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Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931837


We demonstrate low rates of breakthrough coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and mild course of illness following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Residence in southern United States and lower median anti-receptor binding antibody level were associated with development of COVID-19.

Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(6): 821, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879669

Food , Humans
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(8): 1881-1883.e1, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670286


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has disrupted health care and has resulted in high mortality rates.1 Vaccination is an international priority to mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2. The initial trials for development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines excluded individuals with immunocompromising conditions.2.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Inflamm Intest Dis ; 7(2): 97-103, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666515


Background: Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are up to twice as likely to suffer from anxiety and/or depression. Collaborative care management (CoCM) is an evidence-based approach to treating behavioral health disorders that have proven effective for a range of conditions in primary care and some specialty settings. This model involves a team-based approach, with care delivered by a care manager (case reviews and behavioral therapy), psychiatrist (case reviews and psychopharmacological recommendations), and medical provider (ongoing care including psychopharmacological prescriptions). We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of CoCM in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with IBD. Methods: Patients with psychological distress identified by clinical impression and/or the results of the Patient Health Questionaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were referred to the CoCM program. Data from our 9-month CoCM pilot were collected to assess depression and anxiety response and remission rates. We obtained provider surveys to assess provider acceptability with delivering care in this model. Results: Though the SARS-CoV2 COVID-19 pandemic interrupted screening, 39 patients enrolled and 19 active participants completed the program. Overall, 47.4% had either a response or remission in depression, while 36.8% had response or remission in anxiety. The gastroenterologists highly agreed that the program was a beneficial resource for their patients and felt comfortable implementing the recommendations. Discussion: CoCM is a potentially feasible and well accepted care delivery model for treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with IBD in a specialty gastroenterology clinic setting.

Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(3): 462-469, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625333


INTRODUCTION: Although an additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine dose for immunocompromised persons has been recommended in some countries, further data to guide vaccination strategies for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgently needed. We sought to identify factors affecting initial humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines among patients with IBD. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of SARS-CoV-2 immunized patients with IBD, we evaluated associations between participant age, sex, vaccine type, medication use, and the presence of a detectable antireceptor binding domain antibody and quantitative antibody level. RESULTS: In total, 1,909 participants were included (1,123, 692, and 94 received BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively) of whom 96% achieved a positive antibody response. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with lack of antibody response were older age (P = 0.043), BNT162b2 vs mRNA-1273 (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9), and combination therapy with anti-TNF and 6MP, azathioprine, or methotrexate (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3). The use of 5-aminosalicylate or sulfasalazine (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8) and ustekinumab (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.8) was associated with decreased odds of lacking antibody response. DISCUSSION: Most patients with IBD mount an initial response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; however, older patients and those treated with anti-TNF and immunomodulator have blunted responses and may benefit the most from an additional vaccine dose. Patients treated with other classes of immunosuppressive medications have more robust initial immune responses to vaccination. These data should inform key decisions about patient selection for additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine doses in patients with IBD.

2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(1): 1-2, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606239
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556255


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination is recommended for all individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including those on immunosuppressive therapies; however, little is known about vaccine safety and efficacy in these patients or the impact of vaccination on IBD disease course. METHODS: We evaluated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) and the effect of vaccination on IBD disease course among participants in the PREVENT-COVID (Partnership to Report Effectiveness of Vaccination in populations Excluded from iNitial Trials of COVID) study, a prospective, observational cohort study. Localized and systemic reactions were assessed via questionnaire. Disease flare was defined by worsening IBD symptoms and change in IBD medications. Outcomes were stratified by vaccine type and IBD medication classes. RESULTS: A total of 3316 individuals with IBD received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine. Injection site tenderness (68%) and fatigue (46% dose 1, 68% dose 2) were the most commonly reported localized and systemic AEs after vaccination. Severe localized and systemic vaccine-related AEs were rare. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was associated with significantly greater severe AEs at dose 2 (localized 4% vs 2%, systemic 15% vs 10%; P < .001 for both). Prior COVID-19 infection, female sex, and vaccine type were associated with severe systemic reactions to dose 1, while age <50 years, female sex, vaccine type, and antitumor necrosis factor and vedolizumab use were associated with severe systemic reactions to dose 2. Overall rates (2%) of IBD flare were low following vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide reassurance that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine is safe and well tolerated among individuals with IBD, which may help to combat vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine confidence.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine is safe and well tolerated among individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Severe localized and systemic vaccine-related adverse events were rare, and rates of IBD flare were low (2%) following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in a cohort of 3316 participants with IBD.

Crohns Colitis 360 ; 3(4): otab066, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517843


BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at risk for complications due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a qualitative study to better understand IBD patient experiences and concerns when navigating the COVID-19 pandemic, with the goal of prioritizing patients' information needs. METHODS: We conducted a series of semistructured virtual focus groups at 6 months, then member checking focus groups 1 year into the COVID-19 pandemic. We included questions on patients' experiences navigating the pandemic with IBD, differences in their experience as compared to peers, their concerns and fears, as well as preferred information sources. Transcribed focus groups were coded and content analyzed to summarize key areas of interest and identify themes. We focused on 4 areas in our content analysis process: fears, challenges, information preferences, and research questions. RESULTS: A total of 26 IBD patient participants were included in the initial focus groups. Findings highlighted the many challenges faced by patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, ranging from access (bathrooms, medications, healthcare) to significant fears and concerns surrounding medications used for IBD worsening risks of COVID-19. Research questions of importance to patients centered on understanding risks for COVID-19 complications, particularly pertaining to medication utilization, with a shift over time toward understanding COVID-19 vaccination. In our member checking focus groups (n = 8 participants), themes were reiterated, with a central focus of research questions pertaining to COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Information needs for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic centered upon understanding disease-specific risks. Identified challenges and fears will inform future research agendas and communication with patients.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13533, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387483


The host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in small intestine. Our aim was to study colonic ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls. We hypothesized that the colonic expression levels of ACE2 impacts CD course. We examined the expression of colonic ACE2 in 67 adult CD and 14 NIBD control patients using RNA-seq and quantitative (q) RT-PCR. We validated ACE2 protein expression and localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded matched colon and ileal tissues using immunohistochemistry. The impact of increased ACE2 expression in CD for the risk of surgery was evaluated by a multivariate regression analysis and a Kaplan-Meier estimator. To provide critical support for the generality of our findings, we analyzed previously published RNA-seq data from two large independent cohorts of CD patients. Colonic ACE2 expression was significantly higher in a subset of adult CD patients which was defined as the ACE2-high CD subset. IHC in a sampling of ACE2-high CD patients confirmed high ACE2 protein expression in the colon and ileum compared to ACE2-low CD and NIBD patients. Notably, we found that ACE2-high CD patients are significantly more likely to undergo surgery within 5 years of CD diagnosis, and a Cox regression analysis found that high ACE2 levels is an independent risk factor for surgery (OR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.10-4.26; p = 0.025). Increased intestinal expression of ACE2 is associated with deteriorated clinical outcomes in CD patients. These data point to the need for molecular stratification that can impact CD disease-related outcomes.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Crohn Disease/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Crohn Disease/metabolism , Crohn Disease/surgery , Female , Humans , Ileum/metabolism , Ileum/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Male , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Young Adult