Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 34
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
J Bioinform Comput Biol ; : 2140005, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223636

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has had a significant impact on the whole world. In a theory of the origin of SARS-CoV-2, pangolins are considered as a potential intermediate host. To assemble the genome of suspicious coronavirus (CoV) found in pangolins, SARS-CoV-2 was used as a reference in most of the previous studies, implicitly assuming the pangolin CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are the closest neighbors in evolution. However, this assumption may not be true. We investigated how the choice of reference genome affected the resulting CoV genome assembly. We explored various representative CoVs as the reference genome, and found significant differences in the resulting assemblies. The assembly obtained using RaTG13 as a reference showed better statistics in total length, N50, and pairwise distance reconstruction (PDR) scores than the assembly guided by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that RaTG13 may be a better reference. Therefore, RaTG13 should also be considered as a reference for assembling suspicious CoV found in pangolins and other potential intermediate hosts.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213913

ABSTRACT

Rapid and sensitive identification of viral pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 is a critical step to control the pandemic disease. Viral antigen detection can compete with gold-standard PCR-based nucleic acid diagnostics in terms of better reflection of viral infectivity and reduced risk of contamination from enzymatic amplification. Here, we report the development of a one-step thermophoretic assay using an aptamer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for direct quantitative detection of viral particles. The assay relies on aptamer binding to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and simultaneous accumulation of aptamer-bound viral particles in laser-induced gradients of temperature and PEG concentration. Using a pseudotyped lentivirus model, a limit of detection of ∼170 particles µL-1 (26 fM of the spike protein) is achieved in 15 min without the need of any pretreatment. As a proof of concept, the one-step thermophoretic assay is used to detect synthetic samples by spiking viral particles into oropharyngeal swabs with an accuracy of 100%. The simplicity, speed, and cost-effectiveness of this thermophoretic assay may expand the diagnostic tools for viral pathogens.

3.
Bioorganic Chemistry ; : 104925, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1198631

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance and emerging viral pandemics have posed an urgent need for new anti-infective drugs By screening our microbial extract library against the main protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the notorious ESKAPE pathogens, an active fraction was identified and purified, leading to an initial isolation of adipostatins A (1) and B (2) In order to diversify the chemical structures of adipostatins toward enhanced biological activities, a type III polyketide synthase was identified from the native producer, Streptomyces davawensis DSM101723, and was subsequently expressed in an E coli host, resulting in the isolation of nine additional adipostatins 3–11, including two new analogs (9 and 11) The structures of 1–11 were established by HRMS, NMR, and chemical derivatization, including using a microgram-scale meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid epoxidation-MS/MS analysis to unambiguously determine the double bond position in the alkyl chain The present study discovered SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitory activity for the class of adipostatins for the first time Several of the adipostatins isolated also exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected ESKAPE pathogens

4.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148078

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We explored dispatched nurses' experiences of wearing full gear personal protective equipment to care for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. BACKGROUND: Full gear personal protective equipment is the primary and foremost measure to prevent the contact and transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2); however, working in full gear personal protective equipment may hinder nursing care activities and thus negatively affect patients' and nurses' health. DESIGN: This descriptive qualitative inquiry followed the COREQ guidelines. METHODS: Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in a purposive sample of 15 frontline nurses who were dispatched to the outbreak epicentre from March to April 2020. Verbatim transcripts were content analysed. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the data: inadequate preparedness for working with full gear personal protective equipment, full gear personal protective equipment stimulated stress responses, coping strategies and professional growth. Participants learned a great deal from problem-focussed and emotion-focussed strategies to tackle challenges related to the prolonged wearing of full gear personal protective equipment for quality nursing care and reduced risk of exposure. They became more vigilant to the adherence to evolving protocols and appropriate training concerning full gear personal protective equipment use. CONCLUSIONS: Frontline nurses confronted various but diminishing challenges related to the use of full gear personal protective equipment when caring for patients with COVID-19 across the approximate 40-day period. Consistent use of coverall personal protective equipment to protect from SARS-CoV-2 in high exposure settings would be feasible if nurses were better prepared; therefore, scenario-based skill training concerning the prolonged use of full gear personal protective equipment should be offered regularly and intensively. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study informs future decisions concerning improved full gear personal protective equipment-related psychomotor training and promoting ways for nurses to cope with the stress that comes from working in highly contiguous environments.

