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Indian J Nephrol ; 31(6): 555-558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574901


Delayed interferon secretion and cytokine dysregulation are responsible for the life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan dysfunction and shock in COVID 19, which closely resembles secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). IL-6, a marker of hypercytokinemia in patients with COVID-19 is positively correlated with disease severity, development and progression of ARDS, and mortality. Therapy to either reduce IL-6 or inhibit its action with either non-specific inhibitors of inflammation like dexamthasone or Toclizumab a specific inhibitor of IL-6 has produced decrease in mortality. We describe a novel method of treatment in a patient with multiorgan involvement in COVID 19, using the oXiris hemofilter which delivers renal replacement therapy while also reducing cytokines like IL-6.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19618, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450293


The pathophysiology and the factors determining disease severity in COVID-19 are not yet clear, with current data indicating a possible role of altered iron metabolism. Previous studies of iron parameters in COVID-19 are cross-sectional and have not studied catalytic iron, the biologically most active form of iron. The study was done to determine the role of catalytic iron in the adverse outcomes in COVID-19. We enrolled adult patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and measured serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, hepcidin and serum catalytic iron daily. Primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and kidney replacement therapy. Associations between longitudinal iron parameter measurements and time-to-event outcomes were examined using a joint model. We enrolled 120 patients (70 males) with median age 50 years. The primary composite outcome was observed in 25 (20.8%) patients-mechanical ventilation was needed in 21 (17.5%) patients and in-hospital mortality occurred in 21 (17.5%) patients. Baseline levels of ferritin and hepcidin were significantly associated with the primary composite outcome. The joint model analysis showed that ferritin levels were significantly associated with primary composite outcome [HR (95% CI) = 2.63 (1.62, 4.24) after adjusting for age and gender]. Both ferritin and serum catalytic iron levels were positively associated with in-hospital mortality [HR (95% CI) = 3.22 (2.05, 5.07) and 1.73 (1.21, 2.47), respectively], after adjusting for age and gender. The study shows an association of ferritin and catalytic iron with adverse outcomes in COVID-19. This suggests new pathophysiologic pathways in this disease, also raising the possibility of considering iron chelation therapy.

COVID-19/pathology , Iron/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/metabolism , Hepcidins/blood , Hepcidins/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/chemistry , Transferrin/metabolism
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(9): 1545-1550, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634246


INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, including those suffering from kidney-related ailments. Many parts of the world, including India, adopted lockdown to curb community transmission of disease. The lockdown affected transportation, access to health care facilities, and availability of medicines and consumables as well as outpatient and inpatient services. We aimed to analyze the effect of lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with kidney diseases in India. METHODS: We surveyed 19 major hospitals (8 in the public and 11 in the private sector) to determine the effect of lockdown on the care of patients with kidney disease, including those on dialysis after the first 3 weeks of lockdown. RESULTS: The total number of dialysis patients in these centers came down from 2517 to 2404. Approximately 710 (28.2%) patients missed 1 or more dialysis sessions, 69 (2.74%) required emergency dialysis sessions, 104 (4.13%) stopped reporting for dialysis, and 9 (0.36%) were confirmed to have died. Outpatient attendance in the surveyed hospital came down by 92.3%, and inpatient service reduced by 61%. Tele-consultation was started but was accessed by only a small number of patients. CONCLUSION: Lack of preparedness before lockdown resulted in an interruption in health care services and posed an immediate adverse effect on the outcome of dialysis patients and patients with kidney disease in India. The long-term impact on the health of patients with less severe forms of kidney disease remains unknown.