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1.
Gynecologic Oncology ; 166:S251, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031758

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine (1) if health disparities experienced by rural, obese endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) preferred components and delivery methods for behavioral interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to obese, early- stage ECS to ascertain demographic information, physical activity (PA level), self-efficacy, lifestyle intervention preferences, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on PA, diet, and mental health. Responses were compared between obese (BMI= 30-39.9 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (BMI= 40+ kg/m2) survivors as well as those who did or did not meet national PA recommendations. Results: Among 335 eligible survivors, only 70 (20.9%) completed the survey. The median age was 63 years (IQR: 14 years). Survivors were 37 months from diagnosis (IQR: 37 months). The median BMI was 39.2 kg/m2 (IQR: 8.4 kg/m2). Overall, only one-quarter of ECS were fairly or fully confident in their ability to undertake moderate PA. More morbidly obese survivors reported low self-efficacy in performing moderate PA than obese survivors (90% vs 65%;p= 0.02). Pre COVID-19, 66% of survivors did not meet PA guidelines and were more likely to be morbidly obese than obese, but the difference was not significant (78% vs 58%;p=0.08). Post COVID-19, 83% of survivors did not meet PA guidelines, with no difference between BMI groups (82% vs 84%;p>0.05). After COVID-19, 54% of survivors reported a decrease in PA, 32% made poorer nutritional choices, and 47% reported worsening mental health. Post COVID-19, no difference in the nutrition or mental health changes was seen between survivors who were meeting PA guidelines and those who were not (p>0.05). Regarding lifestyle interventions, survivors preferred information delivered electronically (online (56%) or via email (41%)) versus in person (30%) or via text (21%). Preferences for PA included exercising at home (46%) or online with a coach (33%) versus with a group fitness class (18%) or at the gym (17%). Combining health promotion with exercise was appealing to the majority of participants (37%), while others were not interested (27%) or unsure (31%). Responses were similar between patients meeting and not meeting PA recommendations (p>0.05). The most preferred lifestyle intervention components included tracking progress (56%), health recipes (56%), one-on-one counseling (46%), tips for cheap and healthy eating (41%), exercising alone (41%), and online sessions (39%). Conclusions: As a result of COVID-19, rural, obese ECS experienced a decrease in PA, worse nutritional decision-making, and poorer mental health. Preferred components of lifestyle interventions in this patient population were identified and can be used to develop future, evidence-based behavioral interventions. These interventions may be scalable in rural communities with limited access during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the United States, underserved communities including Blacks and Latinx are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, and widespread vaccination is critical for curbing this pandemic. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, describe attitudes related to vaccination, and identify correlates among racial minority and marginalized populations across 9 counties in North Carolina. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered questionnaire distributed at free COVID-19 testing events in underserved rural and urban communities from August 27 - December 15, 2020. Vaccine hesitancy was defined as the response of "no" or "don't know/not sure" to whether the participant would get the COVID-19 vaccine as soon as it became available. RESULTS: The sample comprised 948 participants including 27.7% Whites, 59.6% Blacks, 12.7% Latinx, and 63% female. Thirty-two percent earned <$20K annually, 60% owned a computer and ~80% had internet access at home. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 68.9% including 62.7%, 74%, and 59.5% among Whites, Blacks, and Latinx, respectively. Between September and December, the largest decline in vaccine hesitancy occurred among Whites (27.5 percentage points), followed by Latinx (17.6) and the smallest decline was among Black respondents (12.0). 51.2% of the respondents reported vaccine safety concerns, 23.7% wanted others to get of the respondents reported they would trust health care providers with information about the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors associated with hesitancy in multivariable logistic regression included being female (OR=1.90 95%CI[1.36, 2.64]), being Black (OR=1.68 [1.106 2.45]), calendar month (OR=0.76 [0.63, 0.92]), safety concerns (OR=4.28 [3.06, 5.97]), and government distrust (OR=3.57 [2.26, 5.63]). CONCLUSIONS: This study reached underserved minority populations in a number of different locations to investigate COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We built on existing relationships and further engaged the community, stake holders and health department to provide free COVID-19 testing. This direct approach permitted assessment of vaccine hesitancy (which was much higher than national estimates), distrust, and safety concerns. HIGHLIGHTS: This study surveyed 948 adults at COVID-19 testing sites in 9 counties of North Carolina between August 27 and December 15, 2020 where vaccine hesitancy was widespread including 74% in Blacks, 62.7% in Whites and 59.5% in Latinx.Vaccine hesitancy declined over time but remained high for Blacks.On-site surveys conducted in underserved areas that were paper-based and self-administered permitted reaching adults with no internet (17%), no cell phone (20%), no computer (40%) and yearly incomes less than 20K (31%). Widespread vaccine hesitancy in predominately minority communities of NC must be addressed to successfully implement mass COVID-19 vaccination programs.

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