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1.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901005

ABSTRACT

Recessive or dominant inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated adults. The risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated children, which is much lower than in unvaccinated adults, remains unexplained. In an international cohort of 112 children (<16 yr old) hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, we report 12 children (10.7%) aged 1.5-13 yr with critical (7 children), severe (3), and moderate (2) pneumonia and 4 of the 15 known clinically recessive and biochemically complete inborn errors of type I IFN immunity: X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency (7 children) and autosomal recessive IFNAR1 (1), STAT2 (1), or TYK2 (3) deficiencies. Fibroblasts deficient for IFNAR1, STAT2, or TYK2 are highly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. These 15 deficiencies were not found in 1,224 children and adults with benign SARS-CoV-2 infection without pneumonia (P = 1.2 × 10-11) and with overlapping age, sex, consanguinity, and ethnicity characteristics. Recessive complete deficiencies of type I IFN immunity may underlie ∼10% of hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Inheritance Patterns , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Exp Med ; 219(7)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878728

ABSTRACT

Autosomal recessive IRF7 deficiency was previously reported in three patients with single critical influenza or COVID-19 pneumonia episodes. The patients' fibroblasts and plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced no detectable type I and III IFNs, except IFN-ß. Having discovered four new patients, we describe the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of seven IRF7-deficient patients from six families and five ancestries. Five were homozygous and two were compound heterozygous for IRF7 variants. Patients typically had one episode of pulmonary viral disease. Age at onset was surprisingly broad, from 6 mo to 50 yr (mean age 29 yr). The respiratory viruses implicated included SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. Serological analyses indicated previous infections with many common viruses. Cellular analyses revealed strong antiviral immunity and expanded populations of influenza- and SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IRF7-deficient individuals are prone to viral infections of the respiratory tract but are otherwise healthy, potentially due to residual IFN-ß and compensatory adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324806

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients get more attention. Here we report a cohort study on the follow up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. There are 20 (10.99 %) patients out of the 182 were detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive, but none of them shows any clinical symptomatic recurrence indicating that COVID-19 has a good prognosis. Females and young patients aged under 15 have higher re-positive rate than the average, and none of the severe patients turned re-positive. Notably, most of the re-positive cases turn negative in the followed tests, suggesting that the importance of dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for infectivity assessment.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318905

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic of total, IgA, IgM and IgG antibody of the confirmed COVID-19 patients during convalescent phases to understand the kinetics of antibody response among recovered patients. Methods: From March 4 to April 29, 2020, a total of 143 recovered COVID-19 patients with clear date of illness onset available were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal and anal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing. Blood samples were collected for antibodies testing. Results: A total of 275 blood samples up to 96 days after illness onset were collected from 143 recovered patients. High titers of total and IgG antibodies continued to persist for over 3 months, with 100% and 99.3% patients remaining positive for total and IgG antibody. IgM antibody declined rapidly with a median time to seronegative at 67 (95%CI: 59, 75) days after illness onset. Around 25% patients were seronegative for IgA antibody at month 3 after illness onset. No statistical significance difference was founded in the antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results during in convalescent phases. Conclusion: Similar high antibody titers of total and IgG antibody continued to persist for over 3 months among recovered COVID-19 patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315715

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbroken in Wuhan, China, in December, 2019, and became a global pandemic.No effective antiviral agents were approved for COVID-19. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of Lianhuaqingwen (LH) capsulein patients with COVID-19. Methods: : In this retrospective cohort study, we included 147 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)infection between February 4 th and April 15 th , 2020, in Wuhan Huoshen shan hospital. Patients were grouped as usual treatment alone or combination with LH capsules. Propensity score matching analysis were performed between two groups. Primary outcomes were mortality and duration of hospitalization time. Secondary outcomes included the recovery rate of chest radiological manifestations and abnormal laboratory examinations. Results: : In two groups, 40 pairs patients were matched for analysis. The baseline information and clinical characteristics were comparable. 73 (91.25%) of all 80 patients were older than 50 years old. All patients in LH treatment group and 38 (95%) in usual treatment group were surviving respectively (P = 0.494). The hospitalization time of patients in LH treatment group was significantly shorter than usual treatment group (17.85±6.612vs.20.72±5.01 days, P = 0.032). After treatment, the rate of lung lesions detected by chest computerized tomography (CT) was lower in LH treatment group (30% vs. 55.0%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: LH capsules were associated with the improved clinical effects, and might be recommended in the treatment practices of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, further evaluation of LH capsules in large population randomized controlled trial is needed.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315259

