BACKGROUND: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) intervention is a programme of physical activity and exercise designed to maintain participation in activities of daily living, mobility, and quality of life for people living with dementia. During the COVID-19 pandemic first national lockdown in England, the PrAISED physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and rehabilitation support workers adapted to delivering the intervention remotely via telephone or video conferencing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore therapists' experience of delivering the PrAISED intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic and derive implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 therapists using purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: Therapists reported a change in the relationship between themselves, the person with dementia and the caregiver, with an increased reliance on the caregiver and a loss of autonomy for the person living with dementia. There was concern that this would increase the burden on the caregiver. The therapists reported using creativity to adapt to different modes of delivery. They felt their sessions were mostly focused on providing social and emotional support, and that assessing, progressing, and tailoring the intervention was difficult. CONCLUSION: It is possible to deliver some elements of a physical intervention using remote delivery, but a dual modal approach including remote and face-to-face delivery would optimize treatment efficacy. Educational support would be required to enable people living with dementia and their caregivers to overcome barriers relating to digital literacy.
AIM: This systematic review identifies, appraises and synthesizes the evidence on the provision of fundamental nursing care to hospitalized patients with a highly infectious virus and the effectiveness of adaptations to overcome barriers to care. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: In July 2020, we searched Medline, PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), BNI (ProQuest), WHO COVID-19 Database (https://search.bvsalud.org/) MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/), bioRxiv (https://www.biorxiv.org/) and also Google Scholar, TRIP database and NICE Evidence, forwards citation searching and reference checking of included papers, from 2016 onwards. REVIEW METHODS: We included quantitative and qualitative research reporting (i) the views, perceptions and experiences of patients who have received fundamental nursing care whilst in hospital with COVID-19, MERS, SARS, H1N1 or EVD or (ii) the views, perceptions and experiences of professional nurses and non-professionally registered care workers who have provided that care. We included review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents. One reviewer performed data extraction and quality appraisal and was checked by another person. RESULTS: Of 3086 references, we included 64 articles; 19 empirical research and 45 review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents spanning five pandemics. Four main themes (and 11 sub-themes) were identified. Barriers to delivering fundamental care were wearing personal protective equipment, adequate staffing, infection control procedures and emotional challenges of care. These barriers were addressed by multiple adaptations to communication, organization of care, staff support and leadership. CONCLUSION: To prepare for continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics, evaluative studies of adaptations to fundamental healthcare delivery must be prioritized to enable evidence-based care to be provided in future. IMPACT: Our review identifies the barriers nurses experience in providing fundamental care during a pandemic, highlights potential adaptations that address barriers and ensure positive healthcare experiences and draws attention to the need for evaluative research on fundamental care practices during pandemics.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
Introduction: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) is delivering an exercise programme for people with dementia. The Lincolnshire partnership National Health Service (NHS) foundation Trust successfully delivered PrAISED through a video-calling platform during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This qualitative case-study aimed to identify participants that video delivery worked for, to highlight its benefits and its challenges. Interviews were conducted between May and August 2020 with five participants with dementia and their caregivers (n = 10), as well as five therapists from the Lincolnshire partnership NHS foundation Trust. The interviews were analysed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Video delivery worked best when participants had a supporting caregiver and when therapists showed enthusiasm and had an established rapport with the client. Benefits included time efficiency of sessions, enhancing participants' motivation, caregivers' dementia awareness, and therapists' creativity. Limitations included users' poor IT skills and resources. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic required innovative ways of delivering rehabilitation. This study supports that people with dementia can use tele-rehabilitation, but success is reliant on having a caregiver and an enthusiastic and known therapist.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Dementia/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Caregivers , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , State Medicine
INTRODUCTION: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) randomised controlled trial (RCT) is evaluating a home-based, face-to-face, individually tailored, activity and exercise programme for people living with dementia. Social distancing requirements following the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid changes to intervention delivery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods process evaluation will investigate how the changes were implemented and the impact that these have on participants' experience. An implementation study will investigate how the intervention was delivered during the pandemic. A study on the mechanisms of impact and context will investigate how these changes were experienced by the PrAISED participants, their carers and the therapists delivering the intervention. The study will commence in May 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PrAISED RCT and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059. The PrAISED process evaluation will enable us to understand how distancing and isolation affected participants, their activity and exercise routines and whether the therapy programme could be continued with remote support. This will be valuable both in explaining trial results and also contribute to understanding and designing new ways of delivering home-based services and rehabilitation interventions for people with dementia and their carers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15320670; Pre-results.