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1.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 958-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482579

ABSTRACT

The longitudinal immunologic status of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients and its association with the clinical outcome are barely known. Thus, we sought to analyze the temporal profiles of specific antibodies, as well as the associations between the antibodies, proinflammatory cytokines, and survival of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 1830 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recruited. The temporal profiles of the virus, antibodies, and cytokines of the patients until 12 weeks since illness onset were fitted by the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing method. The mediation effect of cytokines on the associations between antibody responses and survival were explored by mediation analysis. Of the 1830 patients, 1435 were detectable for SARS-CoV-2, while 395 were positive in specific antibodies only. Of the 1435 patients, 2.4% presented seroconversion for neither immunoglobulin G (IgG) nor immunoglobulin M (IgM) during hospitalization. The seropositive rates of IgG and IgM were 29.6% and 48.1%, respectively, in the first week, and plateaued within five weeks. For the patients discharged from the hospital, the IgM decreased slowly, while high levels of IgG were maintained at around 188 AU·mL-1 for the 12 weeks since illness onset. In contrast, in the patients who subsequently died, IgM declined rapidly and IgG dropped to 87 AU·mL-1 at the twelfth week. Elevated interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were observed in the deceased patients in comparison with the discharged patients, and 12.5% of the association between IgG level and mortality risk was mediated by these cytokines. Our study deciphers the temporal profiles of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within the 12 weeks since illness onset and indicates the protective effect of antibody response on survival, which may help to guide prognosis estimation.

2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2667-2674, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319550

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly suggests using corticosteroids in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Similarly, a large randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) in the UK found that dexamethasone effectively reduced the mortality rate in severe COVID-19 patients. However, the safety profile of corticosteroids has been a controversial area of study. Case Description: A case of a COVID-19 patient is described and the clinical characteristics are observed as the mildly symptomatic patient progresses into a critically ill patient and during their dramatic improvement with corticosteroid therapy in the early stage of the deterioration process with COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusion: The most suitable timing and dosage for the use of corticosteroids to maximize its effect during the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia are discussed. One of the main pathophysiological hypotheses for severe COVID-19 patients is related to cytokine storm and virus load, which can be effectively treated with corticosteroid therapy.

3.
J Med Chem ; 64(15): 11554-11569, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316696

ABSTRACT

The development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine is of paramount importance to terminate the current pandemic. An adjuvant is crucial for improving the efficacy of the subunit COVID19 vaccine. α-Galactosylceramide (αGC) is a classical iNKT cell agonist which causes the rapid production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines; we, therefore, expect that the Th1- or Th2-skewing analogues of αGC can better enhance the immunogenicity of the receptor-binding domain in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 fused with the Fc region of human IgG (RBD-Fc). Herein, we developed a universal synthetic route to the Th1-biasing (α-C-GC) and Th2-biasing (OCH and C20:2) analogues. Immunization of mice demonstrated that αGC-adjuvanted RBD-Fc elicited a more potent humoral response than that observed with Alum and enabled the sparing of antigens. Remarkably, at a low dose of the RBD-Fc protein (2 µg), the Th2-biasing agonist C20:2 induced a significantly higher titer of the neutralizing antibody than that of Alum.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Galactosylceramides/pharmacology , Natural Killer T-Cells/drug effects , Animals , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells
4.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(6): 38, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the complex interaction between host and viral factors have allowed clinicians to stratify the severity of COVID-19 infection. Epidemiological data has also helped to model viral carriage and infectivity. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the mechanisms of action of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the correlation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors have emerged as a key player in the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2. Their distribution throughout the body has been shown to impact the organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19. The immune-evasive and subsequently immunoregulative properties of SARS-CoV-2 are also shown to be implicated in disease proliferation and progression. Information gleaned from the virological properties of SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with and reflects the clinical behavior of the COVID-19 infection. Further study of specific clinical phenotypes and severity classes of COVID-19 may assist in the development of targeted therapeutics to halt progression of disease from mild to moderate-severe. As the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanism of action of SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow, it is our hope that better and more effective treatment options continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immune Evasion , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
5.
Nano Today ; 40: 101243, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300951

