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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799912

ABSTRACT

Objective Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has caused global concern. Previous studies have shown that the variant has enhanced immune evasion ability and transmissibility, and reduced severity. Methods In this work, we develop a mathematical model with time-varying transmission rate, vaccination and immune evasion. We fit model to reported case and death data, up to Feb 6, 2022 to estimate the transmissibility and infection fatality ratio of Omicron variant in South Africa. Results We found that the high relative transmissibility of Omicron variant is mainly due to its immune evasion ability while the infection fatality rate is substantially decreased. The reduction in the infection fatality rate is about 78.7% (95% confidence interval: 66.9%, 85%). Conclusion Based on data in South Africa and mathematical modelling, we found that the Omicron variant is highly transmissible but with significantly lower infection fatality rate compared to previous variant of SARS-COV-2.

2.
Evol Psychol Sci ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739471

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise and raised many questions. One of the questions is whether infectious diseases indeed drive fast life history (LH) as the extent research suggests. This paper challenges this assumption and raises a different perspective. We argue that infectious diseases enact either slower or faster LH strategies and the related disease control behavior depending on disease severity. We tested and supported the theorization based on a sample of 662 adult residents drawn from all 32 provinces and administrative regions of mainland China. The findings help to broaden LH perspectives and to better understand unusual social phenomena arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(4): 3591-3596, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704200

ABSTRACT

In this work, we report a large-scale synchronized replacement pattern of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-COV-2. We argue that this phenomenon is associated with the invasion timing and the transmissibility advantage of the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant skipped some countries/regions, e.g. India and neighboring countries/regions, which could have led to a mild first wave before the invasion of the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant, in term of reported COVID-deaths per capita.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308328

ABSTRACT

Three patients of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed the symptoms of olfactory dysfunction. Clinical characteristics and treatment were retrospective analyzed. Olfactory disorders are uncommon symptoms of COVID-19. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to the recovery of olfactory disorders. Particular attention should be devoted to rare symptoms of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328871

ABSTRACT

Physical interactions between viral and host proteins are responsible for almost all aspects of the viral life cycle and the host’s immune response. Studying viral-host protein-protein interactions is thus crucial for identifying strategies for treatment and prevention of viral infection. Here, we use high-throughput yeast two-hybrid and affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to generate a comprehensive SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactome network consisting of both binary and co-complex interactions. We report a total of 739 high-confidence interactions, showing the highest overlap of interaction partners among published datasets as well as the highest enrichment for genes differentially expressed in samples (such as upper airway and bronchial epithelial cells) from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Showcasing the utility of our network, we describe a novel interaction between the viral accessory protein ORF3a and the host zinc finger transcription factor ZNF579 to illustrate one of the first examples of a viral factor mediating a direct impact on host transcription. Leveraging our interactome, we performed network-based drug screens for over 2,900 FDA-approved/investigational drugs and obtained a curated list of 21 drugs that had significant network proximities to SARS-CoV-2 host factors, one of which, carvedilol, showed promising antiviral properties. We performed electronic health record-based validation using two independent large-scale, longitudinal COVID-19 patient databases and found that carvedilol usage was associated with a significantly lowered probability (17%-20%, P < 0.001) of obtaining a SARS-CoV-2 positive test after adjusting various confounding factors. Carvedilol additionally showed anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in a human lung epithelial cell line (EC 50 value of 4.1 µM), suggesting a mechanism for its beneficial effect in COVID-19. Our study demonstrates the value of large-scale network systems biology approaches for extracting biological insight from complex biological processes.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324218

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of COVID-19 death. Long-term metformin usage decreases COVID-19 mortality through an obscure mechanism unrelated to glycemic control. It is unclear whether and how short-term metformin-based intervention can block acute inflammation. We show that metformin inhibits IL-6 and IL-1β secretion from LPS or SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein primed macrophages undergoing NLRP3 inflammasome activation, a key to ARDS initiation. Reduced IL-6 production correlates with blunted NFAT and C/EBPβ/NFIL-6 activation, whereas inhibition of IL-1β secretion reflects interference with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. By targeting electron transfer chain complex 1, but independently of AMPK and mitophagy, metformin inhibits ATP-dependent mitochondrial DNA synthesis and blocks generation of oxidized mitochondrial DNA, a trigger of inflammasome assembly. Correspondingly, short-term metformin treatment abrogates LPS-induced ARDS, lung macrophage recruitment, damage and mortality. We suggest that metformin, a cheap and safe drug, can be used to prevent ARDS onset in COVID-19 patients.Funding: The UCSD Tissue Technology Shared Resource supported by a National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Support Grant (CCSG P30CA23100). M.A. was supported by NIH (R01AI072726). E.S-L. was supported by NIAMS (K01AR077111). Research was supported by NIH grant awards to M.K. and M.A. (U54CA260591), and M.K. (R01A1043477, P42ES010337), who is an American Cancer Research Society Professor and holds the Ben and Wanda Hildyard Chair for Mitochondrial and Metabolic Diseases. Conflict of Interest: M.K. is a founder of Elgia Pharmaceuticals and receives research support from Gossamer Bio and Jansen Pharmaceuticals. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: All mouse studies were conducted in accordance with UCSD and NIH guidelines and regulations for the housing and treatment of laboratory animals using protocols approved by the UCSD Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321869