5.
Evol Psychol ; 19(1): 14747049211000714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146437

ABSTRACT

It is puzzling why countries do not all implement stringent behavioral control measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 even though preventive behaviors have been proven to be the only effective means to stop the pandemic. We provide a novel evolutionary life history explanation whereby pathogenic and parasitic prevalence represents intrinsic rather than extrinsic mortality risk that drives slower life history strategies and the related disease control motivation in all animals but especially humans. Our theory was tested and supported based on publicly available data involving over 150 countries. Countries having a higher historical prevalence of infectious diseases are found to adopt slower life history strategies that are related to prompter COVID-19 containment actions by the government and greater compliance by the population. Findings could afford governments novel insight into the design of more effective COVID-19 strategies that are based on enhancing a sense of control, vigilance, and compliance in the general population.


Subject(s)
Behavior Control , Communicable Disease Control , Infections , Life History Traits , Risk Reduction Behavior , Behavior Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Behavior Control/methods , Behavior Control/psychology , /prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cooperative Behavior , Global Health , Government Regulation , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/psychology , Infections/transmission , Prevalence
6.
Sustainability ; 13(4):1842, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1069874

ABSTRACT

The COVID−19 pandemic has significantly impacted the economy and livelihoods of people worldwide To analyze the impact of the pandemic on material conditions, income levels, health conditions, industrial development and employment opportunities of farmers in China’s rural areas, especially poor areas and explore whether farmers can achieve stable poverty eradication during the COVID−19 pandemic, we interviewed 2662 farm households in poverty−stricken areas of China and used the multidimensional poverty measurement model, three−step feasible generalized least squares and propensity score matching to analyze data We achieved the following results First, the overall level of multidimensional poverty vulnerability index (MPVI) of the surveyed households was low and the MPVI of each dimension varied significantly The MPVI of households in the treated group was higher than that of the control group Second, COVID−19 increased farm households’ vulnerability to multidimensional poverty in poverty−stricken regions;MPVI increased by 27 9% Third, COVID−19′s impact on various dimensions differed: the greatest impact was on the vulnerability to health deprivation, followed by industrial development, employment and income deprivation However, the pandemic slightly reduced the vulnerability to material deprivation Finally, we proposed various measures in response to the impact of the pandemic to assist farm households in poverty−stricken areas

7.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4156

ABSTRACT

A review The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) firstly outbroke in Wuhan on Dec 2019 Currently, there is no specific treatment drug for COVID-19, and the main clin treatments are symptom relieving and complication controlling The treatment protocols of National Health Commission and several provinces recommend Huoxiang Zhengqi for the treatment of patients with fatigue and stomach uncomfortable in observation period or patients with "dampness pathogen, cold-dampness or epidemic toxin" relevant symptoms in clin treatment period Huoxiang Zhengqi is frequently-used damp-clearing prescription and have efficacy of reliving superficies, dispersing dampness, and harmonizing stomach The perspective of pharmacol and clin trials of Huoxiang Zhengqi in antivirus, anti-inflammation and relieving symptoms are reviewed in this paper, and the possible mechanism of Huoxiang Zhengqi in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed, hoping to provide reference for applying Huoxiang Zhengqi in prevention and treatment of COVID-19

8.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(11): 6435-6445, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962503

ABSTRACT

Background: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. However, the prevalence of retesting positive by RT-PCR for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the associated patient characteristics, remain unclear. Methods: We included 90 confirmed cases of COVID-19 treated in the Nanjing Public Health Center from January 20, 2020 to February 16, 2020 in this retrospective study. All patients completed treatment for COVID-19 and were retested by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 4-20 days after completion of therapy. The clinical characteristics between patients with who retested positive versus negative by RT-PCR were compared, and the factors predictive of positive retesting were analyzed. Positive retesting was modeled with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The age range of the study population was 0.8-97 years, and all patients were cured or showed improvement. A total of 10 (11%) patients retested positive by RT-PCR 4-20 days after completion of therapy. As compared with patients who retested negative, those who retested positive had a lower percentage of pre-admission fever, a higher percentage of post-admission fever, a lower percentage of bilateral lung infection, higher white blood cell (WBC) count and creatine phosphokinase, and lower hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (all P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis of the above eight key variables showed that lower hs-CRP and higher WBC were independently associated with positive retesting by RT-PCR. A combination of hs-CRP and WBC were predictive of positive retesting, with an AUC of 0.859. Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 who retested positive by RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 had mild symptoms and better blood testing results. A combination of hs-CRP and WBC may predict positive retesting by RT-PCR; however, the sensitivity and specificity should be studied further.

