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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855681

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective single-center observational study to determine lung ultrasound reliability in assessing global lung aeration in 38 hospitalized patients with non-critical COVID-19. On admission, fixed chest CT scans using visual (CTv) and software-based (CTs) analyses along with lung ultrasound imaging protocols and scoring systems were applied. The primary endpoint was the correlation between global chest CTs score and global lung ultrasound score. The secondary endpoint was the association between radiographic features and clinical disease classification or laboratory indices of inflammation. Bland-Altman analysis between chest CT scores obtained visually (CTv) or using software (CTs) indicated that only 1 of the 38 paired measures was outside the 95% limits of agreement (-4 to +4 score). Global lung ultrasound score was highly and positively correlated with global software-based CTs score (r = 0.74, CI = 0.55-0.86; p < 0.0001). Significantly higher median CTs score (p = 0.01) and lung ultrasound score (p = 0.02) were found in severe compared to moderate COVID-19. Furthermore, we identified significantly lower (p < 0.05) lung ultrasound and CTs scores in those patients with a more severe clinical condition manifested by SpO2 < 92% and C-reactive protein > 58 mg/L. We concluded that lung ultrasound is a reliable bedside clinical tool to assess global lung aeration in hospitalized non-critical care patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854769

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-term outcome data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are needed to understand their recovery trajectory and additional care needs. Methods: A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was carried out of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 from March through May 2020. Workup at 3 and 12 months following admission consisted of clinical review, pulmonary function testing, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), muscle strength, chest computed tomography (CT) and quality of life questionnaires. We evaluated factors correlating with recovery by linear mixed effects modelling. Results: Of 695 patients admitted, 299 and 226 returned at 3 and 12 months, respectively (median age 59 years, 69% male, 31% severe disease). About half and a third of the patients reported fatigue, dyspnoea and/or cognitive impairment at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Reduced 6MWD and quadriceps strength were present in 20% and 60% at 3 months versus 7% and 30% at 12 months. A high anxiety score and body mass index correlated with poor functional recovery. At 3 months, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (D LCO) and total lung capacity were below the lower limit of normal in 35% and 18%, decreasing to 21% and 16% at 12 months; predictors of poor D LCO recovery were female sex, pre-existing lung disease, smoking and disease severity. Chest CT improved over time; 10% presented non-progressive fibrotic changes at 1 year. Conclusion: Many COVID-19 survivors, especially those with severe disease, experienced limitations at 3 months. At 1 year, the majority showed improvement to almost complete recovery. To identify additional care or rehabilitation needs, we recommend a timely multidisciplinary follow-up visit following COVID-19 admission.

3.
ERJ open research ; 8(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782050

ABSTRACT

Background Long-term outcome data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are needed to understand their recovery trajectory and additional care needs. Methods A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was carried out of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 from March through May 2020. Workup at 3 and 12 months following admission consisted of clinical review, pulmonary function testing, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), muscle strength, chest computed tomography (CT) and quality of life questionnaires. We evaluated factors correlating with recovery by linear mixed effects modelling. Results Of 695 patients admitted, 299 and 226 returned at 3 and 12 months, respectively (median age 59 years, 69% male, 31% severe disease). About half and a third of the patients reported fatigue, dyspnoea and/or cognitive impairment at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Reduced 6MWD and quadriceps strength were present in 20% and 60% at 3 months versus 7% and 30% at 12 months. A high anxiety score and body mass index correlated with poor functional recovery. At 3 months, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and total lung capacity were below the lower limit of normal in 35% and 18%, decreasing to 21% and 16% at 12 months;predictors of poor DLCO recovery were female sex, pre-existing lung disease, smoking and disease severity. Chest CT improved over time;10% presented non-progressive fibrotic changes at 1 year. Conclusion Many COVID-19 survivors, especially those with severe disease, experienced limitations at 3 months. At 1 year, the majority showed improvement to almost complete recovery. To identify additional care or rehabilitation needs, we recommend a timely multidisciplinary follow-up visit following COVID-19 admission. Most hospitalised #COVID19 survivors show promising recovery 1 year after discharge, although mild symptoms may linger. Severe impairments are rare, but this study suggests an evaluation of the individual care needs after discharge.https://bit.ly/3sZK45x

4.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(3): e12683, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772842

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently occurs in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal dose of anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 is unknown. Aims: To report VTE incidence and bleeding before and after implementing a hospital-wide intensified thromboprophylactic protocol in patients with COVID-19. Methods: On March 31, 2020, we implemented an intensified thromboprophylactic protocol consisting of 50 IU anti-Xa low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)/kg once daily at the ward, twice daily at the intensive care unit (ICU). We included all patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital with symptomatic COVID-19 between March 7 and July 1, 2020. The primary outcome was the incidence of symptomatic or subclinical VTE and major bleeding during admission. Routine ultrasound screening for VTE was performed whenever logistically possible. Results: We included 412 patients, of which 116 were admitted to the ICU. Of 219 patients with standard a prophylactic dose of LMWH, 16 (7.3%) had VTE, 10 of which were symptomatic (4.6%). Of 193 patients with intensified thromboprophylaxis, there were no symptomatic VTE cases, three incidental deep venous thrombosis cases (1.6%), and one incidental pulmonary embolism (0.5%). The major bleeding rate was 1.2% in patients with intensified thromboprophylaxis and 7.7% when therapeutic anticoagulation was needed. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, there were no additional symptomatic VTEs and a reduction in incidental deep vein thrombosis after implementing systematic thromboprophylaxis with weight-adjusted prophylactic (ward) to intermediate (ICU), but not therapeutic dosed anticoagulation. This intensified thromboprophylaxis was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding compared with therapeutic dosed anticoagulation.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323197

