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2.
IEEE Access ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948720

ABSTRACT

For decades, researchers have experimented with the possibility that machines can equal human linguistic capabilities. Recently, advances in the field of natural language processing (NLP) as well as a substantial increase in available naturally occurring linguistic data on social media platforms have made more advanced methodologies such as sentiment analysis (SA) gain substantial momentum on contemporary applications. This document compiles what the authors consider to be some of the most important concepts related to SA, as well as techniques and processes necessary for the various stages of its implementation. Furthermore, specific applications related to the extraction and classification of social media data using novel SA techniques are presented and quantified, with an emphasis on those used for the identification of mental health degradation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the authors present several conclusions highlighting the most prominent benefits and drawbacks of the methods discussed, followed by a brief discussion of possible future applications of certain methods of interest. Author

4.
RISTI - Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao ; 2021(E45):200-211, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1823818

ABSTRACT

Twitter is an important social network and information channel where opinions (tweets) can be obtained and processed in real time that can be explored, analyzed and organized to make better decisions. Opinion mining is a natural language processing task that identifies user opinions as positive, negative, or neutral. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the coronavirus that appeared in December 2019 in China and immediately provoked a large number of opinions. To allow Panamanian health organizations to detect opportunities to improve the quality of medical care, we propose to classify the tweets the analysis of two approaches: deep learning and machine learning for to appreciate which is more precise. We obtained encouraging results with a precision of 95.6%. © 2021, Associacao Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao. All rights reserved.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S607-S608, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746330

ABSTRACT

Background. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is vulnerable to emerging pathogens due to reliance on donor screening for risk mitigation. These concerns were highlighted by dual FDA safety alerts regarding FMT transmission of bacterial pathogens, which were recognized in hindsight only after hospitalizations and deaths. The FDA also warned of potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, leading to quarantine of FMT in March 2020, two months after COVID-19 was reported on US soil. Conversely, our development program for SER-109, an oral investigational microbiome therapeutic, was prospectively designed to inactivate organisms of concern, while purifying the hardy Firmicutes spores. We evaluated whether the manufacturing processes for SER-109 inactivate model organisms, including a coronavirus with gastrointestinal tropism, and a representative Gram-negative bacterium. Methods. Model organisms were selected based on biologic suitability, detectability, and laboratory safety. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV, a coronavirus) was selected to model SARS-CoV-2. Quantitation used a Vero cell tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay. For E. coli, a rifampicin-tolerant Salmonella enterica was selected and quantified with MacConkey lactose agar plus rifampicin. Spiking experiments into representative fecal suspensions were completed to measure inactivation of model organisms. Log-reduction factors (LRF) were calculated based on the drop in organism titer during inactivation. Hold controls in non-ethanolic test matrices were used to confirm specificity of the ethanol inactivation. Results. In 70% v/v ethanol, PEDV was inactivated by more than 4.2 log10 (to limit of detection, LOD) within 4 minutes (Fig1). In 50% v/v ethanol, S. enterica was inactivated by more than 6.5 log10 (to LOD) within 30 seconds (Fig2). Average of three experiments with error bars represent 95% CI. Also shown is the maximum achievable inactivation based on the limit of detection (LOD). Conclusion. These experiments demonstrate substantial inactivation of the model organisms and support the potential benefit of SER-109 manufacturing process to mitigate risks of undetected or emerging pathogens for which reliable screening is limited. Ethanol exposure leads to a purified investigational product of beneficial Firmicutes spores while affording a safety net beyond donor screening alone.

6.
21st International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA) ; 12954:463-475, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1588830

ABSTRACT

Trees are central in the Nature-based Solutions for promoting simultaneously quality of life and biodiversity while providing mitigation and adaptive ecosystem services in the cities. Based on the Geodesign framework using the GIS-Colab Platform, the impact of decision-making scenarios on tree-cover changes, as well as the consequences it will have for carbon sequestration, was evaluated for 2020, 2035 and 2050 in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). This metropolitan area is one of the largest urban conglomerates in the world with more than 22 million people. It lies on the Atlantic Rainforest Biome, a tropical moist broadleaf forest regarded as a world hotspot of biodiversity. First, a diagnostic of the current conditions was elaborated using available layers of geospatial data from the MASP. Then the future tree cover was discussed according to three scenarios: i) the non-adopters that represent the business as usual;ii) the late-adopters that develop innovative actions from 2035;and iii) early-adopters that undertake innovative interventions of urban greening from 2020. The vegetation cover was estimated to be reduced by 4% considering the current non-adopter scenario by 2050. On the other hand, vegetation cover has the potential to increase 30% in 2050, once there is an early adoption of innovative interventions, promoting various ecosystem services and co-benefits that support the quality of life and the biodiversity in the MASP, while fostering the carbon credit in the city through vegetation carbon sink. This article points to possible pathways required to attain desired afforestation goals in the MASP following the Geodesign framework. This framework proved to be effective even though it was based only on remote meetings, imposed by the social distancing during the pandemic of COVID-19.

7.
21st International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2021 ; 12954 LNCS:463-475, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1446069

ABSTRACT

Trees are central in the Nature-based Solutions for promoting simultaneously quality of life and biodiversity while providing mitigation and adaptive ecosystem services in the cities. Based on the Geodesign framework using the GISColab Platform, the impact of decision-making scenarios on tree-cover changes, as well as the consequences it will have for carbon sequestration, was evaluated for 2020, 2035 and 2050 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). This metropolitan area is one of the largest urban conglomerates in the world with more than 22 million people. It lies on the Atlantic Rainforest Biome, a tropical moist broadleaf forest regarded as a world hotspot of biodiversity. First, a diagnostic of the current conditions was elaborated using available layers of geospatial data from the MASP. Then the future tree cover was discussed according to three scenarios: i) the non-adopters that represent the business as usual;ii) the late-adopters that develop innovative actions from 2035;and iii) early-adopters that undertake innovative interventions of urban greening from 2020. The vegetation cover was estimated to be reduced by 4% considering the current non-adopter scenario by 2050. On the other hand, vegetation cover has the potential to increase 30% in 2050, once there is an early adoption of innovative interventions, promoting various ecosystem services and co-benefits that support the quality of life and the biodiversity in the MASP, while fostering the carbon credit in the city through vegetation carbon sink. This article points to possible pathways required to attain desired afforestation goals in the MASP following the Geodesign framework. This framework proved to be effective even though it was based only on remote meetings, imposed by the social distancing during the pandemic of COVID-19. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
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