ABSTRACT

Background: By February 2021, the overall impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South and Southeast Asia had been relatively mild. Surprisingly, the second wave in early April 2021 in this region becomes devastating and attracts worldwide attention. Methods: We focus on the nine countries with the highest accumulative deaths due to the disease by July 30, 2021. We study the transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 in South and Southeast Asia using the reported death data and fit into a mathematical model with time varying transmission rate. Results: We estimated the transmission rate, the infection fatality rate, and the infection attack rate, the effects of vaccination in the nine countries in South and Southeast Asia. Our study suggests that the infection attack rate is still low in most of the countries and vaccination is needed to prevent further waves. Conclusion: The implementation of the non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) could have helped South and Southeast Asia to keep the COVID-19 under control in 2020 as reflected in our estimated low transmission rate. Factors like the emergence of the new Delta variant, social unrest, and migrant workers could have been the trigger of the second wave of COVID-19. Trial registration. NA

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321484

ABSTRACT

Background: College students are a uniquely vulnerable group and may experience high stress levels due to COVID-19. This study aims to identify the the psychological state and related factors on Chinese college students during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From February 23 to March 5, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 3606 college students from seven provinces in China using standard questionnaires measuring adverse psychological outcomes and related factors including Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to determine underlying constructs of the perceived threat items. Multivariate regression was used to explore the determinants of adverse psychological impact. Results: Posttraumatic stress (PTS) were prevalent in this sample of college students, and 34.22% met the cut-off for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The proportion of having mild to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were 15.70%, 13.31% and 7.10%, respectively. The impact of closed-off management on life, perceived threat and passive coping strategies were positively correlated to PTS and DASS scores, while knowledge score, perceived social support and active coping strategies were negatively correlated to DASS scores. Conclusions: In summary, adverse psychological symptoms were prevalent among college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Identifying vulnerable populations and formulating correspondingly psychological interventions would be beneficial to improve the mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315407

ABSTRACT

Background: As phases of COVID-19 vaccination are quickly rolling out, how to evaluate the vaccination effects and then make safe reopening plans has become a prime concern for local governments and school officials. Methods: : We develop a contact network agent-based model (CN-ABM) to simulate on-campus disease transmission scenarios at the micro-scale. The CN-ABM establishes a contact network for each agent based on their daily activity pattern, evaluates the agent's health status change in different activity environments, and then simulates the epidemic curve on campus. Based on the developed model, we identify how different community risk levels, teaching modalities, and vaccination rates would shape the epidemic curve. Results: : The results show that in scenarios where vaccination is not available, restricting on-campus students to under 50% can largely flatten the epi curve (peak value < 2%);and the best result (peak value < 1%) can be achieved by limiting on-campus students to less than 25%. In scenarios where vaccination is available, it is suggested to maintain a maximum of 75% on-campus students and a vaccination rate of at least 45% to suppress the curve (peak value < 2%);and the best result (peak value < 1%) can be achieved at a vaccination rate of 65%. The study also derives the transmission chain of infectious agents, which can be used to identify high-risk activity environments. Conclusions: : The developed CN-ABM model can be employed to evaluate the health outcome of COVID-19 outbreaks on campus based on different disease transmission scenarios. It can assist local government and school officials with developing proactive intervention strategies to safely reopen schools.

