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1.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):207, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570352

ABSTRACT

Background: According to current evidence, the lungs are the most affected organ in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recent data shows impairment of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, decreased total lung capacity, and restrictive ventilatory defect in COVID-19 adult patients. Data in children are lacking. Our goal was to characterize clinically and demographically the pediatric population with asthma that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in our hospital during 2020 and evaluate the pulmonary function after the infection. Method: Cross-sectional study performed in Hospital Dona Estefânia, from March 2nd to December 31st, 2020. All pediatric asthmatic patients (<18 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR test) were included. Asthma diagnosis was based on a previous physician's diagnosis or parent-reported history. A convenience sample of the asthmatic patients performed spirometry and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO). Results: We were able to identify 20 asthmatic patients [50% male;median age: 10.5 years old (P25- 75: 9- 14.5)]. Atopic comorbidities were present in 75% ( n = 15) (rhinitis the most frequent). According to GINA, 11 (55%) had mild and 9 (45%) moderate asthma. Five patients (25%) needed hospital admission because of COVID-19 infection, 3 had asthma exacerbation, and 3 had COVID-19 pneumonia. Nine of the 20 patients performed spirometry and DLCO after COVID-19 infection. Respiratory function was performed few months after the infection [median=3 months (P25- 75: 2- 6.5)]. In our sample, we found 2 patients with obstructive ventilation impairment and small airway dysfunction. We didn't find any statistically significant difference between de FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25- 75, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) before and after COVID-19 infection. There were 2 asthmatics with impaired DLCO (65.1% and 64.7%). Conclusion: Two patients showed obstructive ventilation, but it could be due to the variable airflow limitation of asthma, and 2 had DLCO impairment. We didn't find any statistically significant difference between respiratory function before and after COVID-19 infection. However, this is a small sample, and further evaluations with larger populations are needed.

2.
Engenharia Sanitaria E Ambiental ; 26(5):829-836, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1551357

ABSTRACT

The estimated emissions of greenhouse gases (CO(2)eq), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM), aldehyde (RCHO) and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) from vehicles licensed in the first five months of 2020 in Brazil were calculated in the present study, and the results compared with vehicular emissions from the licensed fleet in the same period of the year 2019, in order to verify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these permits, emissions and, consequently, air quality in the country. The results showed a 14% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, with a decrease observed for all vehicles, except for semi heavy trucks, which had a 12.8% increase in GHG emissions. The other pollutants also decreased, being 12.5% for CO, 29.6% for NOx, 24.1% for PM, 21.5% for RCHO, and 16.3% for NMHC. Finally, in relation to the total accumulated pollutants, among all vehicles analyzed, the only ones that had a 2.1% increase in emissions in relation to 2019 were the motorcycles with flexfuel technology, which are preferably fueled with hydrated ethanol. Thus, it was concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic, through the measures of restriction and social isolation adopted in the country to curb the transmission of the disease, had a positive impact on air quality in Brazil during the analyzed period.

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