Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312783

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine the utility of chest radiography (CXR) for assessing and prognosticating COVID-19 disease with an objective radiographic scoring system. Methods: A multicenter, prospective study was conducted, forty patients were included. Seventy-eight CXR’s were performed on the first derivation cohort of twenty patients with COVID-19 (median age 47.5 years, 10 females and four with comorbidities) admitted between 22 January 2020 and 1 February 2020. Each CXR was scored by three radiologists in consensus and graded on a 72-point COVID-19 Radiographic Score (CRS). This was correlated with supplemental oxygen requirement, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lymphocyte count. To validate our findings, the parameters of another validation cohort of twenty patients with 65 CXRs were analysed. Results: In the derivation cohort, seven patients needed supplemental oxygen and one was intubated for mechanical ventilation with no death. The maximum CRS was significantly different between patients on and not on supplemental oxygen (p=<.001). There was strong correlation between maximum CRS and lowest oxygen saturation (r= -.849), maximum CRP (r= .832) and maximum LDH (r= .873). These findings were consistent in the validation cohort. An increment of 2 points in CRS had an accuracy of 0.938 with 100.0% sensitivity (95% CI 100.0-100.0) and 83.3% (95% CI 65.1-100.0) specificity in predicting supplemental oxygen requirement. Conclusion: Using an objective scoring system (CRS), the degree of abnormalities on CXR correlates closely with known markers of disease severity. CRS may further be applied to predict patients who require oxygen supplementation during the course of their disease.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7477, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169408

ABSTRACT

We aim to describe a case series of critically and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore. This was a multicentered prospective study with clinical and laboratory details. Details for fifty uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and ten who required mechanical ventilation were collected. We compared clinical features between the groups, assessed predictors of intubation, and described ventilatory management in ICU patients. Ventilated patients were significantly older, reported more dyspnea, had elevated C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. A multivariable logistic regression model identified respiratory rate (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.47) and neutrophil count (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.34-4.26) on admission as independent predictors of intubation with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95% CI 0.828-0.979). Median APACHE II score was 19 (IQR 17-22) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation was 104 (IQR 89-129). Median peak FiO2 was 0.75 (IQR 0.6-1.0), positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (IQR 10-14) and plateau pressure 22 (IQR 18-26) in the first 24 h of ventilation. Median duration of ventilation was 6.5 days (IQR 5.5-13). There were no fatalities. Most COVID-19 patients in Singapore who required mechanical ventilation because of ARDS were extubated with no mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore
3.
Singapore Med J ; 62(9): 458-465, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854647

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are widely used for the screening and management of COVID-19. This article describes the radiographic features of COVID-19 based on an initial national cohort of patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of swab-positive patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to four different hospitals in Singapore between 22 January and 9 March 2020. Initial and follow-up CXRs were reviewed by three experienced radiologists to identify the predominant pattern and distribution of lung parenchymal abnormalities. RESULTS: In total, 347 CXRs of 96 patients were reviewed. Initial CXRs were abnormal in 41 (42.7%) out of 96 patients. The mean time from onset of symptoms to CXR abnormality was 5.3 ± 4.7 days. The predominant pattern of lung abnormality was ground-glass opacity on initial CXRs (51.2%) and consolidation on follow-up CXRs (51.0%). Multifocal bilateral abnormalities in mixed central and peripheral distribution were observed in 63.4% and 59.2% of abnormal initial and follow-up CXRs, respectively. The lower zones were involved in 90.2% of initial CXRs and 93.9% of follow-up CXRs. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of swab-positive patients, including those identified from contact tracing, we found a lower incidence of CXR abnormalities than was previously reported. The most common pattern was ground-glass opacity or consolidation, but mixed central and peripheral involvement was more common than peripheral involvement alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
4.
Adv Cell Gene Ther ; 3(4): e101, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine whether the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are sufficiently high in the blood of convalescent donors and whether it is technically feasible to manufacture clinical-grade products overnight for T-cell therapy and assessment of COVID-19 immunity. Methods: One unit of whole blood or leukapheresis was collected from each donor following standard blood bank practices. The leukocytes were stimulated using overlapping peptides of SARS-CoV-2, covering the immunodominant sequence domains of the S protein and the complete sequence of the N and M proteins. Thereafter, functionally reactive cells were enriched overnight using an automated device capturing IFNγ-secreting cells. Results: From 1 × 109 leukocytes, a median of 0.98 × 106 (range 0.56-2.95) IFNγ + T cells were produced from each of the six donors, suggesting a high frequency of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in their blood, even though only one donor had severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation whereas the other five donors had minor symptoms. A median of 57% of the enriched T cells were IFNγ+ (range 20%-74%), with preferential enrichment of CD56+ T cells and effector memory T cells. TCRVß-spectratyping confirmed distinctively tall oligoclonal peaks in final products. With just six donors, the probability that a recipient would share at least one HLA allele with one of the donors is >88% among Caucasian, >95% among Chinese, >97% among Malay, and >99% among Indian populations. Conclusions: High frequencies of rapid antigen-reactive T cells were found in convalescent donors, regardless of severity of COVID-19. The feasibility of clinical-grade production of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells overnight for therapeutics and diagnostics is revealed.

6.
JAMA ; 323(15): 1488-1494, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3256

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread globally with sustained human-to-human transmission outside China. Objective: To report the initial experience in Singapore with the epidemiologic investigation of this outbreak, clinical features, and management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive case series of the first 18 patients diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at 4 hospitals in Singapore from January 23 to February 3, 2020; final follow-up date was February 25, 2020. Exposures: Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data were collected, including PCR cycle threshold values from nasopharyngeal swabs and viral shedding in blood, urine, and stool. Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. Results: Among the 18 hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age, 47 years; 9 [50%] women), clinical presentation was an upper respiratory tract infection in 12 (67%), and viral shedding from the nasopharynx was prolonged for 7 days or longer among 15 (83%). Six individuals (33%) required supplemental oxygen; of these, 2 required intensive care. There were no deaths. Virus was detectable in the stool (4/8 [50%]) and blood (1/12 [8%]) by PCR but not in urine. Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. For 3 of the 5 patients, fever resolved and supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced within 3 days, whereas 2 deteriorated with progressive respiratory failure. Four of the 5 patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir developed nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, and 3 developed abnormal liver function test results. Conclusions and Relevance: Among the first 18 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Singapore, clinical presentation was frequently a mild respiratory tract infection. Some patients required supplemental oxygen and had variable clinical outcomes following treatment with an antiretroviral agent.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Virus Shedding
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL