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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 114, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peripartum depression in and after pregnancy are common, reported by 11.9% of women worldwide, and the proportion was even higher during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of peripartum depression under the influence of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 2026 pregnant and postpartum women residing in Beijing, Wuhan, and Lanzhou of China were recruited from February 28 to April 9, 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess their depressive symptoms. The women were divided into four subgroups based on pregnancy stage, and a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted on each subgroup. RESULTS: Under the influence of COVID-19, the prevalence rate of peripartum depression among Chinese women was 9.7%. It was 13.6, 10.8, 7.9 and 7.3% in the first, second, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the influence of current pregnancy status on movement (Mild vs. No, aORs were 3.89, P < 0.001, 2.92, P = 0.003, 1.58, P = 0.150 in the three trimesters, respectively; Severe vs. No, aORs were 13.00, 20.45, 5.38 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05), and worries and fears about childbirth (aORs were 2.46, 2.96, 2.50 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05) were associated with depression throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of peripartum depression during the COVID-19 outbreak in China was not higher than usual. The influence of current pregnancy status on movement, as well as worries and fears about childbirth were independent risk factors for peripartum depression throughout pregnancy during COVID-19. The stage of pregnancy should be considered when implementing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Peripartum Period/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Patient Health Questionnaire , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China implemented a home quarantine policy in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, college students stayed at home for a long time, facing their parents and being directly exposed to family affairs every day. Thus, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and home quarantine on college students' experience of family harmony are worth discussing. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to explore whether there was any difference in college students' experience of family harmony before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Participants in this study were undergraduates from a university in Tianjin. They completed the college students' experience of family harmony questionnaire (CSEFHQ) before and after the COVID-19 outbreak (December 2019 and March 2020). A total of 215 participants (96 men and 119 women) completed the whole test. RESULTS: The paired sample t-tests showed that the scores on seven dimensions of CSEFHQ: getting along (t = 5.116, p < 0.001), conflict (t = 6.442, p < 0.001), sharing (t = 5.414, p < 0.001), self-isolation (t = 3.014, p < 0.01), help-seeking (t = 5.353, p < 0.001), avoidance (t = 6.010, p < 0.001), support-providing (t = 5.818, p < 0.001), and the total scores of CSEFHQ (t = 6.496, p < 0.001) were all significantly reduced after the COVID-19 outbreak, while the scores on the other two dimensions, undertaking housework (t = 1.379) and indifference (t = 1.765), did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The college students' experience of family harmony was significantly worse after the COVID-19 outbreak. These results can be used to improve the level of family harmony of college students during the pandemic and improve their quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Students
3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(10):6265, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857903

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented a home quarantine policy in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, college students stayed at home for a long time, facing their parents and being directly exposed to family affairs every day. Thus, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and home quarantine on college students' experience of family harmony are worth discussing. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to explore whether there was any difference in college students' experience of family harmony before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Participants in this study were undergraduates from a university in Tianjin. They completed the college students' experience of family harmony questionnaire (CSEFHQ) before and after the COVID-19 outbreak (December 2019 and March 2020). A total of 215 participants (96 men and 119 women) completed the whole test. Results: The paired sample t-tests showed that the scores on seven dimensions of CSEFHQ: getting along (t = 5.116, p < 0.001), conflict (t = 6.442, p < 0.001), sharing (t = 5.414, p < 0.001), self-isolation (t = 3.014, p < 0.01), help-seeking (t = 5.353, p < 0.001), avoidance (t = 6.010, p < 0.001), support-providing (t = 5.818, p < 0.001), and the total scores of CSEFHQ (t = 6.496, p < 0.001) were all significantly reduced after the COVID-19 outbreak, while the scores on the other two dimensions, undertaking housework (t = 1.379) and indifference (t = 1.765), did not change significantly. Conclusions: The college students' experience of family harmony was significantly worse after the COVID-19 outbreak. These results can be used to improve the level of family harmony of college students during the pandemic and improve their quality of life.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 863698, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809601

