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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e048323, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571199

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown mixed results that delirium may result in a high risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarise the evidence of prevalence, classification, risk factors and outcomes impact of delirium in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed in PubMed, EMBase, ISI Knowledge via Web of Science and preprint databases (MedRxiv and BioRxiv) (from inception until June 2021) to identify all cohort studies concerning delirium in adult patients with COVID-19. The primary outcome will be the prevalence of delirium with different classifications (hyperactive, hypoactive or mixed type). The secondary outcomes will include the association of risk factors and the association with all-cause mortality during hospitalisation. Univariable or multivariable meta-regression and subgroup analyses will be conducted for the study design and patient characteristics. Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of our results by removing each included study at one time to obtain and evaluate the remaining overall estimates of primary and secondary outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not an essential element for the systematic review protocol in accordance with the Institutional Review Board /Independent Ethics Committee of Beijing Hospital. This meta-analysis will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020224871.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/complications , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

3.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(8):837-844, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1524239

ABSTRACT

Foodborne and pet-borne Salmonella infectious diseases have become a major public health problem in the United States. By collecting the data and information of the epidemiological investigations of 153 Salmonella multistate foodborne disease (SMSFBD) outbreaks and 34 Salmonella multistate pet-borne disease (SMSPBD) outbreaks in the United States from 2006 to 2020, we analyzed the distribution of Salmonella serotypes, characteristics of disease burden, food attribution and the corresponding response outcomes, and descripted the trend of changes in food consumption of processed food among different groups in the United States at different social-economic development stages. We also observed that a series of lifestyle changes, such as passive reduction of food exposure risk caused by decreasing social activities and food procurement frequency and increased home stay time due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. New backyard poultry raising which was popular from 2018 might be potential cause of an outbreak of SMSPBD with the most extensive coverage, the largest number of cases and the most complex Salmonella serotype in the United States in 2020. The results showed that it is necessary to learn from the active surveillance strategies and experiences in the prevention and control of SMSFBD and SMSPBD outbreaks in developed countries to establish the tailored food and cultivation early warning system based on local epidemiological characteristics of the diseases, capacity of the diseases control and prevention, economic and social development level to response the rising challenges of new type salmonellosis.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, has caused over 216 million cases and 4.50 million deaths as of 30 August 2021. Vaccines can be regarded as one of the most powerful weapons to eliminate the pandemic, but the impact of vaccines on daily COVID-19 cases and deaths by country is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between vaccines and daily newly confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 in each country worldwide. METHODS: Daily data on firstly vaccinated people, fully vaccinated people, new cases and new deaths of COVID-19 were collected from 187 countries. First, we used a generalized additive model (GAM) to analyze the association between daily vaccinated people and daily new cases and deaths of COVID-19. Second, a random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the global pooled results. RESULTS: In total, 187 countries and regions were included in the study. During the study period, 1,011,918,763 doses of vaccine were administered, 540,623,907 people received at least one dose of vaccine, and 230,501,824 people received two doses. For the relationship between vaccination and daily increasing cases of COVID-19, the results showed that daily increasing cases of COVID-19 would be reduced by 24.43% [95% CI: 18.89, 29.59] and 7.50% [95% CI: 6.18, 8.80] with 10,000 fully vaccinated people per day and at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Daily increasing deaths of COVID-19 would be reduced by 13.32% [95% CI: 3.81, 21.89] and 2.02% [95% CI: 0.18, 4.16] with 10,000 fully vaccinated people per day and at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that vaccination can effectively reduce the new cases and deaths of COVID-19, but vaccines are not distributed fairly worldwide. There is an urgent need to accelerate the speed of vaccination and promote its fair distribution across countries.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291992

ABSTRACT

Federated learning is an emerging privacy-preserving AI technique where clients (i.e., organisations or devices) train models locally and formulate a global model based on the local model updates without transferring local data externally. However, federated learning systems struggle to achieve trustworthiness and embody responsible AI principles. In particular, federated learning systems face accountability and fairness challenges due to multi-stakeholder involvement and heterogeneity in client data distribution. To enhance the accountability and fairness of federated learning systems, we present a blockchain-based trustworthy federated learning architecture. We first design a smart contract-based data-model provenance registry to enable accountability. Additionally, we propose a weighted fair data sampler algorithm to enhance fairness in training data. We evaluate the proposed approach using a COVID-19 X-ray detection use case. The evaluation results show that the approach is feasible to enable accountability and improve fairness. The proposed algorithm can achieve better performance than the default federated learning setting in terms of the model's generalisation and accuracy.

