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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(9): 5165-5168, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several neurological complications have been reported following SARS-Cov-2 vaccination, without a clear causal relationship ever being verified, including some cases of worsening of Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms and new onset of movement disorders in non-parkinsonian patients. METHODS: We describe two new cases of PD patients treated with device-aided therapy who developed worsening of parkinsonian symptoms after receiving the third vaccine dose (booster). We also conducted a short review of the cases reported in literature of PD symptoms worsening and new onset of movement disorders in non-parkinsonian patients after SARS-Cov-2 vaccination. RESULTS: The first patient, a 46-year-old man implanted with bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, experienced temporary motor and non-motor symptoms worsening after mRNA-1273 booster, improved after stimulation settings modification. The second patient, a 55-year-old man implanted with percutaneous endoscopic transgastric jejunostomy (PEG-J) for levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion experienced severe temporary worsening of dyskinesia and managed through temporary LCIG dose reduction. Other seven cases of vaccine-related movement disorder are currently reported in literature, four describing PD symptoms worsening and three the onset of new movement disorders in otherwise healthy people. CONCLUSION: Both our patients and the cases described so far completely recovered after few days with parkinsonian therapy modification, symptomatic treatment, or even spontaneously, underlining the transient and benign nature of side effects from vaccine. Patients should be reassured about these complications, manageable through a prompt evaluation by the reference neurologist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Movement Disorders , Parkinson Disease , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Carbidopa/therapeutic use , Deep Brain Stimulation , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/therapy , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Neurol Sci ; 42(12): 4899-4902, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide new insights into neurological manifestations of COVID-19. We describe a patient with mild COVID-19 associated with diplopia from right sixth cranial nerve palsy and early diffuse leukoencephalopathy, successfully treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. METHODS: The patient was evaluated for diplopia that occurred 1 day after the onset of fever, myalgia, and headache. A complete neurological workup, including neurological examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis with viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serum autoimmune encephalitis, and anti-nerve antibodies and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was performed. RESULTS: Clinical examination revealed incomplete right sixth cranial nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed diffuse confluent fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintense white matter abnormalities, while CSF analysis showed mild hyperproteinorrachia (61 mg/dL) without pleocytosis. The patients were treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone with rapid improvement of neurological symptoms and resolution of CSF and MRI abnormalities. DISCUSSION: Our report shows that COVID-19 may predominantly present with neurological symptoms; furthermore, it argues the notion of leukoencephalopathy as a typical feature of a severe case of the disease. Mechanisms underpinning neurological symptoms in COVID-19 still need to be elucidated; nonetheless, early recognition and prompt management may ensure their improvement or even complete recovery and are therefore recommended.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Abducens Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Diplopia/drug therapy , Diplopia/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117610, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological involvement in Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is widely recognized. However, the role of pre-existing neurological comorbidities in modulating COVID-19-related mortality still remains unclear. This cohort study evaluates the COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) of patients with pre-existing neurological diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients consecutively admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March and April 2020. We used a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the association between pre-existing neurological diseases and COVID-19-related mortality. Then, we compared the CFR and survival curves of two cohorts (patients suffering vs. those not suffering from pre-existing neurological disease), matched trough the propensity score (PS). Age and other comorbidities were considered for PS calculation. We applied a 1:1 matching for the entire neurological cohort and, separately, for cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, and other neurological diseases. RESULTS: Among 332 patients, 75 (22.6%) were affected by pre-existing neurological disease (n = 29 cerebrovascular, n = 26 neurodegenerative, n = 20 others). From the multivariate regression analysis, they resulted with a significant increase of COVID-19-related mortality (OR:2.559; 95%CI 1.181-5.545; p < 0.017). From the cohort analysis, CFR resulted 2-fold higher in patients with neurological disease (48.0% vs. 24.0%; p = 0.002). CFR was significantly higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases compared to matched individuals (73.9% vs. 39.1%; p = 0.017), while CFR increase in patients with cerebrovascular diseases did not reach statistical significance (48.3% vs. 41.4%; p = 0.597). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing neurological comorbidities, in particular neurodegenerative diseases, increase significantly COVID-19-related case fatality, indicating a clear priority for viral screening, access to care facilities and vaccination in these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 341-348, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown on frail populations with advanced Parkinson disease (APD) and their caregivers may present with peculiar features and require specific interventions. METHODS: We enrolled here 100 APD patients and 60 caregivers. Seventy-four patients were treated with device-aided therapies (DAT) and 26 with standard medical treatment (SMT). Through a telephonic interview, subjects underwent the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A; HADS-D), and an ad hoc questionnaire to explore thoughts and emotions related to the pandemic. RESULTS: Depression was observed in 35% of APD patients and anxiety in 39%, with a significant reduction of the latter after the lockdown (p= 0.023). We found a significant correlation between the type of therapy and the HADS-A score (p= 0.004). Patients' main worries were as follows: a possible higher risk of COVID-19 infection (25%), interruption of non-pharmacological treatments (35%), interruption of outpatient clinics (38%), PD complications related to COVID-19 (47%). Patients treated with DAT manifested worries about device-related issues and risk for caregivers' infection. The 40% of caregivers showed anxiety, while the 21.7% of them showed depression. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals a higher prevalence of anxiety and the presence of peculiar worries and needs in APD patients during the pandemic alongside psychological sequelae of their caregivers. These findings are important for neurologists and healthcare services to foster strategies for the management of psychological distress in both patients and caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Neurol Sci ; 42(7): 2619-2623, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188105

ABSTRACT

We report here the first case of a young individual otherwise healthy, who presented with frequent focal seizures with impaired awareness as a possible long-term complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Seizures were documented by electroencephalography and responded clinically and neuro-physiologically to antiseizure therapy. The patient underwent an extensive investigation including cerebrospinal fluid examination, conventional and quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-FDG positron emission tomography. Beyond the clinical interest, this case contributes to clarify the possible pathways by which SARS-CoV-2 may enter the central nervous system and cause long-term neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology
8.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(2): 445-454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients affected by Coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) were recently published. However, the small sample size of infected patients enrolled in most studies did not allow to draw robust conclusions on the COVID-19 impact in PD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether the prevalence and outcome of COVID-19 in PD patients are different from those observed in the general population. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting data on PD patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (PD-COVID+). We extracted prevalence, clinical-demographic data, outcome, and mortality. We also analyzed risk or protective factors based on comparisons between PD-COVID+ and control populations with PD without COVID-19 or without PD with COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 16 studies reporting on a total of 11,325 PD patients, 1,061 with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The median infection prevalence ranged from 0.6% to 8.5%. PD-COVID+ patients had a median age of 74 and a disease duration of 9.4 years. Pooling all PD-COVID+ patients from included studies, 28.6% required hospitalization, 37.1% required levodopa dose increasing, and 18.9% died. The case fatality was higher in PD-COVID+ patients than the general population, with longer PD duration as a possible risk factor for worse outcome. Amantadine and vitamin D were proposed as potential protective factors. CONCLUSION: Available studies indicate a higher case fatality in PD patients affected by COVID-19 than the general population. Conversely, current literature does not definitively clarify whether PD patients are more susceptible to get infected. The potential protective role of vitamin D and amantadine is intriguing but deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Parkinson Disease/blood , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
10.
J Neurol ; 268(3): 762-769, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neurological symptoms of COVID-19 patients have been recently described. However, no comprehensive data have been reported on pre-existing neurological comorbidities and COVID-19. This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of neurological comorbidities, and their association with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We evaluated all consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Room (ER) of our hospital between the 3rd March and the 14th April 2020, and diagnosed with COVID-19. Data on neurological and non-neurological diseases were extracted, as well as data on demographic characteristics and on severity degree of COVID-19. The prevalence of neurological comorbidities was calculated, and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between neurological diseases and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: We included 344 patients. Neurological comorbidities accounted for 22.4% of cases, with cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment being the most frequent. Neurological comorbidity resulted independently associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 2.305; p = 0.012), as well as male gender (p = 0.001), older age (p = 0.001), neoplastic diseases (p = 0.039), and arterial hypertension (p = 0.045). When neurological comorbidity was associated with non-neurological comorbidities, the OR for severe COVID-19 rose to 7.394 (p = 0.005). Neurological patients, in particular cerebrovascular and cognitively impaired ones, received more respiratory support indication. CONCLUSION: Neurological comorbidities represent a significant determinant of COVID-19 severity, deserving a thorough evaluation since the earliest phases of infection. The vulnerability of patients affected by neurological diseases should suggest a greater attention in targeting this population for proactive viral screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Comorbidity , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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