ABSTRACT

Background: During the fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) has been widely applied to treat COVID-19 patients. Retrospective studies showed that QFPDD could improve clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Thus, it is necessary and interesting to explore the action mode of QFPDD for further application and development. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, QFPDD (n=9) and control (n=10) groups. They were parallelly treated for 12 days with QFPDD and warm distilled water, respectively. At the endpoint, the microRNA (miRNA or miR) profiles in serum were detected to identify differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Then, the action mode of QFPDD were explored via review of potential roles of DEMs and functional enrichment analysis of their targets (e.g., GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis), especially focusing on the aspects of immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis. Core genes were identified based on KEGG pathway analysis. Metabolomics were detected in serum and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs), especially the metabolic substrates and products of enzyme of core gene were identified as biomarkers to validate the regulation of DEMs to enzyme activity of core gene through metabolomic analysis and linear correlation analysis between SCMs and DEMs. Results: 23 DEMs were identified in the serum between QFPDD and control groups, with 1636 predicted genes. Reported evidence has showed that both the DEMs and their target genes involve regulation of immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis. Phospholipase C, gamma 1 (Plcg1) was identified as a core gene and predicted to be upregulated attributed to downregulation of novel-89-mature. The levels of three SCMs, PC(P-18:1(11Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)), PC(22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)/P-18:0) and PC(16:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)), which were the metabolic substrates of phospholipase C, were significantly reduced in QFPDD group, in addition, PC(P-18:1(11Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)) and PC(22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)/P-18:0) presented positively linear correlation with the expression level of novel-89-mature. The level of phosphorylcholine, a product of PCs metabolized by phospholipase C, was significantly elevated in QFPDD group. Conclusion: QFPDD can induce modification of miRNAs profile, and subsequently multi-regulate the immunity, inflammation, virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, playing an important role for the positive outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated by QFPDD in China.

7.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2299-2303, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260595

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid testing and antibody testing data from 143 recovered COVID-19 patients during the convalescent phase were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 23 (16.1%) recovered patients re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Three months after symptom onset, 100% and 99.3% of the patients remained positive for total and IgG antibodies, and the antibody levels remained high. IgM antibodies declined rapidly, with a median time to seroconversion of 67 (95% CI: 59, 75) days after onset. Approximately 25% of patients were seronegative for IgA antibodies at three months after onset. There was no statistically significant difference in antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-positive RT-PCR results during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion
8.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in Chinese | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1253241

ABSTRACT

Background : The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently threatening the health of individuals worldwide. We compared the clinical characteristics between younger patients (aged <60 years) and older patients (aged ≥60 years) with COVID-19, detected the risk factors associated with a prolonged hospital stay, and examined the treatments commonly used with a particular focus on antiviral therapies. Methods : This retrospective study was conducted at the West Campus, Union Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan, China). The sample consisted of 123 patients admitted to the hospital between February 9, 2020, and March 3, 2020. The data related to the demographics, laboratory findings, and treatment were analyzed to identify discrepancies between younger and older patients and those with and without primary diseases. The risk factors that contribute to a prolonged hospital stay were subsequently identified. Results : Patients aged ≥60 years required longer hospital stay than younger patients (P = 0.021 and P = 0.001, respectively). The percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower in older patients and those with primary diseases (P = 0.016 and P = 0.042, respectively). The findings revealed that the risk factors that contributed to the length of hospital stay were age, the number of days of illness before hospitalization, white blood cell (WBC) count and albumin levels at admission, a neutrophil fraction at discharge, and antibiotic treatment. Analysis using a model that consisted of the above five risk factors for predicting prolonged hospital stay (i.e., >14 days) yielded an area under the ROC (AuROC) curve of 0.716. Antiviral and antibiotic treatments were administered to 97.6% and 39.0% of patients, respectively. The antiviral drugs most commonly administered were traditional Chinese medicine (83.7%) and arbidol (75.6%). Conclusions : In this study, older patients and those with primary diseases were at a higher risk of worse clinical manifestations. The physicians who treat the patients should pay close attention to the risk factors that contribute to the length of hospital stay, which could be used for predicting prolonged hospital stay. Traditional Chinese medicine and arbidol were the most frequently used antiviral drugs. Nevertheless, the extent to which these medications can effectively treat COVID-19 warrants further investigation.

9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(1): 15-21, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is spreading all over the world. With the number of cases increasing rapidly, the epidemiological data on the nutritional practice is scarce. In this study, we aim to describe the clinical characteristics and nutritional practice in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter, ambidirectional cohort study conducted at 11 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. All eligible critical COVID-19 patients in the study hospital intensive care units at 00:00, March 6th, 2020, were included. Data collection was performed via written case report forms. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients were identified and enrolled, of whom eight died during the 28-day outcome follow- up period. The median interval between hospital admission and the study day was 24 (interquartile range, 13- 26) days and 52.2% (23 of 44) of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation. The median nutrition risk in critically ill (mNUTRIC) score was 3 (interquartile range, 2-5) on the study day. During the enrolment day, 68.2% (30 of 44) of patients received enteral nutrition (EN), while 6.8% (3 of 44) received parenteral nutrition (PN) alone. Nausea and aspiration were uncommon, with a prevalence of 11.4% (5 of 44) and 6.8% (3 of 44), respectively. As for energy delivery, 69.7% (23 of 33) of patients receiving EN and/or PN were achieving their prescribed targets. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that EN was frequently applied in critical COVID-19 patients. Energy delivery may be suboptimal in this study requiring more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145595

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers were responsible for the critical infected patients. However, few studies focused on the mental health of ICU healthcare workers. This study aimed to investigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on ICU healthcare workers in China. Methods: We distributed the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and seven-item General Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) online to ICU healthcare workers in China. Respondents were divided into frontline and second-line according to whether they have contact with COVID-19 patients. Depressive and anxiety symptoms of all respondents were evaluated based on their questionnaire scores. Results: There were 731 ICU healthcare workers finally enrolled in our study, including 303 (41.5%) male, 383 (52.4%) doctors, and 617 (84.4%) aged 26-45 years. All in all, 482 (65.9%) ICU healthcare workers reported symptoms of depression, while 429 (58.7%) reported anxiety. There was no significant difference between frontline (n = 325) and second-line (n = 406) respondents in depression (P = 0.15) and anxiety severity (P = 0.56). Logistic regression analysis showed that being female, ICU work time >5 years, and night duty number ≥10 were risk factors of developing depressive and anxiety symptoms. Income reduction was separately identified as risk of anxiety. Additionally, ICU work time >5 years was also identified as risk of developing moderate-severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Frontline ICU work was not associated with higher risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic remission period in China. Actions like controlling night duty number, ensuring vacation, and increasing income should be taken to relieve mental health problem. Furthermore, we should pay close attention to those who had worked long years in ICU.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
11.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has recently been declared an epidemic by the WHO, and there is an urgent need for affected countries and laboratories to assess and treat people at risk of COVID-19. A heat procedure has been suggested for specimen inactivation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of serum heating on biochemical indexes, and providing a basis for accurate detection results of the COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected 29 normal cases of two tubes of 5 mL whole blood. One tube was analyzed directly, and the other was analyzed after heating at 56°C 30 minutes. RESULTS: A total of 34 serum biochemical index quantitative results were obtained, 28/34 indexes were not significantly affected by the heat inactivation and remained clinically interpretable. As the thermal inactivation for these indexes showed good correlation, ALB (p = 0.04, Pearson R = 0.91, 2.6% mean increase), CysC (p = 0.03, Pearson R = 0.98, 9.9% mean increase), CO2CP (p < 0.001, Pearson R = 0.96, 13% mean decrease), they were still inter-pretable. Four biochemical indexes ALP, CK, CK-MB, and insulin were inactivated and showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed CK, CK-MB, ALP, and insulin were sensitive to heat and will be inhibited or degrade after heating, indicating that the rapid decrease of this indexes in the COVID-19 patients may be caused by sample heat inactivation. For safety and diagnostic accuracy, we recommend the use of a point-of-care device for blood gases, electrolytes, troponin, and liver and renal function tests within a ISL 2 or above biosafety cabinet with level 3 or above biosafety laboratory practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Transport Policy ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1051965

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a disruptive impact on transportation. To prevent a return to more widespread personal automobile use due to social distancing requirements, public transport should regain its critical role in carrying a large number of passengers. To this end, three Chinese cities, Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Xiamen, implemented fare-free policies to lure passengers back to public transport. To capture the effect of these policies implementation on the daily subway passenger flow, a synthetic control method is used to construct a counterfactual outcome of interest for these three cities. The results show that the peak-hours free-ride policy in Hangzhou had no significant effect on subway ridership, the “more rides, more discounts” and off-peak-hours free-ride policies in Ningbo increased subway ridership by about 24% in the first month, and a rest day free-ride policy in Xiamen increased subway ridership by 2.3 times over five rest days. Nevertheless, the role of the fare-free policies in helping subway ridership rebound to the historical levels is limited, whether it is during or after policy implementation. Findings of the current study can inform the local authorities and transport operators that the multi-pronged approaches should be implemented in tandem with the fare-free policies for increasing subway attraction during the recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047074

ABSTRACT

Four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are commonly associated with acute respiratory infection in humans. B cell responses to these "common cold" viruses remain incompletely understood. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of CoV-specific antibody repertoires in 231 children and 1168 adults using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing. Seroprevalence of antibodies against endemic HCoVs ranged between approximately 4% and 27% depending on the species and cohort. We identified at least 136 novel linear B cell epitopes. Antibody repertoires against endemic HCoVs were qualitatively different between children and adults in that anti-HCoV IgG specificities more frequently found among children targeted functionally important and structurally conserved regions of the spike, nucleocapsid, and matrix proteins. Moreover, antibody specificities targeting the highly conserved fusion peptide region and S2' cleavage site of the spike protein were broadly cross-reactive with peptides of epidemic human and nonhuman coronaviruses. In contrast, an acidic tandem repeat in the N-terminal region of the Nsp3 subdomain of the HCoV-HKU1 polyprotein was the predominant target of antibody responses in adult donors. Our findings shed light on the dominant species-specific and pan-CoV target sites of human antibody responses to coronavirus infection, thereby providing important insights for the development of prophylactic or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Common Cold/blood , Common Cold/epidemiology , Common Cold/immunology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/blood , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Viral Proteins/immunology
14.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796722

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia relative to 534 subjects with asymptomatic or benign infection. By testing these and other rare variants at these 13 loci, we experimentally defined LOF variants underlying autosomal-recessive or autosomal-dominant deficiencies in 23 patients (3.5%) 17 to 77 years of age. We show that human fibroblasts with mutations affecting this circuit are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Inborn errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN immunity can underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with no prior severe infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Loss of Function Mutation , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genetic Loci , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Infant , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/deficiency , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 3/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11887, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650165

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients is receiving more attention. Herein we report a cohort study on the follow-up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. Twenty (10.99%) patients out of the 182 were detected to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive (re-positives), although none showed any clinical symptomatic recurrence, indicating that COVID-19 responds well to treatment. Patients aged under 18 years had higher re-positive rates than average, and none of the severely ill patients re-tested positive. There were no significant differences in sex between re-positives and non-re-positives. Notably, most of the re-positives turned negative in the following tests, and all of them carried antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. This indicates that they might not be infectious, although it is still important to perform regular SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing and follow-up for assessment of infectivity. The findings of this study provide information for improving the management of recovered patients, and for differentiating the follow-up of recovered patients with different risk levels.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Recurrence , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 39-43, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361461

ABSTRACT

Self-reported depression has been observed in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients, infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during discharge from the hospital. However, the cause of this self-reported depression during the convalescent period remains unclear. Here, we report the mental health status of 96 convalescent COVID-19 patients who were surveyed using an online questionnaire at the Shenzhen Samii Medical Center from March 2 to March 12, 2020 in Shenzhen, China. After obtaining their informed consent, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients, including routine blood and biochemical data. The results suggested that patients with self-reported depression exhibited increased immune response, as indicated by increased white blood cell and neutrophil counts, as well as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. However, the mechanism linking self-reported depression to these cellular changes needs further study. In conclusion, self-reported depression occurred at an early stage in convalescent COVID-19 patients, and changes in immune function were apparent during short-term follow-up of these patients after discharge. Appropriate psychological interventions are necessary, and changes in immune function should be emphasized during long-term follow up of these patients.


Subject(s)
Convalescence/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Basophils , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Depression/immunology , Depressive Disorder/immunology , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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