ABSTRACT

Objective: As COVID-19 persists around the world, it is necessary to explore the long-term mental health effects in COVID-19 survivors. In this study, we investigated the mental health outcomes of survivors of COVID-19 at 6 and 12 months postdiagnosis. Methods: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist for the DSM-5, PCL-5), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, GAD-7), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC-10), perceived social support (PSSS), personality traits (Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory-15, CBF-PI-15), and sociodemographic information were examined among 511 survivors of COVID-19 (48.1%, females; M age = 56.23 years at first assessment) at 6 and 12 months postdiagnosis. The data were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank tests and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis was 13.31% and 6.26%; 20.35% and 11.94%; and 13.11% and 6.07%, respectively. The risk factors for all symptoms were as follows: higher neuroticism; lower openness, extraversion, agreeableness, and resilience; greater life disruptions due to COVID-19; poorer living standards; and increased symptoms of PTSD or depression at 6 months postdiagnosis. Conclusion: The mental health of COVID-19 survivors improved between 6 and 12 months postdiagnosis. Mental health workers should pay long-term attention to this group, especially to survivors with risk factors.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329886

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was the first pandemic to occur in a fully globalized society. The aims of the study were to explore the state of problematic smartphone use (PSU) and its risk factors during this incident. The problematic smartphone usage, impact of news reports, depression, and anxiety of a total of 77,211 college students were surveyed online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results The data were analyzed with latent profile analysis (LPA), chi-square test, ANOVA and multiple logistic regression. We found the most support for a three-class model of subgroups. The results of multiple logistic regression show that college students who were female and younger college who experienced positive or negative impact from news reports, and reported higher depression or anxiety scores were more likely to be included in the moderate- or high-risk PSU group than in the low-risk group. However, the positive impact of news coverage was insignificant when the high-risk group was compared with the moderate-risk group. Conclusions These findings provide insights that may help foster and develop appropriate and effective solutions to prevent PSU among college students (young adults), such as paying more attention to girls and individuals with high levels of anxiety and depression in crisis events and providing more positive news coverage during crises.

7.
Psychology in Russia: State of the Art ; 13(4):183-190, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1726802

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has threatened both the physical health of individuals who contracted the virus, and the mental health of everyone directly or indirectly associated with or concerned about it. Objective: As telecommunication technologies and online mental health apps become more available and affordable, they allow behavioral and mental health professionals to provide quality care by handling problems arising from the COVID-19 outbreak virtually. The aim of the current article is to summarize the online psychological assistance supported by the Chinese government during the epidemic. Design: Several measures, policies, action plans, and programs that have been underway in China during the COVID-19 outbreak epidemic are listed to provide guidance for mental health intervention practices around the world. Results: A total of seven types of mental health services and supports developed in China were listed and introduced: 1) online psychological assistance;2) online psychological self-assessment and self-help;3) a "Peace of Mind" self-help counseling camp;4) a "Peace of Mind" self-help training camp;5) mental health training and lectures;6) psychological assistance to Hubei;and 7) collaboration with social workers in "Thousands of Institutions Send Peace of Mind." Moreover, several areas for the organization and management of psychological intervention activities in the future were identified. Conclusion: Mental health interventions helped people cope with their mental health concerns during the outbreak of COVID-19. They could facilitate the development of Chinese public emergency interventions, and eventually improve the quality and effectiveness of emergency interventions in China. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 701629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502334

