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1.
J Nephrol ; 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins associated with cardiovascular outcome in CKD patients. The present work is an analysis of the association of serum free, total IS and PCS with cardiovascular events and calcium-phosphate metabolism variables in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Serum levels of total and free IS and PCS were measured in 139 hemodialysis patients. Their relationship with calcium-phosphate metabolism variables were tested in an observational cohort study. In addition, their association with cardiovascular events was investigated during a 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: Patients in the highest tertile (T3) of serum free IS showed lower serum 1,25(OH)2D compared to patients in the middle (T2) and lowest tertile (T1); in addition to this, T3 patients showed lower serum irisin than T1 patients and lower serum PTH than all the other subjects (T1 + T2) combined. Serum PTH was also measured during the two years after the baseline measurement and was higher in patients in the T1 than in those in the T3 of serum free IS. Cox regression analysis showed that cardiovascular risk was lower in T1 patients than in those in the T3 of serum free PCS, both using a univariate (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.2-5.43; p = 0.015) or multivariate model (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.12-5.51; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Serum free IS may be associated with PTH and 1,25(OH)2D secretion, whereas free PCS may predict cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies reporting the long-term humoral response after receiving the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine are important to drive future vaccination strategies. Yet, available literature is scarce. Covidiagnostix is a multicenter study designed to assess the antibody response in >1000 healthcare professionals (HCPs) who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: Serum was tested at time-0 (T0), before the first dose, T1, T2, and T3, respectively, 21, 42, and 180 days after T0. Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein were measured to assess SARS-CoV-2 infections, whereas antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein were measured to assess the vaccine response. Neutralization activity against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351 variants were also analyzed. RESULTS: Six months post-vaccination HCPs showed an antibody titer decrease of approximately 70%, yet, the titer was still one order of magnitude higher than that of seropositive individuals before vaccination. We identified 12 post-vaccination infected HCPs. None showed severe symptoms. Interestingly, most of them showed titers at T2 above the neutralization thresholds obtained from the neutralization activity experiments. CONCLUSION: Vaccination induces a humoral response which is well detectable even six months post-vaccination. Vaccination prevents severe COVID-19 cases, yet post-vaccination infection is possible even in the presence of a high anti-S serum antibody titer.

