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1.
Life (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875686

ABSTRACT

Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the management of COVID-19 has been a challenge for healthcare professionals. Although the respiratory system has primarily been affected with symptoms ranging from mild pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome, other organs or systems have also been targets of the virus. The mouth represents an important route of entry for SARS-CoV-2. Cells in the oral epithelium, taste buds, and minor and major salivary glands express cellular entry factors for the virus, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin. This leads to symptoms such as deterioration of taste, salivary dysfunction, mucosal ulcers, before systemic manifestation of the disease. In this review we report and discuss the prevalence and socio-demographics of taste disturbances in COVID-19 patients, analysing the current international data. Importantly, we also take stock of the various hypothesized pathogenetic mechanisms and their impact on the reported symptoms. The literature indicated that COVID-19 patients frequently present with gustatory dysfunction, whose prevalence varies by country, age and sex. Furthermore, this dysfunction also has a variable duration in relation to the severity of the disease. The pathogenetic action is intricately linked to viral action which can be expressed in several ways. However, in many cases these are only hypotheses that need further confirmation.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625052

ABSTRACT

To raise awareness about preventive measures in COVID-19 pandemic, even though fully vaccinated. Although recent trials showed high efficacy of vaccines in preventing symptomatic infections, there are some individuals experiencing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case report, a fully vaccinated young dental practitioner experienced symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 55 days postvaccination with BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine with evident ageusia. Diagnostic swabs were performed and used for viral genome sequencing. The patient fully recovered 15 days after diagnosis. Loss of smell and taste, together with nasal congestion were the main reported symptoms. The use of personal protective equipment prevented spread of infection in patients and co-workers. With the increase of people being fully vaccinated, it is still necessary to follow infection preventive protocols by correctly applying personal protective equipment. Although high efficacy has been proved, some individuals may still be vulnerable to symptomatic infection and new guidelines and markers should be adopted and investigated to find out patients for whom vaccination may not determine full immunization.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dentists , Humans , Pandemics , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Pediatr Rep ; 13(3): 363-382, 2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526857

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is an emerging viral disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which leads to severe respiratory infections in humans. The first reports came in December 2019 from the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China. It was immediately clear that children developed a milder disease than adults. The reasons for the milder course of the disease were attributed to several factors: innate immunity, difference in ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme II) receptor expression, and previous infections with other common coronaviruses (CovH). This literature review aims to summarize aspects of innate immunity by focusing on the role of ACE2 expression and viral infections in children in modulating the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles deemed potentially eligible were considered, including those dealing with COVID-19 in children and providing more up-to-date and significant data in terms of epidemiology, prognosis, course, and symptoms, focusing on the etiopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 disease in children. The bibliographic search was conducted using the search engines PubMed and Scopus. The following search terms were entered in PubMed and Scopus: COVID-19 AND ACE2 AND Children; COVID-19 AND Immunity innate AND children. The search identified 857 records, and 18 studies were applicable based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that addressed the issues of COVID-19 concerning the role of ACE2 expression in children. The scientific literature agrees that children develop milder COVID-19 disease than adults. Milder symptomatology could be attributed to innate immunity or previous CovH virus infections, while it is not yet fully understood how the differential expression of ACE2 in children could contribute to milder disease.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477950

ABSTRACT

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 seems to be a rare phenomenon. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic search of literature on the SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in order to understand the success of the global vaccine campaigns. A systematic search was performed. Inclusion criteria included a positive RT-PCR test of more than 90 days after the initial test and the confirmed recovery or a positive RT-PCR test of more than 45 days after the initial test that is accompanied by compatible symptoms or epidemiological exposure, naturally after the confirmed recovery. Only 117 articles were included in the final review with 260 confirmed cases. The severity of the reinfection episode was more severe in 92/260 (35.3%) with death only in 14 cases. The observation that many reinfection cases were less severe than initial cases is interesting because it may suggest partial protection from disease. Another interesting line of data is the detection of different clades or lineages by genome sequencing between initial infection and reinfection in 52/260 cases (20%). The findings are useful and contribute towards the role of vaccination in response to the COVID-19 infections. Due to the reinfection cases with SARS-CoV-2, it is evident that the level of immunity is not 100% for all individuals. These data highlight how it is necessary to continue to observe all the prescriptions recently indicated in the literature in order to avoid new contagion for all people after healing from COVID-19 or becoming asymptomatic positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunization Programs , Reinfection , Vaccination
7.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 202-204, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300881

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 16, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225778

