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Med J Malaysia ; 76(1): 98-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052661


Around June 2020, many institutions restarted full operating schedules to clear the backlog of postponed surgeries because of the first wave in the COVID-19 pandemic. In an online survey distributed among anaesthestists in Asian countries at that time, most of them described their safety concerns and recommendations related to the supply of personal protective equipment and its usage. The second concern was related to pre-operative screening for all elective surgical cases and its related issues. The new norm in practice was found to be non-standardized and involved untested devices or workflow that have since been phased out with growing evidence. Subsequent months after reinstating full elective surgeries tested the ability of many hospitals in handling the workload of non-COVID surgical cases together with rising COVID-19 positive cases in the second and third waves when stay-at-home orders eased.

Anesthetists , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Preoperative Period , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workflow
Anesth Analg ; 132(1): 15-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977697


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected and overwhelmed many health care systems around the world at an unprecedented speed and magnitude with devastating effects. In developing nations, smaller hospitals were unprepared to face this outbreak nor had strategies in place to do so at the beginning. Here, we describe the preparation in an anesthetic department using simulation-based training over 2 weeks, as the number of cases rose rapidly. METHODS: Three areas of priority were identified as follows: staff safety, patient movement, and possible clinical scenarios based on simulation principles in health care education. Staff was rostered and rotated through stations for rapid-cycle deliberate practice to learn donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR). For difficult airway management, Peyton's 4 steps for skills training and Harden's Three Circle model formed the structure in teaching the core skills. Several clinical scenarios used system probing to elicit inadequacies followed by formal debriefing to facilitate reflection. Finally, evaluation was both immediate and delayed with an online survey after 1 month to examine 4 levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and impact based on the Kirkpatrick Model. Frequency and thematic analysis were then conducted on the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 15 of 16 (93%) consultants, 16 (100%) specialists, and 81 (100%) medical officers in the department completed training within 2 consecutive weeks. Reaction and part of the learning were relayed immediately to trainers during training. In total, 42 (39%) trained staff responded to the survey. All were satisfied and agreed on the relevance of training. A total of 41 respondents (98%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99) answered 16 of 20 questions correctly on identifying aerosol-generating procedures (AGP), indications for PPE, planning and preparation for airway management to achieve adequate learning. About 43% (95% CI, 27-59) and 52% (95% CI, 36-68) recalled donning and doffing steps correctly. A total of 92 responses from 33 respondents were analyzed in the thematic analysis. All respondents reported at least 1 behavioral change in intended outcomes for hand hygiene practice (20%), appropriate use of PPE (27%), and airway management (10%). The emerging outcomes were vigilance, physical distancing, planning, and team communication. Finally, the impact of training led to the establishment of institutional guidelines followed by all personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training was a useful preparation tool for small institutions with limited time, resources, and manpower in developing nations. These recommendations represent the training experience to address issues of "when" and "how" to initiate urgent "medical education" during an outbreak.

Anesthesia Department, Hospital , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Health Services Needs and Demand , Infection Control , Inservice Training , Simulation Training , Clinical Competence , Humans , Malaysia , Needs Assessment , Workflow