure to the AstraZeneca vaccine and surgical procedure could also have precipitated or aggravated autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/VITT-like presentation.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066121

ABSTRACT

Complement factor I (CFI), a complement inhibitor, is well known for regulating the complement system activation by degrading complement component 3b (C3b) in animal serum, thus becoming involved in innate defense. Nevertheless, the functional mechanisms of CFI in the complement system and in host-pathogen interactions are far from being clarified in teleost fish. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the CFI gene, CiCFI, from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and analyzed its function in degrading serum C3b and expression changes after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. The open reading frame of CiCFI was found to be 2121 bp, encoding 706 amino acids with a molecular mass of 79.06 kDa. The pairwise alignments showed that CiCFI shared the highest identity (66.9%) with CFI from Carassius gibelio and the highest similarity (78.7%) with CFI from Danio rerio. The CiCFI protein was characterized by a conserved functional core Tryp_SPc domain with the catalytic triad and substrate binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiCFI and the homologs CFIs from other teleost fish formed a distinct evolutionary branch. Similar with the CFIs reported in mammals, the recombinant CiCFI protein could significantly reduce the C3b content in the serum, demonstrating the conserved function of CiCFI in the complement system in the grass carp. CiCFI mRNA and protein showed the highest expression level in the liver. After GCRV infection, the mRNA expressions of CiCFI were first down-regulated, then up-regulated, and then down-regulated to the initial level, while the protein expression levels maintained an overall downward trend to the late stage of infection in the liver of grass carps. Unexpectedly, the protein levels of CiCFI were also continuously down-regulated in the serum of grass carps during GCRV infection, while the content of serum C3b proteins first increases and then returns to the initial level, suggesting a distinct role of CiCFI in regulating complement activation and fish-virus interaction. Combining our previous results that complement factor D, a complement enhancer, shows continuously up-regulated expression levels in grass carps during GCRV infection, and this study may provide the further essential data for the full picture of complex complement regulation mechanism mediated by Df and CFI of the grass carp during pathogen infection.


Subject(s)
Carps , Fish Diseases , Reoviridae Infections , Reoviridae , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Carps/genetics , Carps/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement C3b , Complement Factor D/genetics , Complement Factor I/genetics , Complement Factor I/metabolism , Complement Inactivating Agents , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Mammals/metabolism , Phylogeny , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reoviridae/physiology , Reoviridae Infections/genetics , Reoviridae Infections/veterinary
18.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062604

ABSTRACT

Obtaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) was a challenge for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. On 26 January 2020, the Chinese Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention issued a nationwide directive to relax restrictions on where and when PLHIV could refill ART. This qualitative study explored unexpected barriers under this directive and recommendations to improve future ART delivery. Between February 11 and February 15 2020, in-depth interviews of 4 groups of stake holders related to ART refilling (i.e., PLHIV, community-based organization employees, CDC staff, infectious disease physicians and nurses), were conducted via WeChat. Data were managed by NVivo 11.0 and transcripts were coded using thematic analysis. Sixty-two interviews were conducted. The main barriers to refilling ART included: (1) inconsistent documentation requirements to refill ART, (2) lack of specific protocols on ART refilling, (3) insufficient staffing, and (4) regimen verification and drug shortages. The most common recommendations to improve future ART delivery were: (1) to establish a nationwide system to distribute ART and (2) increase the number of pills delivered with each ART refill. Strengthening protocols and systems to refill ART and improving collaboration is key to preventing interruptions in ART among PLHIV during public health emergencies.

19.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

20.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034895

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has caused serious challenges for public health systems worldwide. Due to the close relationship between animals and humans, confirmed transmission from humans to numerous animal species has been reported. Understanding the cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the infection and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in different animals is crucial to control COVID-19 and protect animal health. In this review, the possible animal origins of SARS-CoV-2 and animal species naturally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are discussed. Furthermore, this review categorizes the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible animals by families, so as to better understand the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and animals.

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