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the severe clinical course of COVID-19 and other chronic diseases such as: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and chronic renal disease. It may be possible to extend this association to a common and chronic oral disease in adults: periodontitis. Alternatively, the latter could be simply related to the systemic chronic diseases cited above, as already observed in the non-COVID-19 literature. In order to provide an overview and their opinion, the authors in this perspective article will report and discuss the most recent references of interest relating to COVID-19 and periodontitis pathophysiology. Within such a narrative review, the authors will hypothesize that the association between chronic periodontitis and COVID-19 could exist via two pathways: a direct link, through the ACEII and CD147 receptors used by the virus to infect the cells, which would occur in greater numbers in cases of periodontitis (thereby favoring a SARS-CoV-2 infection); and/or an indirect pathway involving the overexpression of inflammatory molecules, especially IL-6 and IL-17. An expression of the latter has been found to play a role in periodontitis, in addition to severe cases of COVID-19, although it is still unclear if it plays a direct role in the worsening of the clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Adult , Chronic Disease , Humans , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 685-688, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118564

ABSTRACT

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare phenomenon. To date, there has been some cases reported from countries such as United States, Ecuador, Hong Kong, the Netherlands and Belgium. This case report presents the first case of reinfection from Saudi Arabia, and probably the first dental student to have been re-infected with COVID-19. A 24-year-old male dental student presents with reinfection after a period of three months since he was first infected with COVID-19. The signs and symptoms reported by the patient were similar in both instances, except that he developed fever only at the time of reinfection. The infection and reinfection were confirmed with a RT-PCR test reports. This report highlights how it is necessary to continue to observe all the prescriptions recently indicated in the literature in order to avoid new contagion for all health workers after healed from covid-19 or asymptomatic positive, since as seen sometimes the infection does not ensures complete immunity in 100% of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Belgium , Ecuador , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Netherlands , Reinfection , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
10.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 79(6): 418-425, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066051

ABSTRACT

Objective: This is a rapid systematic review concerning taste alterations in 27,687 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, published in the worldwide literature.Material and methods: Of the 485 articles recovered, 67 eligible studies (27,687 confirmed COVID-19 cases) were included in this analysis. We analysed the prevalence of the taste alterations in patients considering the country of origin of the studies.Results: The results show strong important differences in the overall reported prevalence of taste alterations among the different countries (from 11% of Korea to 88.8% of Belgium).Conclusions: These data highlight that there is a different geographical distribution of taste alterations in COVID-19 patients. Gustatory dysfunction seems to be an understudied symptom of COVID-19 and this may explain the inconsistencies of diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 case definition. Furthermore, this diagnostic underestimation can lead to an increased risk of contagion for the whole population and for the working classes most at risk, including the dental one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to protect dental teams and their patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, dentists have had to adopt several measures (operating and post-operating procedures) which may increase the total treatment time and costs relating to individual protective measures. This paper will propose a thorough analysis of operating dentistry procedures, comparing the economic performance of the activity in a dental surgery before and after the adoption of these protective measures, which are required to contain the risk of SARS-COV-2 infections. METHODS: The economic analysis is articulated in three approaches. Firstly, it assesses a reduction in markup by maintaining current charges (A); alternatively, it suggests revised charges to adopt in order to maintain unvaried levels of markup (B). And the third Approach (C) examines available dental treatments, highlighting how to profitably combine treatment volumes to reduce markup loss or a restricted increase in dental charges. RESULTS: Maintaining dental charges could cause a loss in markup, even rising to 200% (A); attempting to maintain unvaried levels of markup will result in an increase in dental charges, even at 100% (B); and varying the volumes of the single dental treatments on offer (increasing those which current research indicates as the most profitable) could mitigate the economic impact of the measures to prevent the transmission of SARS-COV-2 (C). CONCLUSIONS: The authors of this paper provide managerial insights which can assist the dentist-entrepreneur to become aware of the boundaries of the economic consequences of governmental measures in containing the virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dentistry/methods , Economics, Dental , Infection Control/economics , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(4): 251-255, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994925

ABSTRACT

Following the publication of the Italian Ministerial recommendations relating to dentistry in Phase 2 of the COVID-19 pandemic (focusing on operational protocols for all dental staff), we believe that the patient/dentist relationship should increasingly take into account the heightened fears and anxious thoughts of patients. This particularly regards patients who are about to undergo dental work. Moreover, dentists should also pay close attention to recent events, which have determined the new recommendations regarding SARS-COV-2 biocontainment. Furthermore, the authors of this paper consider it appropriate to make suggestions and develop interventionist techniques regarding the interface with the patient starting from the initial consultation. The latter is invariably determinant in establishing clear communication of the Ministerial recommendations in encouraging a relaxed atmosphere with the patient. This interface is also a decisive factor in promoting patient empowerment, including specifying the time period envisaged for treatment in the new COVID-19 era in as calm a manner as possible. Such an approach will have a positive impact on the dentistry team.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Dental Care , Dentist-Patient Relations , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971452

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped positive stranded RNA virus. The mechanisms of innate immunity, considered as the first line of antiviral defense, is essential towards viruses. A significant role in host defense of the lung, nasal and oral cavities is played by Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) HE4 has been demonstrated to be serum inflammatory biomarker and to show a role in natural immunity at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract with both antimicrobial/antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Several biomarkers like IL-6, presepsin (PSP), procalcitonin (PCT), CRP, D-Dimer have showed a good function as predictor factors for the clinical evolution of COVID-19 patients (mild, severe and critical). The aim of this study was to correlate the blood levels of CRP, IL-6, PSP, PCT, D-Dimer with He4, to identify the predictive values of these biomarkers for the evolution of the disease and to evaluate the possible role of HE4 in the defense mechanisms of innate immunity at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract. Of 134 patients admitted at COVID hospital of Policlinico-University of Bari, 86 (58 men age 67.6 ± 12.4 and 28 women age 65.7 ± 15.4) fulfilled the inclusion criteria: in particular, 80 patients (93%) showed prodromal symptoms (smell and/or taste dysfunctions) and other typical clinical manifestations and 19 died (13 men age 73.4 ± 7.7 and 6 women age 74.8 ± 6.7). 48 patients were excluded because 13 finished chemotherapy and 6 radiotherapy recently, 5 presented suspected breast carcinoma, 5 suspected lung carcinoma, 6 suspected ovarian carcinoma or ovary cyst, 1 cystic fibrosis, 3 renal fibrosis and 9 were affected by autoimmune diseases in treatment with monoclonal antibodies. The venous sample was taken for each patient on the admission and during the hospital stay. For each patient, six measurements relating to considered parameters were performed. Significant correlations between He4 and IL-6 levels (r = 0.797), between He4 and PSP (r = 0.621), between He4 and PCT (r = 0.447), between He4 and D-Dimer (r = 0.367), between He4 and RCP (r = 0.327) have been found. ROC curves analysis showed an excellent accuracy for He4 (AUC = 0.92) and IL-6 (AUC = 0.91), a very good accuracy for PSP (AUC = 0.81), a good accuracy for PCT (AUC = 0.701) and D-Dimer (AUC = 0.721) and sufficient accuracy for RCP (AUC = 0.616). These results demonstrated the important correlation between He4, IL6 and PSP, an excellent accuracy of He4 and IL6 and showed a probable role of He4 in the innate immunity in particularly at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract. Besides He4 together with IL6 might be involved in the onset of smell and/or taste disorders and it might be used as innovative biomarker to monitor clinical evolution of COVID-19 because He4 could indicate a multi-organ involvement.

14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 301, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to assess an innovative risk score for common dental procedures, based on the most recent contaminant SARS-CoV-2. After scoring the level of infection risk, safety procedures, advice and personal protective equipment (PPE) are recommended for the dental team in each dental practice. METHODS: The authors of this research analysed 42 common dental procedures on the basis of known transmission risks. In increasing order, many consider the parameters leading to different risk scores for the dental team and patients for each procedure to be: direct contact with saliva (score 1), direct contact with blood (score 2), production of low levels of spray/aerosol via air-water syringes (score 3), the production of high levels of spray/aerosol from rotating, ultrasound and piezoelectric tools (score 4); and the duration of the procedure, which may increase the risk of procedures producing droplets and aerosols. RESULTS: Using this innovative risk-scoring system, the authors classified the different dental procedures according to low, medium or high risk: low (1-3), medium (4-5), high (≥ 6). A safety protocol for each procedure was thereafter matched with the calculated risk level. CONCLUSIONS: The innovative risk-scoring system presented in this research permits the reclassification of dental procedures according to the infection risk level. Consequently, specific procedures, previously considered as entry level, will now merit revision. This paper also highlighted an effective and routine clinical tool for general dentists and oral medicine practitioners.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentistry/methods , Dentistry/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Safety Management , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Microorganisms ; 8(11):1718, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896520