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has become a global health emergency. Although enormous efforts have been made, there is still no effective treatment against the new virus. Herein, a TiO2 supported single-atom nanozyme containing atomically dispersed Ag atoms (Ag-TiO2 SAN) is designed to serve as a highly efficient antiviral nanomaterial. Compared with traditional nano-TiO2 and Ag, Ag-TiO2 SAN exhibits higher adsorption (99.65%) of SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus. This adsorption ability is due to the interaction between SAN and receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike 1 protein of SARS-CoV2. Theoretical calculation and experimental evidences indicate that the Ag atoms of SAN strongly bind to cysteine and asparagine, which are the most abundant amino acids on the surface of spike 1 RBD. After binding to the virus, the SAN/virus complex is typically phagocytosed by macrophages and colocalized with lysosomes. Interestingly, Ag-TiO2 SAN possesses high peroxidase-like activity responsible for reactive oxygen species production under acid conditions. The highly acidic microenvironment of lysosomes could favor oxygen reduction reaction process to eliminate the virus. With hACE2 transgenic mice, Ag-TiO2 SAN showed efficient anti-SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus activity. In conclusion, Ag-TiO2 SAN is a promising nanomaterial to achieve effective antiviral effects for SARS-CoV2.

6.
MedComm (Beijing) ; 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287380

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants has posed a serious global public health emergency. Therapeutic interventions or vaccines are urgently needed to treat and prevent the further dissemination of this contagious virus. This study described the identification of neutralizing receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies from mice through vaccination with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD. RBD-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with distinct function and epitope recognition were selected to understand SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. High-affinity RBD-specific antibodies exhibited high potency in neutralizing both live and pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 viruses and the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle containing the spike protein S-RBDV367F mutant (SARS-CoV-2(V367F)). These results demonstrated that these antibodies recognize four distinct groups (I-IV) of epitopes on the RBD and that mAbs targeting group I epitope can be used in combination with mAbs recognizing groups II and/or IV epitope to make mAb cocktails against SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants. Moreover, structural characterization reveals that groups I, III, and IV epitopes are closely located to an RBD hotspot. The identification of RBD-specific antibodies and cocktails may provide an effective therapeutic and prophylactic intervention against SARS-CoV-2 and its isolates.

7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 58, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a massive impact on public health, resulting in sudden dietary and behavioral habit changes. Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. They must face high-risk infection conditions, insufficient anti-epidemic material supplies, mental pressure, and so on. COVID-19 seriously affects their dietary and behavioral habits, and poor habits make them more susceptible to COVID-19. However, their baseline dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of COVID-19 remain unclear for these workers in China. This study aimed to explore the baseline dietary and behavioral habits of frontline workers and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of the epidemic; in addition, susceptible subgroups were identified by stratified analyses as targets of protective measures to keep them from being infected with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a sample of 22,459 valid individuals living in China, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers. RESULTS: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of the frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% of them reported a high frequency of fried foods intake, and 50.9% of them smoked cigarettes. After the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% of them expressed a willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% of them wanted to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetables intake. A total of 37.9% of them expressed a willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% of them wanted to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline dietary and behavioral habits and the willingness to change their habits were observed between frontline epidemic prevention workers and other participants. Among the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19, frontline epidemic prevention experience was a promoting factor for adopting worse dietary and behavioral habits, including those in the high-salt intake subgroup (OR, 2.824; 95% CI, 2.341-3.405) and the 11-20 cigarettes/day subgroup (OR, 2.067; 95% CI, 1.359-3.143). CONCLUSIONS: The dietary and behavioral habits of frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than that those of other participants before COVID-19. They had a greater willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavioral habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. However, frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 continued in engage in these poor habits. Dietary and behavioral intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor habits at baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet/standards , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929280, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19- related factors, the needs of school support, including material, psychological and information support, have seldom been discussed as factors influencing anxiety and depression among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 3351 college students from China were surveyed through questionnaires about their sociodemographic and COVID-19 characteristics, the needs of school support, and their experiences with anxiety and depression. RESULTS Anxiety and depression were reported by 6.88% and 10.50% of students, respectively. Married, higher education, non-medical, and urban students had significantly higher risks of anxiety or depression. Additionally, symptoms such as cough and fever, especially when following a possible contact with suspected individuals, quarantine history of a personal contact, going out 1-3 times a week, not wearing a mask, and spending 2-3 hours browsing COVID-19-related information were significantly associated with the occurrence of anxiety or depression. Those who used methods to regulate their emotional state, used a psychological hotline, and who had visited a psychiatrist showed higher anxiety or depression. Those who used online curricula and books, used preventive methods for COVID-19, and who had real-time information about the epidemic situation of the school showed lower anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19-related aspects, students' needs for psychological assistance and information from schools were also associated with anxiety and depression among college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Schools/organization & administration , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Female , Financial Support , Health Education/organization & administration , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Hotlines/organization & administration , Hotlines/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Information Dissemination , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Psychosocial Support Systems , Schools/economics , Schools/standards , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Allergy ; 76(2): 483-496, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of chronic airway diseases on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are far from understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity on disease expression and outcomes, and the potential underlying mechanisms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 961 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a definite clinical outcome (death or discharge) were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical records. Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with various cytokines. RESULTS: In this cohort, 21 subjects (2.2%) had COPD and 22 (2.3%) had asthma. After adjusting for confounding factors, COPD patients had higher risk of developing severe illness (OR: 23.433; 95% CI 1.525-360.135; P < .01) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 19.762; 95% CI 1.461-267.369; P = .025) than asthmatics. COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics. COPD patients had increased, whereas asthmatics had decreased ACE2 protein expression in lower airways, compared with that in control subjects without asthma and COPD. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated, but TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION: Patients with asthma and COPD likely have different risk of severe COVID-19, which may be associated with different ACE2 expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 835-853, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injury is common and also can be fatal, particularly in severe or critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To conduct an in-depth investigation into the risk factors for liver injury and into the effective measures to prevent subsequent mortality risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 440 consecutive patients with relatively severe COVID-19 between January 28 and March 9, 2020 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and prognosis were collected. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated liver injury more frequently occurred in patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities, decreased lymphocyte count, or elevated D-dimer or serum ferritin (P < 0.05). The disease severity of COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for liver injury (severe patients: Odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-4.59; critical patients: OR = 13.44, 95%CI: 7.21-25.97). The elevated levels of on-admission aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin indicated an increased mortality risk (P < 0.001). Using intravenous nutrition or antibiotics increased the risk of COVID-19-associated liver injury. Hepatoprotective drugs tended to be of assistance to treat the liver injury and improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19-associated liver injury. CONCLUSION: More intensive monitoring of aspartate aminotransferase or total bilirubin is recommended for COVID-19 patients, especially patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities. Drug hepatotoxicity of antibiotics and intravenous nutrition should be alert for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
11.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(2): e1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084626

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to gain an understanding of the paradox of the immunity in COVID-19 patients with T cells showing both functional defects and hyperactivation and enhanced proliferation. Methods: A total of 280 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for cytokine profiles and clinical features including viral shedding. A mouse model of acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was applied to dissect the relationship between immunological, virological and pathological features. The results from the mouse model were validated by published data set of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients. Results: The levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than non-severe cases, but only sCD25 was identified as an independent risk factor for disease severity by multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and showed a positive association with the duration of viral shedding. In agreement with the clinical observation, LCMV-infected mice with high levels of sCD25 demonstrated insufficient anti-viral response and delayed viral clearance. The elevation of sCD25 in mice was mainly contributed by the expansion of CD25+CD8+ T cells that also expressed the highest level of PD-1 with pro-inflammatory potential. The counterpart human CD25+PD-1+ T cells were expanded in BALF of COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with modest disease. Conclusion: These results suggest that high levels of sCD25 in COVID-19 patients probably result from insufficient anti-viral immunity and indicate an expansion of pro-inflammatory T cells that contribute to disease severity.

12.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 14-23, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084049

ABSTRACT

Last December 2019, a cluster of viral pneumonia cases identified as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to explore the frequencies of nasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19, including loss of smell and taste, as well as their presentation as the first symptom of the disease and their association with the severity of COVID-19. In this retrospective study, 1206 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and followed up by telephone one month after discharged from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Demographic data, laboratory values, comorbidities, symptoms, and numerical rating scale scores (0-10) of nasal symptoms were extracted from the hospital medical records, and confirmed or reevaluated by the telephone follow-up. From patients (n=1172) completing follow-up, 199 (17%) subjects had severe COVID-19 and 342 (29.2%) reported nasal symptoms. 20.6% COVID-19 patients had loss of taste (median score=6), while 11.4% had loss of smell (median score=5). Loss of taste scores, but not loss of smell scores, were significantly increased in severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin (IL)-6 and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels were positively correlated with loss of taste scores. About 80% of COVID-19 patients recovered from smell and taste dysfunction in 2 weeks. In this cohort, only 1 out of 10 hospital admitted patients had loss of smell while 1 out of 5 reported loss of taste which was associated to severity of COVID-19. Most patients recovered smell and taste dysfunctions in 2 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/blood
13.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(2): 6, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemosensory dysfunction in the patients with COVID-19 has been reported frequently in the studies from different regions of the world. However, the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders presents significant ethnic and geographic variability. In addition, the pathogenesis of chemosensory dysfunction remains unclarified. RECENT FINDINGS: This is a narrative review on the recent state of the prevalence, mechanism, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients during the global pandemic. The chemosensory dysfunction was analysis based on recent studies, which either used questionnaires, Likert scales (0-10), or smell tests to estimate the smell and taste dysfunction. The ethnic and geographic difference of the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders and the potential underlying mechanisms have been discussed. Several suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients with smell and taste disorders were summarized for the physicians. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current studies regarding the chemosensory dysfunction during the COVID-19 worldwide outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , Demography , Ethnic Groups , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 3, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy, as an aerosol-generating procedure, is considered as a high-risk surgery for health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Current recommendations are to perform tracheostomy after a period of intubation of > 14 days, with two consecutive negative throat swab tests, to lower the risk of contamination to HCWs. However, specific data for this recommendation are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate viral shedding into the environment, including HCWs, associated with bedside tracheostomy in the intensive care unit. METHODS: Samples obtained from the medical environment immediately after tracheostomy, including those from 19 surfaces, two air samples at 10 and 50 cm from the surgical site, and from the personal protective equipment (PPE) of the surgeon and assistant, were tested for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in eight cases of bedside tracheostomy. We evaluated the rate of positive tests from the different samples obtained. RESULTS: Positive samples were identified in only one of the eight cases. These were obtained for the air sample at 10 cm and from the bed handrail and urine bag. There were no positive test results from the PPE samples. The patient with positive samples had undergone early tracheostomy, at 9 days after intubation, due to a comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results indicate that delayed tracheostomy, after an extended period of endotracheal intubation, might be a considerably less contagious procedure than early tracheostomy (defined as < 14 days after intubation).