11.
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 42, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683981

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants have evolved a variety of critical mutations, leading to antigenicity changes and immune escape. The recent emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant attracted global attention due to its significant resistance to current antibody therapies and vaccines. Here, we profiled the mutations of Omicron and other various circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants in parallel by computational interface analysis and in vitro experimental assays. We identified critical mutations that lead to antigenicity changes and diminished neutralization efficiency of a panel of 14 antibodies due to diverse molecular mechanisms influencing the antigen-antibody interaction. Our study identified that Omicron exhibited extraordinary potency in immune escape compared to the other variants of concern, and explores the application of computational interface analysis in SARS-CoV-2 mutation surveillance and demonstrates its potential for the early identification of concerning variants, providing preliminary guidance for neutralizing antibody therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(10): 1175-1180, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1600033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the data of Chinese medicine prescriptions for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, with a view to further guide the clinical use of Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Forty-eight patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were treated by critical care team of Hebei Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Hebei Chest Hospital (Hebei Provincial COVID-19 designated hospital) from January 7 to March 4, 2021, were enrolled in this study. The patients' gender, age, clinical classification, past history, and all Chinese medicine prescriptions for the first visit and follow-up visits during the hospitalization were collected. A database was established based on the Ancient and Modern Medical Records Cloud Platform (V2.2.1), and the methods of frequency analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and complex network analysis were used to analyze the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine. RESULTS: Among the 48 patients with COVID-19, 20 were males and 28 were females; the average age was (62.4±13.7) years old. The patients' condition was generally severe, including 17 cases of common type, 25 cases of severe type, and 6 cases of critical type, most of whom were combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other basic illnesses. A total of 146 valid prescriptions were included, involving 59 prescriptions and 115 Chinese medicines. Frequency analysis of 146 prescriptions showed that the commonly used prescriptions for patients with COVID-19 were Qingfei Paidu decoction (30 times, 20.55%), Xuanbai Chengqi decoction (10 times, 6.85%), and Dayuan Yin (10 times, 6.85%). The common Chinese medicines were liquorice (80 times, 54.79%), tuckahoe (76 times, 52.05%), gypsum (70 times, 47.95%), bitter almond (70 times, 47.95%), ephedra (57 times, 39.04%), scutellaria (56 times, 38.36%), tangerine peel (53 times, 36.30%), patchouli (50 times, 34.25%), atractylodes macrocephala (50 times, 34.25%), and bupleurum (43 times, 29.45%). The main effects were clearing heat and detoxification (129 times), clearing heat-fire (129 times) and eliminating dampness and diuresis (110 times). The medicinal properties were mainly warm (509 times), flat (287 times), and cold (235 times). The medicinal tastes were mainly pungent (765 times), sweet (654 times), and bitter (626 times). The medicinal channel tropism were mainly lung (1 096 times), spleen (785 times), and stomach (687 times). The correlation analysis showed that there were 17 drug combinations in total, among which the top 3 drug pairs in support were bitter almond-gypsum (0.43), ephedra-bitter almond (0.38), tangerine peel-poria (0.36), and ephedra-gypsum (0.36). Cluster analysis showed that there were 3 groups of clustering formulas. The first group was ephedra, bitter almond, and gypsum. The second group was patchouli, tuckahoe, tangerine peel, and atractylodes macrocephala. The third group was scutellaria, licorice, immature orange fruit, oriental waterplantain rhizome, bupleurum, ginger, and cassia twig. The core drugs were composed of tuckahoe, bupleurum, tangerine peel, atractylodes macrocephala, patchouli, bitter almond, scutellaria, gypsum, ephedra, and licorice. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged and elderly patients with COVID-19 are accompanied by Qi deficiency and internal invasion of toxins, and the pathogenesis evolves rapidly. Damp and turbid toxins often block the lungs and trap the spleen, leading to disorder of Qi movement, and even invaginate Ying and Xue, drain Yin and Yang. The treatment is based on removing turbidity and detoxification, and replenishing Qi and nourishing Yin are the principle treatments, so that the evil is eliminated and the Qi is restored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Data Mining , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 773110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598277

ABSTRACT

Background: By February 2021, the overall impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South and Southeast Asia was relatively mild. Surprisingly, in early April 2021, the second wave significantly impacted the population and garnered widespread international attention. Methods: This study focused on the nine countries with the highest cumulative deaths from the disease as of August 17, 2021. We look at COVID-19 transmission dynamics in South and Southeast Asia using the reported death data, which fits a mathematical model with a time-varying transmission rate. Results: We estimated the transmission rate, infection fatality rate (IFR), infection attack rate (IAR), and the effects of vaccination in the nine countries in South and Southeast Asia. Our study suggested that the IAR is still low in most countries, and increased vaccination is required to prevent future waves. Conclusion: Implementing non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) could have helped South and Southeast Asia keep COVID-19 under control in 2020, as demonstrated in our estimated low-transmission rate. We believe that the emergence of the new Delta variant, social unrest, and migrant workers could have triggered the second wave of COVID-19.

