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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1990170

ABSTRACT

Joining a function-enhanced Fc-portion of human IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 produces an antiviral decoy with strain transcending virus neutralizing activity. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and Fc-effector functions of ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, formatted with or without the ACE2 collectrin domain, were optimized by Fc-modification. The different Fc-modifications resulted in distinct effects on neutralization and effector functions. H429Y, a point mutation outside the binding sites for FcγRs or complement caused non-covalent oligomerization of the ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, abrogated FcγR interaction and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Another Fc mutation, H429F did not improve virus neutralization but resulted in increased C5b-C9 fixation and transformed ACE2-Fc to a potent mediator of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) expressing cells. Furthermore, modification of the Fc-glycan enhanced cell activation via FcγRIIIa. These different immune profiles demonstrate the capacity of Fc-based agents to be engineered to optimize different mechanisms of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral pathogens.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327469

ABSTRACT

Following infection with SARS-CoV-2, virus-specific antibodies are generated which can both neutralise virions and clear infection via Fc effector functions. The importance of IgG antibodies for protection and control of SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively reported. In comparison, other antibody isotypes including IgA have been poorly characterized. Here we characterized plasma IgA from 41 early convalescent COVID-19 subjects for neutralisation and Fc effector functions. We find that convalescent plasma IgA from >60% of the cohort have the capacity to inhibit the interaction between wild-type RBD and ACE2. Furthermore, a third of the cohort induced stronger IgA-mediated inhibition of RBD binding to ACE2 than IgG, when tested at equivalent concentrations. Plasma IgA and IgG from the cohort, broadly recognize similar RBD epitopes and showed similar ability to inhibit ACE2 from binding 22 of 23 different prevalent RBD proteins with single amino acid mutations. Plasma IgA was largely incapable of mediating antibody-dependent phagocytosis in comparison to plasma IgG. Overall, convalescent plasma IgA contributes to neutralisation towards wild-type RBD and various RBD single mutants in most subjects, although this response is heterogeneous and less potent than IgG.

3.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(11): e1354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by aerosols, and the ocular surface may be an important route of transmission. Little is known about protective antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in tears after infection or vaccination. We analysed the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA responses in human tears after either COVID-19 infection or vaccination. METHODS: We measured the antibody responses in 16 subjects with COVID-19 infection for an average of 7 months before, and 15 subjects before and 2 weeks post-Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNtech) vaccination. Plasma, saliva and basal tears were collected. Eleven pre-pandemic individuals were included as healthy controls. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to spike and nucleoprotein were detected in tears, saliva and plasma from subjects with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison with uninfected controls. While receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies were detected in plasma, minimal RBD-specific antibodies were detected in tears and saliva. By contrast, high levels of IgG antibodies to spike and RBD, but not nucleoprotein, were induced in tears, saliva and plasma of subjects receiving 2 doses of the Comirnaty vaccine. Increased levels of IgA1 and IgA2 antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were detected in plasma following infection or vaccination but were unchanged in tears and saliva. Comirnaty vaccination induced high neutralising Abs in the plasma, but limited neutralising antibodies were detected in saliva or tears. CONCLUSION: Both infection and vaccination induce SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in tears. RBD-specific IgG antibodies in tears were induced by vaccination but were not present 7 months post-infection. This suggests the neutralising antibodies may be low in the tears late following infection.

4.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109822, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433046

ABSTRACT

Potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are one of the few agents currently available to treat COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that carry multiple mutations in the viral spike protein can exhibit neutralization resistance, potentially affecting the effectiveness of some antibody-based therapeutics. Here, the generation of a diverse panel of 91 human, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies provides an in-depth structural and phenotypic definition of receptor binding domain (RBD) antigenic sites on the viral spike. These RBD antibodies ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice and hamster models in a dose-dependent manner and in proportion to in vitro, neutralizing potency. Assessing the effect of mutations in the spike protein on antibody recognition and neutralization highlights both potent single antibodies and stereotypic classes of antibodies that are unaffected by currently circulating VOCs, such as B.1.351 and P.1. These neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and others that bind analogous epitopes represent potentially useful future anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
JCI Insight ; 6(16)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305530

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) is both the principal target of neutralizing antibodies and one of the most rapidly evolving domains, which can result in the emergence of immune escape mutations, limiting the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody therapeutics. To facilitate surveillance, we developed a rapid, high-throughput, multiplex assay able to assess the inhibitory response of antibodies to 24 RBD natural variants simultaneously. We demonstrate how this assay can be implemented as a rapid surrogate assay for functional cell-based serological methods to measure the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity of antibodies at the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-RBD (ACE2-RBD) interface. We describe the enhanced affinity of RBD variants N439K, S477N, Q493L, S494P, and N501Y to the ACE2 receptor and demonstrate the ability of this assay to bridge a major gap for SARS-CoV-2 research, informing selection of complementary monoclonal antibody candidates and the rapid identification of immune escape to emerging RBD variants following vaccination or natural infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203483

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies are important for immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and as therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Here, we identified high-affinity nanobodies from alpacas immunized with coronavirus spike and receptor-binding domains (RBD) that disrupted RBD engagement with the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping, X-ray crystallography, and cryo-electron microscopy revealed two distinct antigenic sites and showed two neutralizing nanobodies from different epitope classes bound simultaneously to the spike trimer. Nanobody-Fc fusions of the four most potent nanobodies blocked ACE2 engagement with RBD variants present in human populations and potently neutralized both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the N501Y D614G variant at concentrations as low as 0.1 nM. Prophylactic administration of either single nanobody-Fc or as mixtures reduced viral loads by up to 104-fold in mice infected with the N501Y D614G SARS-CoV-2 virus. These results suggest a role for nanobody-Fc fusions as prophylactic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Camelids, New World , Humans , Mice , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology
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