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2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2)-related pneumonia is associated with venous and arterial thrombosis . Aim of the study was to find-out a new score for predicting thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included a cohort of 674 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, not requiring intensive care units, and followed-up during the hospitalization until discharge. Routinary analyses performed at in-hospital admission included also serum albumin and D-dimer while arterial and venous thromboses were the end-points of the study. RESULTS: During the follow-up thrombotic events 110 were registered; patients with thrombotic events were older and had lower albumin and higher D-dimer, compared to thrombotic event-free ones. On multivariable logistic regression with step by stepwise procedure age, serum albumin, D-dimer, were independently associated with thrombotic events. The linear combination of age, D-dimer, albumin allowed to build-up the ADA score, whose AUC was 0.752 (95% CI, 0.708-0.795). ADA score was internally validated by bootstrap sampling procedure giving an AUC of 0.752 (95% CI: 0.708 - 0.794). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of age, D-dimer, albumin in the ADA score allows identifying SARS-CoV-2 patients at higher risk of thrombotic events.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: E-selectin is a recognized marker of endothelial activation; however, its place in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been fully explored. Aims of the study are to compare sE-selectin values among the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admitted and non-admitted, survived and non-survived patients and those with or without thrombosis. METHODS: A single-center study of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at Policlinico Umberto I (Rome) from March to May 2020 was performed. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were developed. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, with a median age (IQR) of 65 years (58-78). Twenty-nine (29%) were admitted to ICU, twenty-eight (28%) died and nineteen (19%) had a thrombotic event. The median value (IQR) of sE-selectin was 26.1 ng/mL (18.1-35). sE-selectin values did not differ between deceased and survivors (p = 0.06) and among patients with or without a thrombotic event (p = 0.22). Compared with patients who did not receive ICU treatments, patients requiring ICU care had higher levels of sE-selectin (36.6 vs. 24.1 ng/mL; p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression model, sE-selectin levels > 33 ng/mL, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 and PaO2/FiO2 200-300 were significantly associated with an increased risk of ICU admission. sE-selectin values significantly correlated with a neutrophil count (R = 0.32 (p = 0.001)) and the number of days from the symptoms onset to hospitalization (R = 0.28 (p = 0.004)). CONCLUSIONS: sE-selectin levels are predictive of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. Since data on the relation between sE-selectin and COVID-19 are scarce, this study aims to contribute toward the comprehension of the pathogenic aspects of COVID-19 disease, giving a possible clinical marker able to predict its severity.

5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 702356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372064

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Restrictive isolation measures have also brought psychological distress to the pediatric population. Building on the syndrome's characteristics, the present study explored the impact of lockdown on the clinical course of young people with PANDAS/PANS. The initial hypothesis considered both the reduced exposure to viral agents and the strategies of the parents and other containment actions as protective factors against the worsening of symptoms. Methods: One hundred and eight children, adolescents, and young adults were recruited according to the multicenter PANDAS/PANS research program. Parents participated in a web-based survey. Results: contrary to our hypothesis, the study results show an increase in symptoms during the block in 71% of the sample. Psychometric analyzes allowed us to exclude a relationship between the main symptoms of PANDAS and the increase in symptoms or the presence of symptoms before the block and their increase over time. The increase in symptoms is best explained by the presence of sleep disturbances and emotional lability. The exacerbation also appears to be linked to the onset of new symptoms in children and adolescents with depressed moods and eating problems. Furthermore, irritability and oppositionality are significant predictors of acute exacerbation. Equally statistically significant is the factor linked to the effects of pandemic stress, such as the fear of contracting the virus. No significant associations for symptom reduction have been identified between parental strategies or other parent-initiated actions, but the study demonstrates that caregiver perceived efficacy on the strategies used can reduce the risk of exacerbation. Conclusion: This preliminary study highlights the importance of studying the causes of increased symptoms in children with PANDAS/PANS. Life events can exacerbate the clinical condition or generate new symptoms in young patients. In particular, environmental, family, and social changes in the course of clinical symptoms in PANDAS/PANS patients should be investigated. It highlights the importance of emotional and behavioral management, which can be improved by enhancing coping strategies in young people with PANDAS/PANS and their caregivers through a combination treatment in which CBT and PMT are included, in line with guidelines. Limits: An experimental proxy-report questionnaire not yet standardized and validated on the PANS/PANDAS pediatric clinical sample was used for the exploratory study. There is also a small sample size (N = 108) and the absence of a control group (pre-lockdown or children without PANDAS/PANS). It would be interesting to evaluate the exact long-term dimensions to see the course of symptoms after covid and conduct a new study focusing on the impact of stressful events on the clinical course of the syndrome.

10.
Front Neurol ; 11: 956, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804851

ABSTRACT

Anosmia is a well-described symptom of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several respiratory viruses are able to cause post-viral olfactory dysfunction, suggesting a sensorineural damage. Since the olfactory bulb is considered an immunological organ contributing to prevent the invasion of viruses, it could have a role in host defense. The inflammatory products locally released in COVID-19, leading to a local damage and causing olfactory loss, simultaneously may interfere with the viral spread into the central nervous system. In this context, olfactory receptors could play a role as an alternative way of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells locally, in the central nervous system, and systemically. Differences in olfactory bulb due to sex and age may contribute to clarify the different susceptibility to infection and understand the role of age in transmission and disease severity. Finally, evaluation of the degree of functional impairment (grading), central/peripheral anosmia (localization), and the temporal course (evolution) may be useful tools to counteract COVID-19.

11.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13378, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To systematically review clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with the severity of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review of observational studies from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Cochrane databases including people affected by COVID-19 and reporting data according to the severity of the disease. Data were combined with odds ratio (OR) and metanalysed. Severe COVID-19 was defined by acute respiratory distress syndrome, intensive care unit admission and death. RESULTS: We included 12 studies with 2794 patients, of whom 596 (21.33%) had severe disease. A slightly higher age was found in severe vs non-severe disease. We found that prevalent cerebrovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-7.72), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 2.39, 95% CI 1.10-5.19), prevalent cardiovascular disease (OR: 2.84, 95% CI 1.59-5.10), diabetes (OR: 2.78, 95% CI 2.09-3.72), hypertension (OR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.63-3.08), smoking (OR: 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.22) and male sex (OR: 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.49) were associated with severe disease. Furthermore, increased procalcitonin (OR: 8.21, 95% CI 4.48-15.07), increased D-Dimer (OR: 5.67, 95% CI 1.45-22.16) and thrombocytopenia (OR: 3.61, 95% CI 2.62-4.97) predicted severe infection. CONCLUSION: Characteristics associated with the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection may allow an early identification and management of patients with poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(6): 949-956, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-151374

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is clinically characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for a high number of patients needing mechanical ventilation or intensive care units treatment and for the elevated mortality risk. A link between COVID-19 and multiorgan failure may be dependent on the fact that most COVID-19 patients are complicated by pneumonia, which is known to be associated with early changes of clotting and platelet activation and artery dysfunction; these changes may implicate in thrombotic-related events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Recent data showed that myocardial injury compatible with coronary ischemia may be detectable in SARS-CoV-2 patients and laboratory data exploring clotting system suggest the presence of a hypercoagulation state. Thus, we performed a systematic review of COVID-19 literature reporting measures of clotting activation to assess if changes are detectable in this setting and their relationship with clinical severity. Furthermore, we discussed the biologic plausibility of the thrombotic risk in SARS-CoV-2 and the potential use of an antithrombotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/therapy , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Liver Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prothrombin Time , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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