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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855682

ABSTRACT

We investigated the storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) before and after the first dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and the association between pre-vaccinated overactive bladder (OAB) and the worsening of storage LUTS following COVID-19 vaccination. This cross-sectional study in a third-level hospital in Taiwan used the validated pre- and post-vaccinated Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Diagnosis of OAB was made using pre-vaccinated OABSS. The deterioration of storage LUTS was assessed as the increased score of OABSS following vaccination. Of 889 subjects, up to 13.4% experienced worsened storage LUTS after vaccination. OAB was significantly associated with an increased risk of worsening urinary urgency (p = 0.030), frequency (p = 0.027), and seeking medical assistance due to urinary adverse events (p < 0.001) after vaccination. The OAB group faced significantly greater changes in OABSS-urgency (p = 0.003), OABSS-frequency (p = 0.025), and total OABSS (p = 0.014) after vaccination compared to those observed in the non-OAB group. Multivariate regression revealed that pre-vaccinated OAB (p = 0.003) was a risk for the deterioration of storage LUTS. In conclusion, storage LUTS may deteriorate after vaccination. OAB was significantly associated with higher risk and greater changes in worsening storage LUTS. Storage LUTS should be closely monitored after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in those OAB patients.

2.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; : 102139, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773404

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the tail dependence among carbon prices, green and non-green cryptocurrencies. Using daily closing prices of carbon, green and non-green cryptocurrencies from 2017 to 2021 and a quantile connectedness framework, we find evidence of asymmetric tail dependence among these markets, with stronger dependence during highly volatile periods. Moreover, carbon prices are largely disconnected from cryptocurrencies during periods of low volatilities, while Bitcoin and Ethereum exhibit time-varying spillovers to other markets. Our results also show that green cryptocurrencies are weakly connected to Bitcoin and Ethereum, and their net connectedness are close to 0, except during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we find a significant influence of macroeconomic and financial factors on the tail dependence among carbon, green and non-green cryptocurrency markets. Our results highlight the time-varying diversification benefits across carbon, green and non-green cryptocurrencies and have important implications for investors and policymakers.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315882

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS CoV 2 caused significant threaten to global public health and economic consequences. It is extremely urgent that global people must take actions to develop safe and effective preventions and therapeutics. Nanobodies, which are derived from single‑chain camelid antibodies, had shown antiviral properties in various challenge viruses. In this study, multivalent nanobodies with high affinity blocking SARS CoV 2 spike interaction with ACE2 protein were developed. Results: Totally, four specific nanobodies against spike protein and its RBD domain were screened from a naïve VHH library. Among them, Nb91 hFc and Nb3 hFc demonstrated antiviral activity by neutralizing spike pseudotyped viruses in vitro. Subsequently, multivalent nanobodies were constructed to improve the neutralizing capacity. As a result, heterodimer nanobody Nb91 Nb3 hFc exhibited the strongest RBD binding affinity and neutralizing ability against SARS CoV 2 pseudoviruses with an IC50 value at approximately 1.54 nM. Conclusions: The present study indicated that naïve VHH library could be used as a potential resource for rapid acquisition and exploitation of antiviral nanobodies. Heterodimer nanobody Nb91 Nb3 hFc may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID 19.

4.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused significant threaten to global public health and economic consequences. It is extremely urgent that global people must take actions to develop safe and effective preventions and therapeutics. Nanobodies, which are derived from single­chain camelid antibodies, had shown antiviral properties in various challenge viruses. In this study, multivalent nanobodies with high affinity blocking SARS-CoV-2 spike interaction with ACE2 protein were developed. RESULTS: Totally, four specific nanobodies against spike protein and its RBD domain were screened from a naïve VHH library. Among them, Nb91-hFc and Nb3-hFc demonstrated antiviral activity by neutralizing spike pseudotyped viruses in vitro. Subsequently, multivalent nanobodies were constructed to improve the neutralizing capacity. As a result, heterodimer nanobody Nb91-Nb3-hFc exhibited the strongest RBD-binding affinity and neutralizing ability against SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses with an IC50 value at approximately 1.54 nM. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that naïve VHH library could be used as a potential resource for rapid acquisition and exploitation of antiviral nanobodies. Heterodimer nanobody Nb91-Nb3-hFc may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Cell Res ; 31(1): 17-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953056