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Equipment Contamination , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tracheostomy , Virus Shedding , Aerosols , Aged , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 20968-20981, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914883

ABSTRACT

To investigate the associations between subjective perception of impacts and willingness to change dietary habits in China after experiencing the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an online questionnaire survey was carried out and 22,459 respondents in mainland China participated in the study, with an average age of 27.9±7.8 years old. Of them, 84.5% self-reported epidemic concern (middle or above), and 60.2%, 66.3% and 66.8% self-reported impact (middle or above) on psychology, life, work respectively. 31.9%, 46.0% and 41.0% of respondents reported their willingness to reduce their dietary intakes of salt, fried foods, and sugary foods, respectively. The stratified analysis of multinomial logistic regression models showed that, respondents with higher psychological impact were more likely to increase their dietary intake of salt, fried foods, sugary foods. Except as aforesaid, most respondents with higher epidemic concerns and higher impacts on psychology, life, work were more likely to reduce eating salt, fried foods, sugary foods. After the epidemic, early stage of positive improvement to a proper diet was observed, whereas the opposite tendency was also found in some respondents with higher impact on psychology. Thus, there is an urgent need for health care and lifestyle intervention policies for different subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Diet, Healthy , Disease Outbreaks , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Structure ; 28(11): 1218-1224.e4, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872505

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted from the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019. Currently, multiple efforts are being made to rapidly develop vaccines and treatments to fight COVID-19. Current vaccine candidates use inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses; therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of inactivated SARS-CoV-2. We have genetically and structurally characterized ß-propiolactone-inactivated viruses from a propagated and purified clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are found, most spikes appear nail shaped, thus resembling a postfusion state, where the S1 protein of the spike has disassociated from S2. Cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map that closely matches the overall structure of the SARS-CoV postfusion spike and its corresponding glycosylation site. Our findings have major implications for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, especially those using inactivated viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Propiolactone/pharmacology , Virion/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Electron Microscope Tomography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virion/ultrastructure
17.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 359-363, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-860953

ABSTRACT

@#Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak has occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and the epidemic situation has continued to spread. Such cases have also been found in other parts of the country. The spread of the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic has brought great challenges to the clinical practice of thoracic surgery. Outpatient clinics need to strengthen the differential diagnosis of ground glass opacity and pulmonary plaque shadows. During the epidemic, surgical indications are strictly controlled, and selective surgery is postponed. Patients planning to undergo a limited period of surgery should be quarantined for 2 weeks and have a nucleic acid test when necessary before surgery. For patients who are planning to undergo emergency surgery, nucleic acid testing should be carried out before surgery, and three-level protection should be performed during surgery. Patients who are planning to undergo emergency surgery in the epidemic area should be confirmed with or without novel coronavirus pneumonia before operation, and perform nucleic acid test if necessary. Surgical disinfection and isolation measures should be strictly carried out. Among postoperative patients, cases with new coronavirus infection were actively investigated. For the rescue of patients with novel coronavirus infection, attention needs to be paid to prevention and treatment and related complications, including mechanical ventilation-related pneumothorax or mediastinal emphysema, and injury after tracheal intubation.

19.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-861

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and has been widely reported;however, a comprehensive systemic review and meta-analysis ha

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