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the prevalence of comorbid anxiety and depression (CAD) and analyze the relationship between CAD and sociodemographic and obstetric-related variables in pregnant and postpartum Chinese women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Participants were 2,237 pregnant and postpartum women (aged 19-47 years) who visited various medical institutions in China between February 28, 2020, and April 26, 2020. They were asked to complete an online survey assessing the anxiety and depression, obstetric characteristics, and sociodemographic variables. The women were grouped into the following categories in accordance with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9): (a) CAD, (b) "anxiety only," (c) "depression only," and (d) "no depression or anxiety." After estimating the prevalence of CAD, "anxiety only," and "depression only," we carried out chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the related factors between these groups of pregnant and postpartum Chinese women. Results: Comorbid anxiety and depression, "anxiety only," and "depression only," occurred in 6.3, 5.8, and 3.9% of participants, respectively. The prevalence rates of CAD during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period were found to be 7.4, 6.5, 5.7, and 8.2%, respectively. The factors that differed among the groups were age (p < 0.05), marital status (p < 0.001), level of education (p < 0.05), family support (p < 0.001), and total live births (p < 0.001). "Poor family support" (odds ratio (OR): 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.78; p = 0.0009) and "no birth" (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.32-2.75; p = 0.0006) remained significant factors for the CAD group, while "poor family support" (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.34-3.47; p = 0.0015) remained a significant factor for the "depression only" group when their results were compared to those of the "no depression or anxiety" group in the multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Pregnant and postpartum Chinese women with poor family support and primipara are at high risk for CAD during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results support the need for targeted perinatal programs to address CAD in pregnant and postpartum women during the pandemic period.

9.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 2539-2547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359123

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an adverse impact on the emotional health of prenatal maternal women and their offspring. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pregnant women are vulnerable to traumatic events and are prone to PTSD symptoms. The aim of the study was to explore the predictive effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD in pregnant women by utilizing generalized additive model (GAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1638 pregnant women from three local cities in China underwent online survey on sleep quality, somatization, and PTSD symptoms tested by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the subscale somatization of Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-S) and the Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), respectively. RESULTS: Insomnia was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms in pregnant women (p = 1.79×10-5). Interestingly, insomnia and somatization showed a complex non-primary linear interaction in predicting PTSD (p = 2.00×10-16). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that insomnia is a prominent predictor of PTSD symptoms in pregnant women in the context of public emergencies. In addition, the effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD symptoms are characterized by complex non-primary linear relationships.

10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 696132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348549

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a major threat to pregnant women's mental health. This study aimed to characterize the patterns of perceived stress in pregnant Chinese women during the COVID-19 pandemic, to examine the profile differences on anxiety and resilience, and to investigate whether the differences in these profiles on anxiety were mediated by resilience. Methods: From February 28, 2020 to April 26, 2020, a sample of 2,116 pregnant Chinese women who participated in online crisis interventions completed an online self-reporting questionnaire assessing their demographic characteristics, perceived stress, resilience, and anxiety. Results: Latent profile analysis (LPA) on two stress dimensions [perceived helplessness (HEL) and perceived self-efficacy (SEL)] indicated four perceived stress profiles: adaptive (33.7% of the sample), resistant (44.6%), insensitive (19.1%), and sensitive (2.6%). The women with both adaptive and insensitive profiles had the lowest levels of anxiety, whereas those with the resistant profile had the lowest levels of resilience. Multicategorical mediation analysis showed that resilience partially mediated the differences in the pregnant women's anxiety between the adaptive/insensitive and resistant profile. Conclusion: This study showed the heterogeneity in the perceived stress patterns of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, revealing the internal mechanisms of pregnant women's anxiety using a person-centered approach, and provided initial evidence guiding the development of differentiated stress interventions to alleviate pregnant women's anxiety during the pandemic.

11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 633433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 15% of Chinese respondents reported somatic symptoms in the last week of January 2020. Promoting resilience is a possible target in crisis intervention that can alleviate somatization. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between resilience and somatization, as well as the underlying possible mediating and moderating mechanism, in a large sample of Chinese participants receiving a crisis intervention during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Participants were invited online to complete demographic information and questionnaires. The Symptom Checklist-90 somatization subscale, 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and 10-item Perceived Stress Scale were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2,557 participants were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that lower resilience was associated with more somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). The conditional process model was proved (indirect effect = -0.01, 95% confidence interval = [-0.015, -0.002]). The interaction effects between perceived stress and sex predicted somatization (b = 0.05, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Resilience is a key predictor of somatization. The mediating effects of perceived stress between resilience and somatization work in the context of sex difference. Sex-specific intervention by enhancing resilience is of implication for alleviating somatization during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic.