6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 2019-2026, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: After exceptional research efforts, several vaccines were developed against SARS-CoV-2 which sustains the pandemic COVID-19. The Comirnaty vaccine showed high efficacy in clinical trials and was the first to be approved for its distribution to the general population. We evaluated the immune response induced by the first vaccine dose in different sex/age groups and subjects with or without naturally present anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: As part of an Italian multicenter project (Covidiagnostix), serum samples from 4,290 health-professionals were serologically tested the day of the first vaccination dose, and 21 days later, using two different instrumentations (Siemens-Healthineers and Roche). RESULTS: In total, 97% of samples showed the presence of specific antibodies 21 days after the vaccination dose; the percentage of non-responders increased with age in both genders. Remarkably, naturally seropositive individuals showed antibody persistence up to 11 months and an exceptionally higher vaccination response compared to subjects never infected by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of the serological test i) to identify naturally SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals and ii) to evaluate the antibody level elicited by the first vaccination dose. Both tests, highlighted differences in the immune response, when subjects were stratified by sex and age, and between naturally seropositive and seronegative subjects. The data obtained show how serological tests could play a crucial role in the triage of the population subjected to the vaccination campaign for COVID-19. The definition of suitable instrumentation-specific thresholds is needed to correctly follow eventually acquired post-vaccination immunity in the general population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
7.
Endocrine ; 74(2): 219-225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia has been identified as a major distinctive feature of COVID-19, predicting poor clinical outcomes. Among the mechanisms underlying this biochemical finding, high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients reported so far in several studies was advocated. However, robust data in favor of this hypothesis are still lacking. Therefore, aim of our study was to investigate the role of hypovitaminosis D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the development of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing calcium and VD metabolism. Serum levels of total calcium (tCa), ionized calcium (Ca2+), 25-OH-VD, and PTH were evaluated at admission. We defined VD deficiency as VD below 20 ng/mL, hypocalcemia as tCa below 2.2 mmol/L or as Ca2+ below 1.18 mmol/L, and hyperparathyroidism as PTH above 65 pg/mL. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. Median tCa and Ca2+ levels were 2.15 and 1.15 mmol/L, respectively. Total and ionized hypocalcemia were observed in 53 (67.9%) and 55 (70.5%) patients, respectively. VD deficiency was found in 67.9% of patients, but secondary hyperparathyroidism was detected in 20.5% of them, only. tCa levels were significantly lower in patients with VD deficiency and regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and tCa. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we confirmed a high prevalence of hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients and we showed for the first time that it occurred largely in the context of marked hypovitaminosis D not adequately compensated by secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Hypocalcemia , Parathyroid Hormone/physiology , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Calcium , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/virology , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia/virology , Italy , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
9.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 37(1): e87, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In vitro diagnostic tests for SARS-COV-2, also known as serological tests, have rapidly spread. However, to date, mostly single-center technical and diagnostic performance's assessments have been carried out without an intralaboratory validation process and a health technology assessment (HTA) systematic approach. Therefore, the rapid HTA for evaluating antibody tests for SARS-COV-2 was applied. METHODS: The use of rapid HTA is an opportunity to test innovative technology. Unlike traditional HTA (which evaluates the benefits of new technologies after being tested in clinical trials or have been applied in practice for some time), the rapid HTA is performed during the early stages of developing new technology. A multidisciplinary team conducted the rapid HTA following the HTA Core Model® (version 3.0) developed by the European Network for Health Technology Assessment. RESULTS: The three methodological and analytical steps used in the HTA applied to the evaluation of antibody tests for SARS-COV-2 are reported: the selection of the tests to be evaluated; the research and collection of information to support the adoption and appropriateness of the technology; and the preparation of the final reports and their dissemination. Finally, the rapid HTA of serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 is summarized in a report that allows its dissemination and communication. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid-HTA evaluation method, in addition to highlighting the characteristics that differentiate the tests from each other, guarantees a timely and appropriate evaluation, becoming a tool to create a direct link between science and health management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/standards , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Time Factors
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452380

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 spike is evolving to maximize transmissibility and evade the humoral response. The massive genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolates has led to the identification of single-point mutations and deletions, often having the recurrence of hotspots, associated with advantageous phenotypes. We report the isolation and molecular characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain, belonging to a lineage (C.36) not previously associated with concerning traits, which shows decreased susceptibility to vaccine sera neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Italy , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 144-151, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccines, to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, were produced and reliable assays are needed for their evaluation. The WHO produced an International-Standard (WHO-IS) to facilitate the standardization/comparison of serological methods. The WHO-IS, produced in limited amount, was never tested for reproducibility. This study aims at developing a reproducible and accessible working standard (WS) to complement the WHO-IS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from vaccinated individuals were used to produce the WSs. The WHO-IS, the WSs and single serum samples (n = 48) were tested on 6 quantitative serological devices. Neutralization assays were performed for the 48 samples and compared with their antibody titers. RESULTS: The WS carry an antibody titer 20-fold higher than the WHO-IS. It was reproducible, showed both good linearity and insignificant intra- and inter-laboratory variability. However, the WSs behave differently from the WHO-IS. Analysis of the 48 samples showed that single correlation factors are not sufficient to harmonize results from different assays. Yet, all the devices predict neutralization activity based on the antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible and highly concentrated WS, specific for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 Spike-glycoprotein was produced. Such characteristics make it particularly suited for the harmonization of commercially available assays and the consequent evaluation of post-vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Andrology ; 10(1): 34-41, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypogonadism/epidemiology , Hypogonadism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(1): e348-e360, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383926

