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Intern Emerg Med ; 18(2): 359-366, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174915


Recently, case series studies on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported an association between remdesivir (RDV) administration and incidental bradycardia. However, the phenomenon has not yet been described in detail. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate the occurrence of RDV-related bradycardia in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 pneumoniae. We retrospectively evaluated 71 patients, hospitalized in six internal medicine wards of the Milan area, affected by mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who received RDV (RDV group) and 54 controls, matched for sex, age and disease severity on admission (CTR group). The mean heart rate value recorded during the first two days of hospitalization was considered as baseline heart rate (HRb). Heart rate values relative to the 5-days treatment and the 5-days post-treatment were extracted for RDV group, while heart rate values relative to 10 days of hospitalization were considered for the CTR group. ΔHR values were calculated as maximum HR drop versus HRb. Possible associations between ΔHR and clinical-demographic factors were assessed through regression analysis. The RDV group experienced a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia compared to the CTR group (56% vs 33%, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.4, p value = 0.011). Moreover, the RDV group showed higher ΔHR values than the CTR group. The HR progressively decreased with daily administration of RDV, reaching the maximun drop on day six (-8.6±1.9 bpm). In RDV group, patients who experienced bradycardia had higher drop in HR, higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values at the baseline (bALT) and during the RDV administration period. ΔHR was positively associated with HRb (ß = 0.772, p < 0.001) and bALT (ß = 0.245, p = 0.005). In conclusion, our results confirmed a significant association between RDV administration and development of bradycardia. This effect was proportional to baseline HR and was associated with higher levels of baseline ALT, suggesting a possible interaction between RDV liver metabolism and a vagally-mediated effect on HR due to increased availability of RDV metabolites.

Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Humans , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(8): 2219-2228, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990756


COVID-19 spread in two pandemic waves in Italy between 2020 and 2021. The aim of this study is to compare the first with the second COVID-19 wave, analyzing modifiable and non-modifiable factors and how these factors affected mortality in patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine wards. Consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and dyspnea requiring O2 supplementation were included. The severity of lung involvement was categorized according to the patients' oxygen need. Six hundred and ten SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The overall estimated 4-week mortality was similar in the two pandemic waves. Several variables were associated with mortality after univariate analysis, but they lacked the significance after multivariable adjustment. Steroids did not exert any protective effect when analyzed in time-dependent models in the whole sample; however, steroids seemed to exert a protective effect in more severe patients. When analyzing the progression to different states of O2 supplementation during hospital stay, mortality was almost exclusively associated with the use of high-flow O2 or CPAP. The analysis of the transition from one state to the other by Cox-Markov models confirmed that age and the severity of lung involvement at admission, along with fever, were relevant factor for mortality or progression.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Italy/epidemiology
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(6): 1739-1749, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906505


Despite vaccination programs, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains a public health problem. Identifying key prognostic determinants of severity of the disease may help better focus health resources. The negative prognostic role for metabolic and hepatic alterations is established; however, the interplay among different metabolic comorbidities and their interconnections with the liver have never been explored.The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of liver alterations in addition to metabolic comorbidities as a predictor of SARS-CoV-2 severity. 382 SARS-CoV-2 patients were enrolled. Severe SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed according to international consensus. Transaminases > 2 times the upper limit of normality (2ULN), hepatic steatosis (by ultrasound and/or computed tomography in 133 patients), and FIB-4 defined liver alterations. All data were collected on admission. The results are severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in 156 (41%) patients (mean age 65 ± 17; 60%males). Prevalence of obesity was 25%; diabetes, 17%; hypertension, 44%; dyslipidaemia, 29%; with 13% of the cohort with ≥ 3 metabolic alterations. Seventy patients (18%) had transaminases > 2ULN, 82 (62%) steatosis; 199 (54%) had FIB-4 < 1.45 and 45 (12%) > 3.25. At multivariable analysis, ≥ 3 metabolic comorbidities (OR 4.1, CI 95% 1.8-9.1) and transaminases > 2ULN (OR 2.6, CI 95% 1.3-6.7) were independently associated with severe SARS-CoV-2. FIB-4 < 1.45 was a protective factor (OR 0.42, CI 95% 0.23-0.76). Hepatic steatosis had no impact on disease course. The presence of metabolic alterations is associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the higher the number of coexisting comorbidities, the higher the risk of severe disease. Normal FIB-4 values are inversely associated with advanced SARS-CoV-2 regardless of metabolic comorbidities, speculating on use of these values to stratify the risk of severe infection.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Middle Aged , Transaminases