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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(29): 925-930, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955143

ABSTRACT

An increase in adverse mental health symptoms occurred in the general population at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which peaked in 2020 and subsequently decreased (1-3). The pandemic exacerbated existing stress and fatigue among public health workers responding to the public health crisis.* During March-April 2021, a survey of state, tribal, local, and territorial (STLT) public health workers found that 52.8% of respondents experienced symptoms of at least one of the following mental health conditions: depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (4); however, more recent estimates of mental health symptoms among this population are limited. To evaluate trends in these conditions from the previous year, the prevalence of symptoms of mental health conditions and suicidal ideation, a convenience sample of STLT public health workers was surveyed during March 14-25, 2022. In total, 26,069 STLT public health workers responded to the survey. Among respondents,† 6,090 (27.7%) reported symptoms of depression, 6,467 (27.9%) anxiety, 6,324 (28.4%) PTSD, and 1,853 (8.1%) suicidal ideation. Although the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and PTSD among public health workers were lower (p<0.001)§ among 2022 survey respondents compared with those of 2021 survey respondents (4), the prevalences of symptoms of suicidal ideation, anxiety, depression, and PTSD remained high among those who worked >60 hours per week (range = 11.3%-45.9%) and those who spent ≥76% of their work time on COVID-19 response activities (range = 9.0%-37.6%). Respondents were less likely to report mental health symptoms if they could take time off (prevalence ratio [PR] range = 0.48-0.55), or if they perceived an increase in mental health resources from their employer (PR range = 0.58-0.84). To support the mental health of public health workers, public health agencies can modify work-related factors, including making organizational changes for emergency responses and facilitating access to mental health resources and services.¶.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
2.
Ann Epidemiol ; 74: 66-74, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between risk factors, mitigating factors, and adverse mental health outcomes among United States public health workers. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey data were collected March to April 2021. The survey was distributed to public health workers who worked in a state, tribal, local, or territorial public health department since March 2020. RESULTS: In total, 26,174 United States state and local public health workers completed the survey. Feeling isolated was a risk factor for anxiety (PR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.74-1.95), depression (PR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.75-1.94), post-traumatic stress disorder (PR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.43-1.57), and suicidal ideation (PR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.82-3.69). The ability to take time off was linked to fewer reported symptoms of anxiety (PR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.83-0.90), depression (PR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.89), post-traumatic stress disorder (PR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.88), and suicidal ideation (PR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, respondents who felt isolated and alone were at an increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes. Findings from this study call for public health organizations to provide their workforce with services and resources to mitigate adverse mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Workplace
3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(5): 475-485, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748793

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected adult mental health (MH), with racial and ethnic minoritized groups disproportionately affected. Objective: To examine changes in adult MH-related emergency department (ED) visits into the Delta variant pandemic period and identify changes and inequities in these visits before and during COVID-19 case surges. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiologic cross-sectional study used National Syndromic Surveillance Program data from US adults aged 18 to 64 years from 1970 to 2352 ED facilities from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. All MH-related ED visits and visits related to 10 disorders (ie, anxiety, depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia spectrum, trauma- and stressor-related, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral and impulse, obsessive-compulsive, eating, and tic disorders) were identified. Exposures: The following periods of MH-related ED visits were compared: (1) high Delta variant circulation (July 18-August 14, 2021) with a pre-Delta period (April 18-May 15, 2021), (2) after a COVID-19 case peak (February 14-March 13, 2021) with during a peak (December 27, 2020-January 23, 2021), and (3) the Delta period and the period after a COVID-19 case peak with the respective corresponding weeks during the prepandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: ED visits for 10 mental disorders and all MH-related visits. Results: This cross-sectional study included 107 761 319 ED visits among adults aged 18 to 64 years (59 870 475 [56%] women) from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. There was stability in most MH-related ED visit counts between the Delta and pre-Delta periods (percentage change, -1.4% to -7.5%), except for eating disorders (-11.9%) and tic disorders (-19.8%) and after a COVID-19 case peak compared with during a peak (0.6%-7.4%). Most MH-related ED visit counts declined in the Delta period relative to the prepandemic period (-6.4% to -30.7%); there were fluctuations by disorder when comparing after a COVID-19 case peak with the corresponding prepandemic period (-15.4% to 11.3%). Accounting for ED visit volume, MH-related ED visits were a smaller proportion of visits in the Delta period compared with the pre-Delta period (visit ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.85-0.86) and prepandemic period (visit ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.80). After a COVID-19 case peak, MH-related ED visits were a larger proportion of ED visits compared with during a peak (visit ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04) and the corresponding prepandemic period (visit ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.11-1.12). Of the 2 510 744 ED visits included in the race and ethnicity analysis, 24 592 (1%) were American Indian or Alaska Native persons, 33 697 (1%) were Asian persons, 494 198 (20%) were Black persons, 389 740 (16%) were Hispanic persons, 5000 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander persons, and 1 172 683 (47%) were White persons. There was between- and within-group variation in ED visits by race and ethnicity and increases in selected disorders after COVID-19 peaks for adults aged 18 to 24 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cross-sectional study suggest that EDs may have increases in MH-related visits after COVID-19 surges, specifically for young adults and individual racial and ethnic minoritized subpopulations. Public health practitioners should consider subpopulation-specific messaging and programmatic strategies that address differences in MH needs, particularly for those historically marginalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tic Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(48): 1680-1685, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727009

ABSTRACT

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 52.8% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (30.8%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Public Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Work/statistics & numerical data
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 947-952, 2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290053

ABSTRACT

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 53.0% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (32.0%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Public Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Work/statistics & numerical data
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