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Front Microbiol ; 12: 752214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477838


Coronaviruses have brought severe challenges to public health all over the world in the past 20years. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic that has led to millions of deaths, belongs to the genus beta-coronavirus. Alpha- and beta-coronaviruses encode a unique protein, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) that both suppresses host immune responses and reduces global gene expression levels in the host cells. As a key pathogenicity factor of coronaviruses, Nsp1 redirects the host translation machinery to increase synthesis of viral proteins. Through multiple mechanisms, coronaviruses impede host protein expression through Nsp1, while escaping inhibition to allow the translation of viral RNA. In this review, we discuss current data about suppression of the immune responses and inhibition of protein synthesis induced by coronavirus Nsp1, as well as the prospect of live-attenuated vaccine development with virulence-attenuated viruses with mutations in Nsp1.

Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1055-1066.e6, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009762


The causative virus of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, uses its nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) to suppress cellular, but not viral, protein synthesis through yet unknown mechanisms. We show here that among all viral proteins, Nsp1 has the largest impact on host viability in the cells of human lung origin. Differential expression analysis of mRNA-seq data revealed that Nsp1 broadly alters the cellular transcriptome. Our cryo-EM structure of the Nsp1-40S ribosome complex shows that Nsp1 inhibits translation by plugging the mRNA entry channel of the 40S. We also determined the structure of the 48S preinitiation complex formed by Nsp1, 40S, and the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA, which shows that it is nonfunctional because of the incorrect position of the mRNA 3' region. Our results elucidate the mechanism of host translation inhibition by SARS-CoV-2 and advance understanding of the impacts from a major pathogenicity factor of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/ultrastructure , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics