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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3824, 2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991580

ABSTRACT

Omicron variant strains encode large numbers of changes in the spike protein compared to historical SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Although in vitro studies have suggested that several monoclonal antibody therapies lose neutralizing activity against Omicron variants, the effects in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we report on the protective efficacy against three SARS-CoV-2 Omicron lineage strains (BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2) of two monoclonal antibody therapeutics (S309 [Vir Biotechnology] monotherapy and AZD7442 [AstraZeneca] combination), which correspond to ones used to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Despite losses in neutralization potency in cell culture, S309 or AZD7442 treatments reduced BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2 lung infection in susceptible mice that express human ACE2 (K18-hACE2) in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Correlation analyses between in vitro neutralizing activity and reductions in viral burden in K18-hACE2 or human FcγR transgenic mice suggest that S309 and AZD7442 have different mechanisms of protection against Omicron variants, with S309 utilizing Fc effector function interactions and AZD7442 acting principally by direct neutralization. Our data in mice demonstrate the resilience of S309 and AZD7442 mAbs against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains and provide insight into the relationship between loss of antibody neutralization potency and retained protection in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
2.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabo6160, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949957

ABSTRACT

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the spike glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) offer a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given suboptimal global vaccination rates, waning immunity in vaccinated individuals, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the use of mAbs for COVID-19 prevention may increase and may need to be administered together with vaccines in certain settings. However, it is unknown whether administration of mAbs will impact the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Using an adenovirus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we show that simultaneous administration of the vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 mAbs does not diminish vaccine-induced humoral or cellular immunity in cynomolgus macaques. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 mAbs and viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can be administered together without loss of potency of either product. Additional studies will be required to evaluate co-administration of mAbs with other vaccine platforms.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330772

ABSTRACT

Omicron variant strains encode large numbers of changes in the spike protein compared to historical SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Although in vitro studies have suggested that several monoclonal antibody therapies lose neutralizing activity against Omicron variants1-4, the effects in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we report on the protective efficacy against three SARS-CoV-2 Omicron lineage strains (BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2) of two monoclonal antibody therapeutics (S309 [Vir Biotechnology] monotherapy and AZD7442 [AstraZeneca] combination), which correspond to ones used to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Despite losses in neutralization potency in cell culture, S309 or AZD7442 treatments reduced BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2 lung infection in susceptible mice that express human ACE2 (K18-hACE2). Correlation analyses between in vitro neutralizing activity and reductions in viral burden in K18-hACE2 or human Fc-gamma receptor transgenic mice suggest that S309 and AZD7442 have different mechanisms of protection against Omicron variants, with S309 utilizing Fc effector function interactions and AZD7442 acting principally by direct neutralization. Our data in mice demonstrate the resilience of S309 and AZD7442 mAbs against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains and provide insight into the relationship between loss of antibody neutralization potency and retained protection in vivo.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabl8124, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736022

ABSTRACT

Despite the success of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, there remains a need for more prevention and treatment options for individuals remaining at risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the viral spike protein have potential to both prevent and treat COVID-19 and reduce the risk of severe disease and death. Here, we describe AZD7442, a combination of two mAbs, AZD8895 (tixagevimab) and AZD1061 (cilgavimab), that simultaneously bind to distinct, nonoverlapping epitopes on the spike protein receptor binding domain to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Initially isolated from individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, the two mAbs were designed to extend their half-lives and reduce effector functions. The AZD7442 mAbs individually prevent the spike protein from binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, blocking virus cell entry, and neutralize all tested SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In a nonhuman primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, prophylactic AZD7442 administration prevented infection, whereas therapeutic administration accelerated virus clearance from the lung. In an ongoing phase 1 study in healthy participants (NCT04507256), a 300-mg intramuscular injection of AZD7442 provided SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean neutralizing titers greater than 10-fold above those of convalescent serum for at least 3 months, which remained threefold above those of convalescent serum at 9 months after AZD7442 administration. About 1 to 2% of serum AZD7442 was detected in nasal mucosa, a site of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Extrapolation of the time course of serum AZD7442 concentration suggests AZD7442 may provide up to 12 months of protection and benefit individuals at high-risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Combinations , Half-Life , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Primates , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1233-1244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434113

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies-AZD8895 and AZD1061-which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to define the genetic and structural basis of neutralization. AZD8895 forms an 'aromatic cage' at the heavy/light chain interface using germ line-encoded residues in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) 2 and 3 of the heavy chain and CDRs 1 and 3 of the light chain. These structural features explain why highly similar antibodies (public clonotypes) have been isolated from multiple individuals. AZD1061 has an unusually long LCDR1; the HCDR3 makes interactions with the opposite face of the RBD from that of AZD8895. Using deep mutational scanning and neutralization escape selection experiments, we comprehensively mapped the crucial binding residues of both antibodies and identified positions of concern with regards to virus escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. Both AZD8895 and AZD1061 have strong neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern with antigenic substitutions in the RBD. We conclude that germ line-encoded antibody features enable recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and demonstrate the utility of the cocktail AZD7442 in neutralizing emerging variant viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Variation , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Nature ; 584(7821): 443-449, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647154

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-24. Here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (S) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutralizing activity and fully block the receptor-binding domain of the S protein (SRBD) from interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Using competition-binding, structural and functional studies, we show that the monoclonal antibodies can be clustered into classes that recognize distinct epitopes on the SRBD, as well as distinct conformational states of the S trimer. Two potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, which recognize non-overlapping sites, bound simultaneously to the S protein and neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus in a synergistic manner. In two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of COV2-2196, COV2-2130 or a combination of both of these antibodies protected mice from weight loss and reduced the viral burden and levels of inflammation in the lungs. In addition, passive transfer of either of two of the most potent ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibodies (COV2-2196 or COV2-2381) as monotherapy protected rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cross Reactions , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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