6.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 30-47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501335

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To counter COVID-19 spreading, an infrastructure to provide rapid and thorough molecular diagnostics and serology testing is the cornerstone of outbreak and pandemic management. We hereby review the clinical insights with regard to using molecular tests and immunoassays in the context of COVID-19 management life cycle: the preventive phase, the preparedness phase, the response phase and the recovery phase. The spatial and temporal distribution of viral RNA, antigens and antibodies during human infection is summarized to provide a biological foundation for accurate detection of the disease. We shared the lessons learned and the obstacles encountered during real world high-volume screening programs. Clinical needs are discussed to identify existing technology gaps in these tests. Leverage technologies, such as engineered polymerases, isothermal amplification, and direct amplification from complex matrices may improve the productivity of current infrastructure, while emerging technologies like CRISPR diagnostics, visual end point detection, and PCR free methods for nucleic acid sensing may lead to at-home tests. The lessons learned, and innovations spurred from the COVID-19 pandemic could upgrade our global public health infrastructure to better combat potential outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Animals , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods
7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291644

ABSTRACT

Background: The Post Stroke Checklist has been proved to be feasible and useful in standardizing the process for long-term post-stroke care and we developed a Mandarin version of it (M-PSC). However, it is not capable of enforcing follow-up care after stroke and further optimization is needed. Methods: : Participants were consecutively recruited from 13 departments in a specialized hospital on the discharge date. The trained clinicians contacted them by telephone calls at six months since the most recent diagnosis. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to the participant whilst clinicians completed a satisfaction questionnaire and the Pragmatic Face and Content Validity Test (PRAC-Test). Then, a debriefing meeting was held to discuss potential problems of the M-PSC. Quantitative and qualitative data were both collected from April 2021 to May 2021. Results: : A total of 167 individuals consented to take part in the study.113 participants completed the assessment at six months and three were excluded due to missing data. The M-PSC identified a wide range of unmet needs related to stroke and at least one need was reported in 76.4% of participants. The average time taken to administer the M-PSC was 8 mins. Satisfaction ratings were high for participants (8.5/10) and clinicians (9.6/10). Totally 31 further screenings were conducted and 33 appropriate referrals were accomplished. Several areas for improvement were identified and revised. Conclusions: : The M-PSC is a feasible and useful measure in enforcing follow-up care and promising to be an approach in standardizing post-stroke follow-up practice in telehealth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460447

ABSTRACT

The WHO characterized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic. The influence of temperature on COVID-19 remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between temperature and daily newly confirmed COVID-19 cases by different climate regions and temperature levels worldwide. Daily data on average temperature (AT), maximum temperature (MAXT), minimum temperature (MINT), and new COVID-19 cases were collected from 153 countries and 31 provinces of mainland China. We used the spline function method to preliminarily explore the relationship between R0 and temperature. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the association between temperature and daily new cases of COVID-19, and a random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled results in different regions in the second stage. Our findings revealed that temperature was positively related to daily new cases at low temperature but negatively related to daily new cases at high temperature. When the temperature was below the smoothing plot peak, in the temperate zone or at a low temperature level (e.g., <25th percentiles), the RRs were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.15), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.23) associated with a 1°C increase in AT, respectively. Whereas temperature was above the smoothing plot peak, in a tropical zone or at a high temperature level (e.g., >75th percentiles), the RRs were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.93), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.83), and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.81) associated with a 1°C increase in AT, respectively. The results were confirmed to be similar regarding MINT, MAXT, and sensitivity analysis. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in different regions and temperature levels.

10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 738695, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417129

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning has been adopted in all stages of education. This sudden change from traditional learning to 100% online learning may affect students' learning effectiveness, especially in experimental courses. However, there has been little discussion of experimental courses conducted entirely through online learning. To address this gap, the present study investigated factors affecting high school students' online learning ineffectiveness (OLI) in online experimental courses, particularly online science experimental courses. The role of gender was also explored to understand whether it affects participants' OLI. An ANOVA was conducted to analyze the data from a survey of 347 online learners in high schools. The results indicated that the number of online experimental courses and the duration of online hands-on learning were negatively related to the high school students' OLI. Meanwhile, the study found that the high school participants' OLI differed by gender, with female students more likely than males to have OLI in the context of online learning. The results of this study can provide a reference for teachers who conduct online experimental courses and wish to improve their online teaching, not only during the COVID-19 lockdown, but also in other pandemic periods.

