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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195815

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081941

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 109-117, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067832

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and has led to calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. In this study, we have developed novel, to our knowledge, flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of human SARS-CoV-2 Abs against the receptor-binding domain, including an Ag sandwich ELISA relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection, ranging from asymptomatic to critical cases. We mapped the Ab responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A, and G Ab responses against receptor-binding domain are significantly correlated to the disease severity. These assays and the data generated from them are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 109-117, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934538

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and has led to calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. In this study, we have developed novel, to our knowledge, flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of human SARS-CoV-2 Abs against the receptor-binding domain, including an Ag sandwich ELISA relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection, ranging from asymptomatic to critical cases. We mapped the Ab responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A, and G Ab responses against receptor-binding domain are significantly correlated to the disease severity. These assays and the data generated from them are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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