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: A high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients has been reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between hypovitaminosis D and fat body mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 severity, have been widely recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (GLU), and disease severity. METHODS: Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD metabolism. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, plasma GLU levels, BMI, and inflammatory parameters were evaluated at admission. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ng/mL and VD deficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD deficiency was found more frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations between VD and plasma GLU, BMI, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6. Patients with both hypovitaminosis D and diabetes mellitus, as well those with hypovitaminosis D and overweight, were more frequently affected by a severe disease with worse inflammatory response and respiratory parameters, compared to those without or just one of these conditions. CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels with blood GLU and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD deficiency might be a novel common pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and adiposity on disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
14.
J Ren Nutr ; 32(3): 282-291, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Irisin is a circulating myokine released from skeletal muscles after physical exercise. Irisin production decreases during the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a potential consequence of sarcopenia and physical inactivity. METHODS: This observational study explored the relationship of serum irisin with cardiovascular outcome in 79 patients with stage 3-5 CKD. RESULTS: Serum irisin was significantly higher in healthy subjects (n = 20) than that in CKD patients (7 ± 2 vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL; P = .0001) and was higher in patients with CKD stage 3 (3.2 ± 1 µg/mL) than in patients at stage 4 and 5 taken together (n = 36, 2.8 ± 0.7 µg/mL, P = .05). Patients in the lowest serum irisin tertile had lower serum 1,25(OH)2D levels (21 ± 11 pg/mL) than patients in the middle (30 ± 13 pg/mL; P = .005) and the highest tertile (27 ± 14 pg/mL; P = .047). Patients in the highest tertile had lower Kauppila score (10.6 ± 6.9) than patients in the middle (11.8 ± 5.5; P = .007) and the lowest tertile (6.9 ± 6.8; P = .043). Twenty patients suffered from cardiovascular events during a 3-year follow-up. A Cox regression model using age, body weight, presence of diabetes mellitus, gender, Kauppila calcification score, serum values of FGF23 (as logarithm), phosphate, sclerostin, albumin and cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum irisin tertiles as covariates showed that patients in the highest tertile of serum irisin had a lower cardiovascular risk than patients in the middle tertile (B, 2.38; odds ratio, 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-58.13; P = .013) or in the lowest tertile (B, 1.61; odds ratio, 5; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-22.83; P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that serum irisin may be a marker of cardiovascular outcome in patients with CKD.

16.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4256-4260, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first COVID-19 vaccines are being distributed to the general population. However, the shortage of doses is slowing down the goal of reaching herd immunity. The aim of the study was to verify whether previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, a considerable portion of the population, should receive the same vaccination treatment of seronegative individuals. METHODS: Health-professionals either recovered from COVID-19 or never infected by SARS-CoV-2 were serologically tested at different time-points right before, and several days after, vaccination. RESULTS: Previously infected individuals showed humoral immune responses, 21 days after the first dose, that was approximately 10-folds higher than the seronegative group 21 days after the second dose. Seropositivity persists for at least 11 months. CONCLUSION: During a shortage of COVID-19 vaccine doses, previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals should be dispensed from the vaccination campaign. When dose availability returns to normality, injection of a single dose for seropositive individuals should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070196

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals are considered to be at high risk of exposure and spread of SARS-CoV-2, and have therefore been considered a priority group in COVID-19 vaccination campaign strategies. However, it must be assumed that the immune response is influenced by numerous factors, including sex and gender. The analysis of these factors is an impact element for stratifying the population and targeting the vaccination strategy. Therefore, a large cohort of healthcare workers participating in the Italian vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 has been studied to establish the impact of sex and gender on vaccination coverage using the Gender Impact Assessment approach. This study shows a significant difference in the antibody titers among different age and sex groups, with a clear decreasing trend in antibody titers in the older age groups. Overall, the serological values were significantly higher in females; the reported side effects are more frequent in females than in males. Therefore, disaggregated data point out how the evaluation of gender factors could be essential in COVID-19 vaccination strategies. On this biomedical and social basis, suggestions are provided to improve the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign in healthcare professionals. Still, they could be adapted to other categories and contexts.