11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1074-1079, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405468

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public life in China is gradually returning to normal with strong measures in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) control. Because of the long-term effects of COVID-19, medical institutions had to make timely adjustments to control policies and priorities to balance between COVID-19 prevention and daily medical services. METHODOLOGY: The framework for infection prevention and control in the inpatient department was effectively organized at both hospital and department levels. A series of prevention and control strategies was implemented under this leadership: application of rigorous risk assessment and triage before admission through a query list; classifying patients into three risk levels and providing corresponding medical treatment and emergency handling; establishing new ward visiting criteria for visitors; designing procedures for PPE and stockpile management; executing specialized disinfection and medical waste policies. RESULTS: Till June 2020, the bed occupancy had recovered from 20.0% to 88.1%. In total, 13045 patients were received in our hospital, of which 54 and 127 patients were identified as high-risk and medium-risk, respectively, and 2 patients in the high-risk group were eventually laboratory-confirmed with COVID-19. No hospital-acquired infection of COVID-19 has been observed since the emergency appeared. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies ensured early detection and targeted prevention of COVID-19 following the COVID-19 pandemic, which improved the recovery of medical services after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/standards , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Assessment , Triage
12.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399059

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that play crucial roles in the microenvironment of injured tissues. The potential therapeutics of MSCs have attracted extensive attention for several diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. MSC-extracellular vesicles have been isolated from MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) with similar functional effects as parent MSCs. The therapeutic role of MSCs can be achieved through the balance between the inflammatory and regenerative microenvironments. Clinical settings of MSCs and their extracellular vesicles remain promising for many diseases, such as ARDS and pneumonia. However, their clinical applications remain limited due to the cost of growing and storage facilities of MSCs with a lack of standardized MSC-CM. This review highlights the proposed role of MSCs in pulmonary diseases and discusses the recent advances of MSC application for pneumonia and other lung disorders.

13.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(2): 151-157, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly across the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this a pandemic. COVID-19 can be transmitted from human to human and cause nosocomial infection that has brought great challenges to infection control in medical institutions. Due to the professional characteristics, the research hospital still received a large number of trauma emergency tasks during the outbreak. It is urgent to establish a graded prevention and control guidance of surgery. METHODS: Review the implementation of surgical grading control measures in this hospital during the epidemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: The surgical prevention measures based on patients with different risks included prescreening and preoperative risk assessment, preparation of operating room, medical staff protection and environmental disinfection measures, etc. From January 20 to March 5, 2020, a total of 4,720 operations had been performed in this hospital, of which 1,565 were emergency operations and 22 for medium-risk and high-risk patients who may have the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. And there is no medical staff exposed during the implementation of protective measures. CONCLUSIONS: Through the risk assessment of surgical patients and adopting surgical grading control measures, the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spread during the surgical process can be reduced greatly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Risk Management/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects
14.
Psychol Mark ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323899

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented crisis of COVID-19 posed severe negative consequences for consumers, marketers, and society at large. By investigating the effect of individuals' distance from the COVID-19 epicenter (i.e., the geographical area in which COVID-19 pandemic is currently most severe) on consumers' risk perception and subsequent behaviors, this research provides novel empirical findings that can offer practical insights for marketers. While intuitively, people expect individuals closer to the COVID-19 epicenter to generate a greater risk perception of the pandemic, empirical evidence from four studies provides consistent results for the opposite effect. We find that a closer (vs. farther) distance to the epicenter associates with lower (vs. higher) perceived risk of the pandemic, leading to less (vs. more) irrational consumption behaviors. We refer to this phenomenon as the "distance proximity effect," which holds for both physical and psychological distances. We further demonstrated that this effect is mediated by consumers' perception of uncertainty and moderated by individuals' risk aversion tendency. The current research contributes to the literature of consumers' risk perception and irrational consumption by highlighting a novel factor of distance proximity. It also offers some timely insights into managing and intervening COVID-19 related issues inside and outside an epicenter.