13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 633765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231387

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous systematic review indicated the prevalence of prenatal anxiety as 14-54%. Pregnant women are a high-risk population for COVID-19. However, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and related factors is unknown in Chinese pregnant women during COVID-19 outbreak. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and the related factors in Chinese pregnant women who were attending crisis intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected in about 2 months (February 28 to April 26, 2020). Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Participants completed a set of questionnaires via the Wechat Mini-program before starting the online self-help crisis intervention for COVID-19 epidemic. A total of 2,120 Chinese pregnant women who were attending a self-help crisis intervention participated in this study. A survey was developed to address possible stress-related factors in pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak, including demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy-related factors, as well as COVID-19 related factors. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale and the 10-item perceived stress scale were, respectively, employed to measure anxiety and stress-related factors. Results: A total of 21.7% (459) of pregnant women reported at least mild anxiety (≥5 on the GAD-7 scale), and only 82 women reported moderate to severe anxiety (≥10 on the GAD-7 scale). Factors associated with at least mild anxiety included living in Hubei province (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.32-2.13), nobody providing everyday life support (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.18-2.77), pelvic pain or vaginal bleeding (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.32-2.09), and higher perceived stress (OR = 6.87, 95% CI = 5.42-9.02). Having relatives or neighbors with a diagnosis of COVID-19 was not associated with anxiety (p > 0.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings indicate that evaluation and intervention for maternal and infant health are necessary in pregnant women with anxiety during COVID-19 epidemic, especially those with higher perceived stress, less everyday life support, or vaginal bleeding. Interactions among these related medical, social and psychological factors need to be investigated in future studies.

14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(8): 1477-1485, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has made people more prone to depression, anxiety and insomnia, and females are at a high risk of developing these conditions. As a special group, pregnant and lying-in women must pay close attention to their physical and mental health, as both have consequences for the mother and the fetus. However, knowledge regarding the status of depression, anxiety and insomnia among these women is limited. AIM: This study aimed to examine insomnia and psychological factors among pregnant and lying-in women during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide theoretical support for intervention research. METHODS: In total, 2235 pregnant and lying-in women from 12 provinces in China were surveyed; their average age was 30.25 years (SD = 3.99, range = 19-47 years). PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The participants completed electronic questionnaires designed to collect demographic information and assess levels of depression, anxiety and insomnia. RESULTS: The prevalence of insomnia in the sample was 18.9%. Depression and anxiety were significant predictors of insomnia. Participants in high-risk areas, those with a disease history, those with economic losses due to the outbreak, and those in the postpartum period had significantly higher insomnia scores. DISCUSSION: The incidence of insomnia among pregnant and lying-in women is not serious in the context of the epidemic, which may be related to the sociocultural background and current epidemic situation in China. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety are more indicative of insomnia than demographic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 616369, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The large-scale epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered unprecedented physical and psychological stress on health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of burnout syndrome, and the relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. METHODS: A total of 606 frontline medical staff were recruited from 133 cities in China using a cross-sectional survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess the level of burnout. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, 36.5% of the medical staff experienced burnout. Personal and work-related factors were independently associated with burnout, including age (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89, p = 0.004), family income (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.99, p = 0.045), having physical diseases (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.42-3.28, p < 0.001), daily working hours (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.03-1.77, p = 0.033), and profession of nurse (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.12-4.10, p = 0.022). The correlation coefficients between the scores of each burnout subscale and the scores of depressive symptoms were 0.57 for emotional exhaustion, 0.37 for cynicism, and -0.41 for professional efficacy (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevalence rate of burnout is extremely high among medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is associated with other psychological disorders, such as depression. Psychological intervention for medical staff is urgently needed. Young and less experienced medical staff, especially nurses, should receive more attention when providing psychological assistance.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 80, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 5 million people around the world and killed more than 300,000 people; thus, it has become a global public health emergency. Our objective was to investigate the mental health of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Trauma Exposure Scale, abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Demographic Questionnaire were used to examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, trauma exposure, resilience and perceived social support among 898 patients who were hospitalized after being diagnosed with COVID-19 in China. The data were analyzed with t tests, one-way ANOVA and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the prevalence of PTSD, depression and anxiety was 13.2, 21.0 and 16.4%, respectively. Hospitalized patients who were more impacted by negative news reports, had greater exposure to traumatic experiences, and had lower levels of perceived social support reported higher PTSD, depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Effective professional mental health services should be designed to support the psychological wellbeing of hospitalized patients, especially those who have severe disease, are strongly affected by negative news and have high levels of exposure to trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
17.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 836-839, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002676