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped positive stranded RNA virus. The mechanisms of innate immunity, considered as the first line of antiviral defense, is essential towards viruses. A significant role in host defense of the lung, nasal and oral cavities is played by Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) HE4 has been demonstrated to be serum inflammatory biomarker and to show a role in natural immunity at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract with both antimicrobial/antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Several biomarkers like IL-6, presepsin (PSP), procalcitonin (PCT), CRP, D-Dimer have showed a good function as predictor factors for the clinical evolution of COVID-19 patients (mild, severe and critical). The aim of this study was to correlate the blood levels of CRP, IL-6, PSP, PCT, D-Dimer with He4, to identify the predictive values of these biomarkers for the evolution of the disease and to evaluate the possible role of HE4 in the defense mechanisms of innate immunity at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract. Of 134 patients admitted at COVID hospital of Policlinico—University of Bari, 86 (58 men age 67.6 ±12.4 and 28 women age 65.7 ±15.4) fulfilled the inclusion criteria: in particular, 80 patients (93%) showed prodromal symptoms (smell and/or taste dysfunctions) and other typical clinical manifestations and 19 died (13 men age 73.4 ±7.7 and 6 women age 74.8 ±6.7). 48 patients were excluded because 13 finished chemotherapy and 6 radiotherapy recently, 5 presented suspected breast carcinoma, 5 suspected lung carcinoma, 6 suspected ovarian carcinoma or ovary cyst, 1 cystic fibrosis, 3 renal fibrosis and 9 were affected by autoimmune diseases in treatment with monoclonal antibodies. The venous sample was taken for each patient on the admission and during the hospital stay. For each patient, six measurements relating to considered parameters were performed. Significant correlations between He4 and IL-6 levels (r = 0.797), between He4 and PSP (r = 0.621), between He4 and PCT (r = 0.447), between He4 and D-Dimer (r = 0.367), between He4 and RCP (r = 0.327) have been found. ROC curves analysis showed an excellent accuracy for He4 (AUC = 0.92) and IL-6 (AUC = 0.91), a very good accuracy for PSP (AUC = 0.81), a good accuracy for PCT (AUC = 0.701) and D-Dimer (AUC = 0.721) and sufficient accuracy for RCP (AUC = 0.616). These results demonstrated the important correlation between He4, IL6 and PSP, an excellent accuracy of He4 and IL6 and showed a probable role of He4 in the innate immunity in particularly at the level of oral cavity, nasopharynx and respiratory tract. Besides He4 together with IL6 might be involved in the onset of smell and/or taste disorders and it might be used as innovative biomarker to monitor clinical evolution of COVID-19 because He4 could indicate a multi-organ involvement.

16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 487, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789317

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 quickly spread in China and has, since March 2020 become a pandemic, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. The causative agent was promptly isolated and named SARS-CoV-2. Scientific efforts are related to identifying the best clinical management of these patients, but also in understanding their infectivity in order to limit the spread of the virus. Aimed at identifying viral RNA in the various compartments of the organism of sick subjects, diagnostic tests are carried out. However, the accuracy of such tests varies depending on the type of specimen used and the time of illness at which they are performed. This review of the literature aims to summarize the preliminary findings reported in studies on Covid-19 testing. The results highlight how the pharyngeal swab is highly sensitive in the first phase of the disease, while in the advanced stages, other specimens should be considered, such as sputum, or even stool to detect SARS-CoV-2. It highlights that most patients already reach the peak of the viral load in the upper airways within the first days of displaying symptoms, which thereafter tend to decrease. This suggests that many patients may already be infectious before symptoms start to appear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2774-2781, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713083

ABSTRACT

The rapid recovery of smell and taste functions in COVID-19 patients could be attributed to a decrease in interleukin-6 levels rather than central nervous system ischemic injury or viral damage to neuronal cells. To correlate interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients with olfactory or gustatory dysfunctions and to investigate the role of IL-6 in the onset of these disorders, this observational study investigated 67 COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disorders or both, who did not require intensive care admission, admitted at COVID Hospital of Policlinico of Bari from March to May 2020. Interleukin-6 was assayed in COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disturbances at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. At the same time, patients have been given a specific survey to evaluate the severity of taste and smell disturbances. Of 125 patients with smell or taste dysfunctions at onset of disease, 67 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, while 58 were excluded because 35 of them required intensive care admission, 5 were unable to answer, 5 died, 7 had finished chemotherapy recently, and 5 refused to participate. The evaluation of taste and smell disorders was carried out using a survey performed at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. Sinonasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was used as a reference for olfactory function assessment, and Taste and Smell Questionnaire Section of the US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol (CDC 2013b) was used as reference for gustatory function assessment. A venous blood sample was taken for each patient to measure IL-6 levels upon entry and at swab negativization. Interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients in relation to olfactory or gustatory disorders were correlated from the time of their admission to the time of swab negativization. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the decrease of interleukin-6 levels and the improvement of smell (p value < 0.05) and taste (p = 0.047) functions at swab negativization. The acquired results demonstrate the key role of interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of chemosensitive disorders in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Taste Disorders/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Interleukin-6/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
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