9.
10.
Exp Lung Res ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still suffering from unfavorable survival. BTB and CNC homology1 (Bach1) is a regulator of oxidative stress and participates in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of Bach1 knockdown on fibrosis and inflammation in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) mice and cell models. METHODS: Bleomycin induced PF mice were constructed and treated with Bach1 siRNA adenovirus (BLM + Bach1 siRNA group), control siRNA adenovirus (BLM + Control siRNA group) or normal saline (BLM group), then lung tissues were collected for Bach1 expression detection, H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining. Afterwards, collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expressions in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined. Subsequently, mouse lung fibroblasts (MLFs) were collected from PF mice and treated with TGF-ß1 to construct PF cell model, which was treated with Bach1 siRNA adenovirus (TGF-ß1 + Bach1 siRNA group) and MAP kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 alone (TGF-ß1 + U0126 group) or in combination (TGF-ß1 + U0126 + Bach1 siRNA group), then alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin 1 (Fn1), COL1A1, IL-6 expressions and cell viability were detected. RESULTS: Lung tissue Bach1 mRNA and protein expressions were upregulated in PF mice compared to control mice. Bach1 knockdown reduced lung fibrosis (displayed by Masson's trichrome staining) and inflammation (displayed by H&E staining), then downregulated serum and BALF expressions of COL1A1 and IL-6 in PF mice. Subsequently, in PF cell model, Bach1 knockdown blocked ERK pathway, but did not affect Smads, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (Akt) pathways. Further experiments revealed that Bach1 knockdown repressed cell viability, α-SMA, Fn1, IL-6 and COL1A1 expressions in PF cell model, then ERK inhibition by U0126 enhanced these effects. CONCLUSIONS: Bach1 is involved in the PF pathogenesis via modulating ERK signaling pathway.

11.
12.
PeerJ ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-908403

ABSTRACT

Background In 2011, the United Nations set a target to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by 2025 While studies have reported the target in some countries, no studies have been done in China This study aims to project the ability to reach the target in Hunan Province, China, and establish the priority for future interventions Methods We conducted the study during 2019–2020 From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, we extracted death data for Hunan during 1990–2016 for four main NCDs, namely cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes We generated estimates for 2025 by fitting a linear regression to the premature mortality over the most recent trend identified by a joinpoint regression model We also estimated excess premature mortality attributable to unfavorable changes over time Results The rate of premature mortality from all NCDs in Hunan will be 19 5% (95% CI [19 0%–20 1%]) by 2025, with the main contributions being from CVD (8 2%, 95% CI [7 9%–8 5%]) and cancer (7 9%, 95% CI [7 8%–8 1%]) Overall, it will be impossible to achieve the target, with a relative reduction of 16 4% Women may be able to meet the target except with respect to cancer, and men will not except with respect to chronic respiratory diseases Most of the unfavorable changes have occurred since 2008–2009 Discussion More urgent efforts, especially for men, should be exerted in Hunan by integrating population-wide interventions into a stronger health-care system In the post lock-down COVID-19 era in China, reducing the NCD risk factors can also lower the risk of death from COVID-19

13.
Nat Rev Mater ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880691

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic highlights the importance of materials science in providing tools and technologies for antiviral research and treatment development. In this Review, we discuss previous efforts in materials science in developing imaging systems and microfluidic devices for the in-depth and real-time investigation of viral structures and transmission, as well as material platforms for the detection of viruses and the delivery of antiviral drugs and vaccines. We highlight the contribution of materials science to the manufacturing of personal protective equipment and to the design of simple, accurate and low-cost virus-detection devices. We then investigate future possibilities of materials science in antiviral research and treatment development, examining the role of materials in antiviral-drug design, including the importance of synthetic material platforms for organoids and organs-on-a-chip, in drug delivery and vaccination, and for the production of medical equipment. Materials-science-based technologies not only contribute to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 research efforts but can also provide platforms and tools for the understanding, protection, detection and treatment of future viral diseases.

