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Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 38, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860417


Background: The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in individuals with waning immunity generated by a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the patterns of IgA and IgM responses in previously infected and in naïve individuals are still poorly understood. Methods: We performed a serology study in a cohort of BTN162b2 mRNA vaccine recipients who were immunologically naïve (N, n = 50) or had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P.I., n = 51) during the first (n = 25) or second (n = 26) pandemic waves in Italy, respectively. We measured IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) and IgG against the nucleocapsid (N) proteins, as well as the neutralizing activity of sera collected before vaccination, after the first and second dose of vaccine. Results: Most P.I. individuals from the first pandemic wave who showed declining antibody titres responded to the first vaccine dose with IgG-S and pseudovirus neutralization titres that were significantly higher than those observed in N individuals after the second vaccine dose. In all recipients, a single dose of vaccine was sufficient to induce a potent IgA response that was not associated with serum neutralization titres. We observed an unconventional pattern of IgM responses that were elicited in only half of immunologically naïve subjects even after the second vaccine dose. Conclusions: The response to a single dose of vaccine in P.I. individuals is more potent than that observed in N individuals after two doses. Vaccine-induced IgA are not associated with serum neutralization.

EBioMedicine ; 77: 103888, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701663


BACKGROUND: Currently, evaluation of the IgG antibodies specific for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein following vaccination is used worldwide to estimate vaccine response. Limited data are available on vaccine-elicited IgM antibodies and their potential implication in immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study to quantify anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM (IgG-S and IgM-S) in health care worker (HCW) recipients of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Samples were collected before administration (T0), at the second dose (T1) and three weeks after T1 (T2). The cohort included 1584 immunologically naïve to SARS-CoV-2 (IN) and 289 with history of previous infection (PI). FINDINGS: IN showed three patterns of responses: (a) IgG positive/IgM negative (36.1%), (b) coordinated IgM-S/IgG-S responses appearing at T1 (37.4%) and (c) IgM appearing after IgG (26.3%). Coordinated IgM-S/IgG-S responses were associated with higher IgG titres. In IgM-S positive PI, 64.5% were IgM-S positive before vaccination, whereas 32% and 3.5% developed IgM-S after the first and second vaccine dose, respectively. IgM-S positive sera had higher pseudovirus neutralization titres compared to the IgM-S negative. INTERPRETATION: Coordinated expression of IgG-S and IgM-S after vaccination was associated with a significantly more efficient response in both antibody levels and virus-neutralizing activity. The unconventional IgG-S positive/IgM-S negative responses may suggest a recruitment of cross coronaviruses immunity by vaccination, warranting further investigation. FUNDING: Italian Ministry of Health under "Fondi Ricerca Corrente"- L1P5 and "Progetto Ricerca Finalizzata COVID-2020-12371675"; FUR 2020 Department of Excellence 2018-2022, MIUR, Italy; The Brain Research Foundation Verona.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Longitudinal Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 745665, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497091


Following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, several clinical trials have been approved for the investigation of the possible use of mAbs, supporting the potential of this technology as a therapeutic approach for infectious diseases. The first monoclonal antibody (mAb), Muromonab CD3, was introduced for the prevention of kidney transplant rejection more than 30 years ago; since then more than 100 mAbs have been approved for therapeutic purposes. Nonetheless, only four mAbs are currently employed for infectious diseases: Palivizumab, for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections, Raxibacumab and Obiltoxaximab, for the prophylaxis and treatment against anthrax toxin and Bezlotoxumab, for the prevention of Clostridium difficile recurrence. Protozoan infections are often neglected diseases for which effective and safe chemotherapies are generally missing. In this context, drug resistance and drug toxicity are two crucial problems. The recent advances in bioinformatics, parasite genomics, and biochemistry methodologies are contributing to better understand parasite biology, which is essential to guide the development of new therapies. In this review, we present the efforts that are being made in the evaluation of mAbs for the prevention or treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, malaria, and toxoplasmosis. Particular emphasis will be placed on the potential strengths and weaknesses of biological treatments in the control of these protozoan diseases that are still affecting hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.