15.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hua Shi Bai Du Granule (Q-14) plus standard care compared with standard care alone in adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, February 27 to March 27, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomized into the treatment group and control group, consisting of 102 patients in each group. INTERVENTIONS: In the treatment group, Q-14 was administered at 10 g (granules) twice daily for 14 days, plus standard care. In the control group, patients were provided standard care alone for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was the conversion time for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral assay. Adverse events were analyzed in the safety population. RESULTS: Among the 204 patients, 195 were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 149 patients (71 vs. 78 in the treatment and control groups, respectively) tested negative via the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. There was no statistical significance in the conversion time between the treatment group and control group (Full analysis set: Median [interquartile range]: 10.00 [9.00-11.00] vs. 10.00 [9.00-11.00]; Mean rank: 67.92 vs. 81.44; P = 0.051). The recovery time for fever was shorter in the treatment group than in the control group. The disappearance rate of symptoms like cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort was significantly higher in the treatment group. In chest computed tomography (CT) examinations, the overall evaluation of chest CT examination after treatment compared with baseline showed that more patients improved in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in the other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The combination of Q-14 and standard care for COVID-19 was useful for the improvement of symptoms (such as fever, cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort), but did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion in the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. No serious adverse events were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000030288.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
16.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(11): e2021GL092770, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294437

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), China conducted a nationwide lockdown (LD) which significantly reduced anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the different impacts of COVID-19 on black carbon (BC) in the two representative regions in China, one-year continuous online measurements of BC were conducted simultaneously in Beijing and Tibet. The average concentration in the LD period was 20% higher than that in the pre-LD period in Beijing, which could be attributed to the increase of transport from southwestern neighboring areas and enhanced aged BC. In contrast to megacity, the average concentration of BC in Tibet decreased over 70% in the LD period, suggesting high sensitivity of plateau background areas to the anthropogenic emission reduction in South Asia. Our study clearly showed that BC responded very differently in megacity and background areas to the change of anthropogenic emission under the lockdown intervention.

17.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246001

ABSTRACT

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
J Biosaf Biosecur ; 3(1): 35-40, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240455

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The significance of asymptomatic or pre-asymptomatic individuals in driving the COVID-19 epidemic in China or other countries remains uncertain. Method: We collected and analyzed all the epidemiologic and virological diagnostic details of the infected individuals released by public health authorities and reiterated every episode of outbreak on a timeline. All individuals associated with the five outbreaks had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: In this study, all five COVID-19 outbreaks reported in China since October 2020 were analyzed. The Kashgar outbreak in Xinjiang province came into light for the first time on October 22, 2020. However, it was initiated before October 11, 2020, by a local asymptomatic import and export worker, who was infected at the working place. Subsequently, his wife caught the infection, which led to 430 more infections reported in the outbreak. The Beijing outbreak with 41 cases was noticed for the first time on December 22, 2020. However, our analysis revealed that it was initiated by an asymptomatic individual from Indonesia on December 10, 2020. The Shenyang outbreak, with 38 cases, noticed for the first time on December 23, 2020, was initiated by a pre-symptomatic individual from South Korea on December 13, 2020. Conclusion: The asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic individuals during the asymptomatic period were unsuspectingly infected by SARS-CoV-2, and unintentionally transmitted the virus to a large number of people. These findings suggest that early detection of asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic individuals is of critical importance in preventing future outbreaks or epidemics.

19.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(11): e2021GL092770, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223062

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), China conducted a nationwide lockdown (LD) which significantly reduced anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the different impacts of COVID-19 on black carbon (BC) in the two representative regions in China, one-year continuous online measurements of BC were conducted simultaneously in Beijing and Tibet. The average concentration in the LD period was 20% higher than that in the pre-LD period in Beijing, which could be attributed to the increase of transport from southwestern neighboring areas and enhanced aged BC. In contrast to megacity, the average concentration of BC in Tibet decreased over 70% in the LD period, suggesting high sensitivity of plateau background areas to the anthropogenic emission reduction in South Asia. Our study clearly showed that BC responded very differently in megacity and background areas to the change of anthropogenic emission under the lockdown intervention.

20.
Personality and Individual Differences ; : 110972, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1213462

ABSTRACT

Quantified self refers to the process consumers collect, analyze to reflect, control, and optimize their behaviors, thus obtaining self-knowledge. Since the COVID-19 pandemic has changed our lives dramatically, this research aims to explore how mortality salience caused by COVID-19 affects people's quantified self behavior. The current study used an online survey and the experimental method to test multiple research hypotheses. The results indicated that mortality salience has a positive impact on quantified self;perceived control mediates the relationship between mortality salience and the quantified self, and social distance plays a moderating role between mortality salience and perceived control. The conclusions provide a new way to help people deal with anxiety and fear brought by the COVID-19, and enhance public health and well-being.

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