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has become a global public health event. Medical staff around the world are nervously responding to the crisis, and their mental health problems deserve attention. To better know the differences in the mental health status between frontier-line and non-frontier-line medical staff. This study used the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to examine the PTSD, depression, anxiety and resilience among 162 frontier-line medical workers and 163 non-frontier-line medical workers in China. The results showed that all negative factor scores of non-frontier-line medical staff seemed to be worse than those of frontier-line medical staff, and the positive factor scores were the opposite through descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test and Chi-square test. Some psychological effects and theories were used to explain this phenomenon. Intervention suggestions for medical staff and future research directions were discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Medical Staff , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 319, 2020 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779972

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16-0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnant Women/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Somatoform Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Somatoform Disorders/diagnosis , Somatoform Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, China has been affected by a severe outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Frontline medical workers experienced difficulty due to the high risk of being infected and long and distressing work shifts. The current study aims to evaluate psychological symptoms in frontline medical workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China and to perform a comparison with the general population. METHODS: An online survey was conducted from 14 February 2020 to 29 March 2020. A total of 899 frontline medical workers and 1104 respondents in the general population participated. Depression, anxiety, insomnia, and resilience were assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and abbreviated Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 30.43%, 20.29%, and 14.49% of frontline medical workers in Hubei Province and 23.13%, 13.14%, and 10.64% of frontline medical workers in other regions reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. In addition, 23.33%, 16.67%, and 6.67% of the general population in Hubei Province and 18.25%, 9.22%, and 7.17% of the general population in other regions reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. The resilience of frontline medical staff outside Hubei Province was higher than that of the general population outside Hubei Province. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of frontline medical workers and the general public experienced psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychological services for frontline medical workers and the general public are needed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 510-514, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To our best knowledge, this was the first time to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of psychological disturbances, including depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia and suicide, among frontline medical staff, who were working with the COVID-10 infected patients directly. METHODS: Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire scale (GAD-7), Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) somatization, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the suicidal module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used for online survey. RESULTS: A total of 606 frontline hospital staff and1099 general population were recruited. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia, and suicide risk in frontline medical staffs were 57.6%, 45.4%, 12.0%, 32.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Except for suicide risk, the prevalence of other psychological disorders in frontline medical staff were higher than those in general population (all p<0.01). Among the frontline medical staff, the daily working hours were associated with all psychological disturbance (all p<0.01), women with anxiety (p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) with anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.02, p = 0.03). Age was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and insomnia (all p<0.01). Finally, years of working and family income were negatively associated with suicide risk (p = 0.03, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that during the outbreak of COVID-19, the frontline medical staff are more likely to suffer from psychological disturbances than general population. It is noticeable that daily working hours are a risk factor for all measured psychological disturbances, and some other variables may be involved in certain psychological disturbances of frontline medical staff.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Somatoform Disorders/epidemiology , Workload , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Income , Male , Mental Health , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Somatoform Disorders/psychology , Suicide , Young Adult
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