18.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(4): 505-517, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049424

ABSTRACT

Biological variation (BV) data have many important applications in laboratory medicine. Concerns about quality of published BV data led the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) 1st Strategic Conference to indicate need for new studies to generate BV estimates of required quality. In response, the EFLM Working Group on BV delivered the multicenter European Biological Variation Study (EuBIVAS). This review summarises the EuBIVAS and its outcomes. Serum/plasma samples were taken from 91 ostensibly healthy individuals for 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European centres. Analysis was performed by Siemens ADVIA 2400 (clinical chemistry), Cobas Roche 8000, c702 and e801 (proteins and tumor markers/hormones respectively), ACL Top 750 (coagulation parameters), and IDS iSYS or DiaSorin Liaison (bone biomarkers). A strict preanalytical and analytical protocol was applied. To determine BV estimates with 95% CI, CV-ANOVA after analysis of outliers, homogeneity and trend analysis or a Bayesian model was applied. EuBIVAS has so far delivered BV estimates for 80 different measurands. Estimates for 10 measurands (non-HDL cholesterol, S100-ß protein, neuron-specific enolase, soluble transferrin receptor, intact fibroblast growth-factor-23, uncarboxylated-unphosphorylated matrix-Gla protein, human epididymis protein-4, free, conjugated and %free prostate-specific antigen), prior to EuBIVAS, have not been available. BV data for creatinine and troponin I were obtained using two analytical methods in each case. The EuBIVAS has delivered high-quality BV data for a wide range of measurands. The BV estimates are for many measurands lower than those previously reported, having an impact on the derived analytical performance specifications and reference change values.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Research Report , Bayes Theorem , Creatinine , Humans , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prostate-Specific Antigen
19.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(4): 543-552, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964202

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reliable biological variation (BV) data are required for the clinical use of tumor markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment effects in cancer. The European Biological Variation Study (EuBIVAS) was established by the EFLM Biological Variation Working Group to deliver BV data for clinically important measurands. In this study, EuBIVAS-based BV estimates are provided for cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin-19 fragment, alpha-fetoprotein and human epididymis protein 4. METHODS: Subjects from five European countries were enrolled in the study, and weekly samples were collected from 91 healthy individuals (53 females and 38 males; 21-69 years old) for 10 consecutive weeks. All samples were analyzed in duplicate within a single run. After excluding outliers and homogeneity analysis, the BVs of tumor markers were determined by CV-ANOVA on trend-corrected data, when relevant (Røraas method). RESULTS: Marked individuality was found for all tumor markers. CYFRA 21-1 was the measurand with the highest index of individuality (II) at 0.67, whereas CA 19-9 had the lowest II at 0.07. The CV I s of HE4, CYFRA 21-1, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 of pre- and postmenopausal females were significantly different from each other. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides updated BV estimates for several tumor markers, and the findings indicate that marked individuality is characteristic. The use of reference change values should be considered when monitoring treatment of patients by means of tumor markers.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Keratin-19 , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Neoplasm , Biological Variation, Population , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the changes in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentrations values, during the first and the second pandemic waves and the impact of the lockdown periods, with their different approaches to home confinement, among different age groups. METHODS: Daily cloud-modified vitamin D UV dose (UVDVC), for the area of interest (Milano, Italy), was obtained. Single-center 25-(OH)D determinations from 40,996 individuals in a 2019 (pre-pandemic), 32,355 individuals from 1 January to 31 August 2020 (containing the first pandemic wave) and 27,684 individuals from 1 June to 30 November 2020 (containing the second wave) were compared to investigate both the effect of the lockdown on vitamin D status and the association between 25-(OH)D and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: No direct association was found between UVDVC, 25-(OH)D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stringent confinement implemented during the first wave lockdown has not had any effect on 25-(OH)D status, although some peculiar time-restricted profile behaviors can be deduced, possibly due to vitamin D supplementation habits and features of those patients who presented to the hospital during the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Although our data do not suggest any direct relationship between 25-(OH)D status, sun exposure, and SARS-CoV-2 infection, an indirect protective role cannot be excluded.

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