14.
Veterinary Microbiology ; 24236, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-826358

ABSTRACT

In China, variants of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) evolve continually and diverse recombinant strains have been reported Here, an IBV strain, designated as ck/CH/LJX/2017/07 (referred as JX17) was isolated from chicken vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 in Jiangxi, China, in 2017 Sequence analysis reveals of the S1 gene of JX17 the highest nucleotide identity of 98 15% with that of GI-7 genotype TW2575/98 strain Furthermore, whole genome analysis among JX17 and other 18 IBV strains demonstrates that JX17 has the highest nucleotide identity of 95 94% with GI-19 genotype YX10 strain Among all genes of JX17 except the S1 gene, the N gene and 3' UTR have the highest identity to GI-13 genotype 4/91 strain and the rest genes are the most identical to GI-19 genotype YX10 strain Analyzed by the RDP and SimPlot, the recombination of JX17 strain was shown to occur in regions which include 5'-terminal S1 gene (20,344 to 22,447 nt), most N gene and 3' UTR (26,163 to 27,648 nt) The pathogenicity study shows that JX17 is a natural low virulent IBV variant which caused respiratory symptoms but no death Taken together, these results indicate that IBV strains continue to evolve through genetic recombination and three prevalent genotypes in China including QX, TW and 4/91 have started to recombine

15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807039

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore special coagulation characteristics and anticoagulation management in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-assisted patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective observation of a series of patients. PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 patients who received venovenous ECMO support from January 20-May 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: This study analyzed the anticoagulation management and monitoring strategies, bleeding complications, and thrombotic events during ECMO support. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eight of 667 confirmed COVID-19 patients received venovenous ECMO and had an elevated D-dimer level before and during ECMO support. An ECMO circuit pack (oxygenator and tubing) was replaced a total of 13 times in all 8 patients, and coagulation-related complications included oxygenator thrombosis (7/8), tracheal hemorrhage (5/8), oronasal hemorrhage (3/8), thoracic hemorrhage (3/8), bleeding at puncture sites (4/8), and cannulation site hemorrhage (2/8). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability and secondary hyperfibrinolysis during ECMO support in COVID-19 patients are common and possibly increase the propensity for thrombotic events and failure of the oxygenator. Currently, there is not enough evidence to support a more aggressive anticoagulation strategy.

16.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1293

ABSTRACT

Background: Medical care workers experienced unprecedented levels of workload and pressure since the outbreak of COVID-19 started from the end of 2019 Little i

17.
18.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-587

ABSTRACT

Circulating in China and 75 other countries and territories, the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has caused devastating mortality and posed a great threat to public h

19.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 144-148, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well known that unexpected pandemic has led to an increase in mental health problems among a variety of populations. METHODS: In this study, an online non-probability sample survey was used to anonymously investigate the anxiety and depression symptoms among medical staff under the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaire included Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Factors associated with anxiety and depression symptoms were estimated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1090 medical staff were investigated in this study. The estimated self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms and both of the two were 13.3%, 18.4% and 23.9% respectively. Factors associated with self-reported anxiety symptoms include married status (OR=2.3, 95%CI: 1.2, 4.4), not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.7), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.2, 95%CI: 1.4, 3.5) and higher stress (OR=14.4, 95%CI: 7.8, 26.4). Factors associated with self-reported depression symptoms include not living alone (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), sometimes/often getting care from neighbours (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.9), never confiding their troubles to others (OR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.3, 3.0) and higher stress (OR=9.7, 95%CI: 6.2, 15.2). LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sample survey. Besides, scales used in this study can only identify mental health states. CONCLUSIONS: Under outbreak of COVID-19, self-reported rates of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms were high in investigated medical staff. Psychological interventions for those at high risk with common mental problems should be integrated into the work plan to fight against the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Medical Staff/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113610, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730640

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is challenging global public health response system. We aim to identify the risk factors for the transmission of COVID-19 using data on mainland China. We estimated attack rate (AR) at county level. Logistic regression was used to explore the role of transportation in the nationwide spread. Generalized additive model and stratified linear mixed-effects model were developed to identify the effects of multiple meteorological factors on local transmission. The ARs in affected counties ranged from 0.6 to 9750.4 per million persons, with a median of 8.8. The counties being intersected by railways, freeways, national highways or having airports had significantly higher risk for COVID-19 with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.40 (p = 0.001), 2.07 (p < 0.001), 1.31 (p = 0.04), and 1.70 (p < 0.001), respectively. The higher AR of COVID-19 was significantly associated with lower average temperature, moderate cumulative precipitation and higher wind speed. Significant pairwise interactions were found among above three meteorological factors with higher risk of COVID-19 under low temperature and moderate precipitation. Warm areas can also be in higher risk of the disease with the increasing wind speed. In conclusion, transportation and meteorological factors may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19 in mainland China, and could be integrated in consideration by public health alarm systems to better prevent the disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL