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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324963

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated as the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as COVID-19 by testing sputum on the first day of admission. He also had an elevated troponin-I (Trop I) level and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of Interleukin 6 was 272.40pg/ml. Bedside chest radiograph had typical ground-glass changes of viral pneumonia. The laboratory test results of virus that can cause myocarditis are all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, the Trop I reduced to 0.10 g/L, and Interleukin 6 was 7.63 pg/ml. Meanwhile the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure, and this is the first case of COVID-19 infection complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(13): 2994-3007, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early risk identification of critically ill patients remains crucial. AIM: To develop predictive rules at the time of admission to identify COVID-19 patients who might require intensive care unit (ICU) care. METHODS: This retrospective study included a total of 361 patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction between January 19, 2020, and March 14, 2020 in Shenzhen Third People's Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to develop the predictive model. The performance of the predictive model was externally validated and evaluated based on a dataset involving 126 patients from the Wuhan Asia General Hospital between December 2019 and March 2020, by area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), goodness-of-fit and the performance matrix including the sensitivity, specificity, and precision. A nomogram was also used to visualize the model. RESULTS: Among the patients in the derivation and validation datasets, 38 and 9 participants (10.5% and 2.54%, respectively) developed severe COVID-19, respectively. In univariate analysis, 21 parameters such as age, sex (male), smoker, body mass index (BMI), time from onset to admission (> 5 d), asthenia, dry cough, expectoration, shortness of breath, asthenia, and Rox index < 18 (pulse oxygen saturation, SpO2)/(FiO2 × respiratory rate, RR) showed positive correlations with severe COVID-19. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only six parameters including BMI [odds ratio (OR) 3.939; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.409-11.015; P = 0.009], time from onset to admission (≥ 5 d) (OR 7.107; 95%CI: 1.449-34.849; P = 0.016), fever (OR 6.794; 95%CI: 1.401-32.951; P = 0.017), Charlson index (OR 2.917; 95%CI: 1.279-6.654; P = 0.011), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR 17.570; 95%CI: 1.117-276.383; P = 0.041), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (OR 3.574; 95%CI: 1.048-12.191; P = 0.042) were found to be independent predictors of COVID-19. These factors were found to be significant risk factors for severe patients confirmed with COVID-19. The AUROC was 0.941 (95%CI: 0.901-0.981) and 0.936 (95%CI: 0.886-0.987) in both datasets. The calibration properties were good. CONCLUSION: The proposed predictive model had great potential in severity prediction of COVID-19 in the ICU. It assisted the ICU clinicians in making timely decisions for the target population.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 45, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The management of discharge COVID-19 patients with recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA is challenging. However, there are fewer scientific dissertations about the risk of recurrent positive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between SARS-COV-2 RNA positive duration (SPD) and the risk of recurrent positive. METHODS: This case-control multi-center study enrolled participants from 8 Chinese hospital including 411 participants (recurrent positive 241). Using unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, generalized additive model with a smooth curve fitting, we evaluated the associations between SPD and risk of recurrent positive. Besides, subgroup analyses were performed to explore the potential interactions. RESULTS: Among recurrent positive patients, there were 121 females (50.2%), median age was 50 years old [interquartile range (IQR): 38-63]. In non-adjusted model and adjusted model, SPD was associated with an increased risk of recurrent positive (fully-adjusted model: OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001); the curve fitting was not significant (P = 0.286). Comparing with SPD < 14 days, the risk of recurrent positive in SPD > 28 days was risen substantially (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.63, P = 0.004). Interaction and stratified analyses showed greater effect estimates of SPD and risk of recurrent positive in the hypertension, low monocyte count and percentage patients (P for interaction = 0.008, 0.002, 0.036, respectively). CONCLUSION: SPD was associated with a higher risk of recurrent positive and especially SPD > 28 day had a two-fold increase in the relative risk of re-positive as compared with SPD < 14 day. What's more, the risk may be higher among those with hypertension and lower monocyte count or percentage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recurrence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
4.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(24): 6252-6263, 2020 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding a virus shedding patterns in body fluids/secretions is important to determine the samples to be used for diagnosis and to formulate infection control measures. AIM: To investigate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding patterns and its risk factors. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients with complete medical records admitted to the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 28, 2020 to March 8, 2020 were included. Among 145 patients (54.5% males; median age, 46.1 years), three (2.1%) died. The bronco-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) had the highest virus load compared with the other samples. The viral load peaked at admission (3.3 × 108 copies) and sharply decreased 10 d after admission. RESULTS: The viral load was associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) duration. Patients in the ICU had significantly longer shedding time compared to those in the wards (P < 0.0001). Age > 60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-0.9] was an independent risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 shedding, while chloroquine (HR = 22.8; 95%CI: 2.3-224.6) was a protective factor. CONCLUSION: BALF had the highest SARS-CoV-2 load. Elderly patients had higher virus loads, which was associated with a prolonged ICU stay. Chloroquine was associated with shorter shedding duration and increased the chance of viral negativity.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 714-718, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932426

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aims to analyse whether inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) was beneficial in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pulmonary hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five critically ill COVID-19 patients with pulmonary hypertension designated Cases 1-5 were retrospectively included. Clinical data before and after iNO treatment were serially collected and compared between patients with or without iNO treatment. The five cases experienced pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) elevation (≥50 mmHg) at 30, 24, 33, 23, and 24 days after illness onset (d.a.o), respectively. Cases 1-3 received iNO treatment on the 24th, 13th, and 1st day after the first elevation of PASP, with concentrations varied from 10 to 20 ppm based on the changes of PASP and blood pressure for 10, 9, and 5 days, respectively. Upon iNO treatment, PASP of Cases 1 and 2 returned to normal on the 10th day and 1st day, and maintained between 50 and 58 mmHg in Case 3. Pa02 /Fi02 increased from 88 to 124, 51 to 118, and 146 to 244, respectively. SPO2 increased from 91% to 97% for Case 1 and maintained a high level above 97% for Case 2. Cardiac function remained normal in the three patients after treatment. Moreover, Cases 1 and 3 survived from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, while Case 2 finally died on the 36th day after the first elevation of PASP due to severe complications. Both cases who did not receive iNO treatment experienced a sudden decrease of PASP and Pa02 /Fi02 due to right heart failure and then died. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled nitric oxide treatment was beneficial in reducing and stabilizing the PASP and might also reduce the risk of right heart failure in COVID-19 with pulmonary hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2105-2113, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913100

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disaster for human society. A convenient and reliable neutralization assay is very important for the development of vaccines and novel drugs. In this study, a G protein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVdG) bearing a truncated spike protein (S with C-terminal 18 amino acid truncation) was compared to that bearing the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and showed much higher efficiency. A neutralization assay was established based on VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus and hACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells (BHK21-hACE2 cells). The experimental results can be obtained by automatically counting the number of EGFP-positive cells at 12 h after infection, making the assay convenient and high-throughput. The serum neutralizing titer measured by the VSV-SARS-CoV-2-Sdel18 pseudovirus assay has a good correlation with that measured by the wild type SARS-CoV-2 assay. Seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were obtained. This efficient and reliable pseudovirus assay model could facilitate the development of new drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
7.
Infection ; 48(5): 773-777, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated to be the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as having COVID-19 according to sputum testing on the day of admission. He also had elevated troponin I (Trop I) level (up to 11.37 g/L) and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of interleukin-6 was 272.40 pg/ml. Bedside chest radiographs showed typical ground-glass changes indicative of viral pneumonia. Laboratory test results for viruses that cause myocarditis were all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of the Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, Trop I was reduced to 0.10 g/L, and interleukin-6 was reduced to 7.63 pg/mL. Moreover, the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. The patient died of aggravation of secondary infection on the 33rd day of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure. This is the first report of COVID-19 complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteroides Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacteroides Infections/drug therapy , Bacteroides Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Candidiasis/diagnostic imaging , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Echocardiography , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pandemics , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Troponin I/blood
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