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic worldwide. Currently, however, no effective drug or vaccine is available to treat or prevent the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report our discovery of a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate, the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic dalbavancin, based on virtual screening of the FDA-approved peptide drug library combined with in vitro and in vivo functional antiviral assays. Our results showed that dalbavancin directly binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with high affinity, thereby blocking its interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Furthermore, dalbavancin effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of ~12 nM. In both mouse and rhesus macaque models, viral replication and histopathological injuries caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly inhibited by dalbavancin administration. Given its high safety and long plasma half-life (8-10 days) shown in previous clinical trials, our data indicate that dalbavancin is a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Binding/drug effects , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vero Cells
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4431-4442, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-819331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is hitting many countries. It is hypothesized the epidemic is differentially progressing in different countries. AIM: To investigate how the COVID-19 epidemic is going on in different countries by analyzing representative countries. METHODS: The status of COVID-19 epidemic in over 60 most affected countries was characterized. The data of daily new cases of each country were collected from Worldometer. The data of daily tests for the United States, Italy, and South Korea were collected from the Website of One World Data. Levels of daily positive COVID-19 tests in the two most affected states of the United States (New York and New Jersey) were collected from the website of the COVID Tracking Project. Statistics were analyzed using Microcal Origin software with ANOVA algorithm, and significance level was set at a P value of 0.05. RESULTS: The COVID-19 epidemic was differentially progressing in different countries. Comparative analyses of daily new cases as of April 19, 2020 revealed that 61 most affected countries can be classified into four types: Downward (22), upward (20), static-phase (12), and uncertain ones (7). In particular, the 12 static-phase countries including the United States were characterized by largely constant numbers of daily new cases in the past over 14 d. Furthermore, these static-phase countries were overall significantly lower in testing density (P = 0.016) but higher in the level of positive COVID-19 tests than downward countries (P = 0.028). These findings suggested that the testing capacity in static-phase countries was lagging behind the spread of the outbreak, i.e., daily new cases (confirmed) were likely less than daily new infections and the remaining undocumented infections were thus still expanding, resulting in unstoppable epidemic. CONCLUSION: Increasing the testing capacity and/or reducing the COVID-19 transmission are urgently needed to stop the potentially unstoppable, severing crisis in static-phase countries.

8.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(15): 3305-3313, 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterized by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (MV), are at high risk of mortality. An effective and practical MV weaning protocol is needed for these fragile cases. CASE SUMMARY: Here, we present two critical COVID-19 patients who presented with fever, cough and fatigue. COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed based on blood cell counts, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging, and nuclei acid test results. To address the patients' respiratory failure, they first received noninvasive ventilation (NIV). When their condition did not improve after 2 h of NIV, each patient was advanced to MV [tidal volume (Vt), 6 mL/kg ideal body weight (IBW); 8-10 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure; respiratory rate, 20 breaths/min; and 40%-80% FiO2] with prone positioning for 12 h/day for the first 5 d of MV. Extensive infection control measures were conducted to minimize morbidity, and pharmacotherapy consisting of an antiviral, immune-enhancer, and thrombosis prophylactic was administered in both cases. Upon resolution of lung changes evidenced by CT, the patients were sequentially weaned using a weaning screening test, spontaneous breathing test, and airbag leak test. After withdrawal of MV, the patients were transitioned through NIV and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen support. Both patients recovered well. CONCLUSION: A MV protocol attentive to intubation/extubation timing, prone positioning early in MV, infection control, and sequential withdrawal of respiratory support, may be an effective regimen for patients with critical COVID-19.

9.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 64, 2020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus pneumonia, now called COVID-19, occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread quickly across China and the rest of the world. This study aims to evaluate initial chest thin-section CT findings of COVID-19 patients after their admission at our hospital. METHODS: Retrospective study in a tertiary referral hospital in Anhui, China. From January 22, 2020 to February 16, 2020, 110 suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients were examined using chest thin-section CT. Patients in group 1 (n = 51) presented with symptoms of COVID-19 according to the diagnostic criteria. Group 2 (n = 29) patients were identified as a high degree of clinical suspicion. Patients in group 3 (n = 30) presented with mild symptoms and normal chest radiographs. The characteristics, positions, and distribution of intrapulmonary lesions were analyzed. Moreover, interstitial lesions, pleural thickening and effusion, lymph node enlargement, and other CT abnormalities were reviewed. RESULTS: CT abnormalities were found only in groups 1 and 2. The segments involved were mainly distributed in the lower lobes (58.3%) and the peripheral zone (73.8%). The peripheral lesions, adjacent subpleural lesions, accounted for 51.8%. Commonly observed CT patterns were ground-glass opacification (GGO) (with or without consolidation), interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular interstitial thickening. Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 presented with smaller lesions, and all lesions were distributed in fewer lung segments. Localized pleural thickening was observed in 51.0% of group 1 patients and 48.2% of group 2 patients. The prevalence of lymph node enlargement in groups 1 and 2 combined was extremely low (1 of 80 patients), and no significant pleural effusion or pneumothorax was observed (0 of 80 patients). CONCLUSION: The common features of chest thin-section CT of COVID-19 are multiple areas of GGO, sometimes accompanied by consolidation. The lesions are mainly distributed in the lower lobes and peripheral zone, and a large proportion of peripheral lesions are accompanied by localized pleural thickening adjacent to the subpleural region.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 841-843, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27439

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is ongoing in China. Here, Boltzmann function-based analyses reveal the potential total numbers of COVID-19 deaths: 3,260 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3187-3394) in China; 110 (95% CI, 109-112) in Hubei Province; 3,174 (95% CI, 3095-3270) outside Hubei; 2,550 (95% CI, 2494-2621) in Wuhan City; and 617 (95% CI, 607-632) outside Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 651-652, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17530

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in China appears to reach the late stage since late March 2020, and a stepwise restoration of economic operations is implemented. Risk assessment for such economic restoration is of significance. Here, we estimated the probability of COVID-19 resurgence caused by work resuming in typical provinces/cities and found that such probability is very limited (<5% for all the regions except Beijing). Our work may inform provincial governments to make risk level-based, differentiated control measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Probability , Return to Work/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2
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