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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 730-733, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674278

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective cohort study in a population with diverse ethnic backgrounds from Brazil to assess clinically meaningful symptoms after surviving coronavirus disease. For most of the 175 patients in the study, clinically meaningful symptoms, including fatigue, dyspnea, cough, headache, and muscle weakness, persisted for >120 days after disease onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
2.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):239-240, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250055

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infected children often range from being paucysymptomatic to fully asymptomatic. The impact of this population on the epidemics due to their ability to transmit the virus and achieve protective immunity has been poorly defined. We explored CoV-2 infectivity potential and anti-CoV-2 cellular (CD8, NK and B) and humoral response in symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) CoV-2 infected children, screened for a family member resulted infected. Methods: CoV-2 viral load was measured by RT-PCR and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) on longitudinal samples of nasopharyngeal swabs in 9 AS and 33 SY (samples were paired according to symptoms'onset for SY and first family contact for AS). Virus infectivity was tested by Virus focus forming assay (FFA). CoV-2 antibodies were investigated by Diasorin (CoV-2 Ab) and Ab-mediated neutralization activity (PRNT) at diagnosis, (samples collected >5 days from symptoms onset in SY, or from first family contact in AS were excluded from this timepoint), and in the convalescent phase (CP) (10-14 days after infection). Cellular response was analyzed by flow cytometry: 1) Ag-specific B cells, by a S1+S2 CoV2-R-PE probe;2) Ag-specific CD8+T cells by ICAM+;3) natural-killer (NK) phenotype. Mann-Whitney was used for comparison;linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between virus load and infectivity. Results: AS showed lower viral load (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Virus infectivity was associated with ddPCR (rho=0.66;p=0.002). ASY and SY showed similar levels of CoV-2 Ab and PRNT, at both diagnosis and at follow up. During the CP, the proportion of CoV-2 Ab negative was 33,3% for both groups and PRNT was negative in 16,6% and 15,7% of AS and SY respectively. Anti-CoV-2 cellular immunity was comparable between ASY and SY. Indeed Ag-specific B cells and CD8 T cells were detectable despite symptomatology and no major differences were found between the groups. Total NK frequency was similar between the groups, while a regulatory NK subset (CD56bright NK cells) was higher in AS compared to SY (p=0.01). Conclusion: These data show that AS have a lower infectivity potential compared to SY suggesting that mitigated restrictive measures or alternative screening may be considered for this population. In addition, these patients showed an intact ability to produce humoral and cellular CoV-2 specific responses hence contributing to achieve herd immunity as much as SY.

3.
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy ; : 0967033520987315, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1166743

ABSTRACT

The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers is recommended as one of several strategies to minimize contamination and spread of the COVID-19 disease. Current reports suggest that the virucidal potential of ethanol occurs at concentrations close to 70%. Traditional methods of verifying the ethanol concentration in such products invite potential errors due to the viscosity of chemical components or may be prohibitively expensive to undertake in large demand. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics have already been used for the determination of ethanol in other matrices and present an alternative fast and reliable approach to quality control of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. In this study, a portable NIR spectrometer combined with classification chemometric tools, i.e., partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS?DA) and linear discriminant analysis with successive algorithm projection (SPA?LDA) were used to construct models to identify conforming and non-conforming commercial and laboratory synthesized hand sanitizer samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in an exploratory data study. Three principal components accounted for 99% of data variance and demonstrate clustering of conforming and non-conforming samples. The PLS?DA and SPA?LDA classification models presented 77 and 100% of accuracy in cross/internal validation respectively and 100% of accuracy in the classification of test samples. A total of 43% commercial samples evaluated using the PLS?DA and SPA?LDA presented ethanol content non-conforming for hand sanitizer gel. These results indicate that use of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is a promising strategy, yielding a method that is fast, portable, and reliable for discrimination of alcohol-based hand sanitizers with respect to conforming and non-conforming ethanol concentrations.

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