15.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable and may experience high stress due to COVID-19, especially girls. This study aims to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In the initial phase of COVID-19 epidemic (February 23 to March 5, 2020), 2205 female college students from six provinces in mainland China were enrolled in this study and completed the online survey about the cognitive status of COVID-19, including the Impact of Event Scale-6, the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in female college students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that "COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak" (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of "risk of infection" (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that "closed management" and "COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern" would have an impact, and the fear of "impact on life planning" were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR = 1.37, 1.22, and 1.29, respectively); however, perceived social support from family (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR = 7.70, 95% CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among female college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge about COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial. Moreover, the joint efforts from family, school administrators, and policymakers are essential to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Oral Microbiol ; 13(1): 1853451, 2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575938

ABSTRACT

The oral cavity, as the entry point to the body, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection that has caused a global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available data indicate that the oral cavity may be an active site of infection and an important reservoir of SARS-CoV-2. Considering that the oral surfaces are colonized by a diverse microbial community, it is likely that viruses have interactions with the host microbiota. Patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 may have alterations in the oral and gut microbiota, while oral species have been found in the lung of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, interactions between the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes appear to occur dynamically whereby a dysbiotic oral microbial community could influence respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 infection can alter the local homeostasis of the resident microbiota, actively cause dysbiosis, or influence cross-body sites interactions. Here, we provide a conceptual framework on the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 oral infection on the local and distant microbiomes across the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts ('oral-tract axes'), which remains largely unexplored. Studies in this area could further elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and the course of infection as well as the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 across different sites in the human host.

17.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-293363

ABSTRACT

In this letter, we report a large-scale synchronized replacement pattern of the Alpha strain by the Delta strain. We argue that this phenomenon is associated with the invasion timing and transmissibility advantage of the Delta strain. Alpha strain skipped some countries/regions, e.g. India and neighboring countries/regions, which led to a mild first wave before the invasion of the Delta strain, in term of reported COVID-deaths per capita.

18.
Nat Methods ; 18(12): 1477-1488, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541247

ABSTRACT

Emergence of new viral agents is driven by evolution of interactions between viral proteins and host targets. For instance, increased infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV-1 arose in part through rapid evolution along the interface between the spike protein and its human receptor ACE2, leading to increased binding affinity. To facilitate broader exploration of how pathogen-host interactions might impact transmission and virulence in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we performed state-of-the-art interface prediction followed by molecular docking to construct a three-dimensional structural interactome between SARS-CoV-2 and human. We additionally carried out downstream meta-analyses to investigate enrichment of sequence divergence between SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 or human population variants along viral-human protein-interaction interfaces, predict changes in binding affinity by these mutations/variants and further prioritize drug repurposing candidates predicted to competitively bind human targets. We believe this resource ( http://3D-SARS2.yulab.org ) will aid in development and testing of informed hypotheses for SARS-CoV-2 etiology and treatments.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Attachment , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
19.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515465

ABSTRACT

In the face of the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine that can induce fast, effective, long-lasting and broad protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein vaccine candidate adjuvanted by PIKA, which can induce robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The results showed a high level of neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine was maintained for at least 400 days. In the study of non-human primates, PIKA adjuvanted S-trimer induced high SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers and protected from virus replication in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In addition, the long-term neutralizing antibody response induced by S-trimer vaccine adjuvanted by PIKA could neutralize multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and there is no obvious different among the SARS- CoV-2 variants of interest or concern, including B.1.351, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. These data support the utility of S-trimer protein adjuvanted by PIKA as a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43556-021-00054-z.

20.
Evol Psychol Sci ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509409

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise and raised many questions. One of the questions is whether infectious diseases indeed drive fast life history (LH) as the extent research suggests. This paper challenges this assumption and raises a different perspective. We argue that infectious diseases enact either slower or faster LH strategies and the related disease control behavior depending on disease severity. We tested and supported the theorization based on a sample of 662 adult residents drawn from all 32 provinces and administrative regions of mainland China. The findings help to broaden LH perspectives and to better understand unusual social phenomena arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.

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