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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(1): e1-e10, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605122

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly affected health-care provision across the globe. Management of chronic ailments has become challenging because of the strained health-care resources and social distancing measures that prevent on-site clinical visits and treatments. Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a debilitating, chronic disease characterized by unpredictable swelling attacks in various parts of the body. Controlling HAE symptoms often requires long-term prophylactic medication use and regular medical care; however, limited scientific information has been published about HAE medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To gather patient and health-care professional (HCP) perspectives on the global impact that COVID-19 has had, and the future impact it will have on HAE medical care and to identify differences in perceptions across economic and geographic boundaries. Methods: We conducted two independent but similar online global surveys to capture patient and HCP perspectives on the impact that COVID-19 has had, and the future impact it will have on HAE medical care. Results: Both patients and HCPs globally reported that the pandemic has limited the availability of HAE medical care, and they expect the restrictions to continue far beyond the pandemic. In addition, the results of our study suggested that telehealth use has increased across the globe but has been more successfully implemented in high-income countries. Conclusion: Patients and HCPs expect that HAE-related care will be negatively impacted by the pandemic for many years. Disparities in medical care and technologic infrastructure may exacerbate these challenges in non-high-income countries. Supportive tools and global infrastructure should be established to provide aid to non-high-income countries throughout the pandemic and several years after.


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Angioedemas, Hereditary/diagnosis , Angioedemas, Hereditary/epidemiology , Angioedemas, Hereditary/therapy , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3575-3583, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284170

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a calamitous effect on the global community. Despite intense study, the immunologic response to the infection is only partially understood. In addition to older age and ethnicity, patients with comorbidities including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, malignancy, renal, and pulmonary disease may experience severe outcomes. Some patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) and secondary immunodeficiency also appear to be at increased risk from COVID-19. In addition to vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2, patients with PIDs often have chronic pulmonary disease and may not respond to vaccines, which exacerbates their long-term risk. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders, the most frequent symptomatic PID in adults and children, have a spectrum of B- and T-cell defects. It may be possible to stratify their risk for severe COVID-19 based on age, ethnicity, the severity of the T-cell defect, and the presence of other comorbidities. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders and other immunodeficiencies are at risk for Chronic COVID-19, a dangerous stalemate between a suboptimal immune response and SARS-CoV-2. Intra-host viral evolution could result in the rapid emergence of vaccine-resistant mutants and variants of high consequence; it is a public health emergency. Vaccination and prevention of Chronic COVID-19 in immunodeficient patients is therefore of the utmost priority. Having a reliable diagnostic assay for T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for evaluating responses to vaccines in these patients. New treatments for SARS-CoV-2 such as NZACE2-Patari are likely to be particularly beneficial for immunodeficient patients, especially those who fail to mount a robust T-cell response to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(6): 553-560, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165061

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused calamitous health, economic and societal consequences globally. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the infection. Areas covered: We have recently described the NZACE2-Patari project, which seeks to administer modified Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) molecules early in the infection to intercept and block SARS-CoV-2 binding to the pulmonary epithelium. Expert opinion: Since the nasopharyngeal mucosa is infected in the first asymptomatic phase of the infection, treatment of the nose is likely to be safe and potentially effective. The intercepted virus will be swallowed and destroyed in the stomach. There is however a limited window of opportunity to alter the trajectory of the infection in an individual patient, which requires access to rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2. The proposed strategy is analogous to passive immunization of viral infections such as measles and may be of particular benefit to immunodeficient and unvaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Stomach/virology , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(5): 421-430, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145096

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diagnostic tests play a critical role in the management of Sars-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. There are two groups of tests, which are in widespread use to identify patients who have contracted the virus. The commonly used reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test becomes negative once viral shedding ceases by approximately 2-3weeks. Antibody tests directed to viral antigens become positive after the second week of infection. IgG antibody responses to the virus are muted in children, pregnant females, and those with mild symptoms. IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly wane, although IgG antibodies directed to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein are more durable. Current data show variability in the sensitivity of commercial and in-house antibody tests to SARS-CoV-2.Areas covered: The role of T cells in acute illness is uncertain, but long-term protection against the virus may rely on memory T cell responses. Measuring memory T cell responses is important for retrospective confirmation of cases, who may have been infected early in the pandemic before reliable RT-qPCR tests were available and whose SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may have become undetectable. Relevant peer-reviewed published references from PubMed are included up to 15 March 2021.Expert opinion: After surveying the literature, the authors present the case for urgent development of diagnostic T cell assays for SARS-CoV-2 by accredited laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay
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