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and clinical reports have indicated that the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, more so than viral factors, determines COVID-19 disease severity. To elucidate the immunopathology underlying COVID-19 severity, cytokine and multiplex immune profiling was performed in mild-moderate and critically-ill COVID-19 patients. Hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 differed from the IFN-γ-driven cytokine storm in macrophage activation syndrome, and was more pronounced in critical versus mild-moderate COVID-19. Systems modelling of cytokine levels followed by deep-immune profiling showed that classical monocytes drive this hyper-inflammatory phenotype and that a reduction in T-lymphocytes correlates with disease severity, with CD8+ cells being disproportionately affected. Expression of antigen presenting machinery was reduced in critical disease, while also neutrophils contributed to disease severity and local tissue damage by amplifying hypercytokinemia and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. We suggest a myeloid-driven immunopathology, in which hyperactivated neutrophils and an ineffective adaptive immune system act as mediators of COVID-19 disease severity.

6.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 103(1): 115659, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676696

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively compared the long-term evolution of IgG anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (N) levels (Abbott immunoassays) in 116 non-severe and 115 severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from 2 university hospitals up to 365 days post positive RT-PCR. IgG anti-S and anti-N antibody levels decayed exponentially up to 365 days after a peak 0 to 59 days after positive RT-PCR. Peak antibody level/cut-off ratio 0 to 59 days after positive RT-PCR was more than 70 for anti-S compared to less than 6 for anti-N (P < 0.01). Anti-S and anti-N were significantly higher in severe compared to non-severe patients up to 180 to 239 days and 300 to 365 days, respectively (P < 0.05). Despite similar half-lives, the estimated time to 50% seronegativity was more than 2 years for anti-S compared to less than 1 year for anti-N in non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients, due to the significantly higher peak antibody level/cut-off ratio for anti-S compared to anti-N.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Cell ; 184(24): 5932-5949.e15, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549679

ABSTRACT

Anosmia, the loss of smell, is a common and often the sole symptom of COVID-19. The onset of the sequence of pathobiological events leading to olfactory dysfunction remains obscure. Here, we have developed a postmortem bedside surgical procedure to harvest endoscopically samples of respiratory and olfactory mucosae and whole olfactory bulbs. Our cohort of 85 cases included COVID-19 patients who died a few days after infection with SARS-CoV-2, enabling us to catch the virus while it was still replicating. We found that sustentacular cells are the major target cell type in the olfactory mucosa. We failed to find evidence for infection of olfactory sensory neurons, and the parenchyma of the olfactory bulb is spared as well. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 does not appear to be a neurotropic virus. We postulate that transient insufficient support from sustentacular cells triggers transient olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19. Olfactory sensory neurons would become affected without getting infected.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Aged , Anosmia , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endoscopy/methods , Female , Glucuronosyltransferase/biosynthesis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/metabolism , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
8.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 37: 100912, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ECG abnormalities in COVID-19 have been widely reported, however data after discharge is limited. The aim was to describe ECG abnormalities on admission and following recovery of COVID-19, and their associated mortality. METHODS: All patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital between March 7th and July 1st 2020 with COVID-19 were included in a retrospective registry. The first ECG on admission was collected, together with an ECG after hospital discharge in the absence of acute pathology. Automated measures and clinical ECG interpretations were collected. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to predict 1-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: In total 420 patients were included, of which 83 patients (19.8%) died during the 1-year follow-up period. Repolarization abnormalities were present in 189 patients (45.0%). The extent of repolarization abnormalities was an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (HR per region 1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.64) together with age (/year HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.04-1.08), heart rate (/bpm HR 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), neurological disorders (HR 2.41, 95%CI 1.47-3.93), active cancer (HR 2.75, 95%CI 1.57-4.82), CRP (per 10 mg/L HR 1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.08) and eGFR (per 10 mg/L HR 0.90, 95%CI 0.83-0.98).In 245 patients (68.1%) an ECG post discharge was available. New repolarization abnormalities were more frequent in patients who died after discharge (4.7% versus 41.7%, p < 0.001) and 8 (3.3%) had new ventricular conduction defects, none of whom died during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of repolarization abnormalities predicted outcome in patients with COVID-19. New repolarization abnormalities after discharge were associated with post-discharge mortality.

9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394124

ABSTRACT

Many patients struggle with ongoing symptoms in different domains (physical, mental, cognitive) after hospitalisation for COVID-19, calling out for a multidisciplinary approach. An outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, according to a respiratory rehabilitation strategy, was set up for adult patients who were able to attend group sessions during 12 weeks. Results of 22 adult patients with COVID-19, of which 15 had required intensive care, were analysed and some general impressions and challenges of rehabilitation in COVID-19 were reported. Impressive results on physical recovery were determined after 6 weeks and 3 months, with significant improvement of lung function, muscle force and exercise capacity variables. A positive evolution of mental and cognitive burden was present, although less pronounced than the physical recovery. These mental and cognitive consequences seem, next to musculoskeletal and medical complications, the most challenging aspect of rehabilitating patients with COVID-19. These real-world data show feasibility and efficiency of a multidisciplinary respiratory rehabilitation programme after moderate to severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Therapy , Adult , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Treatment Outcome
10.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 37(3S): S162-S164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236270

ABSTRACT

Amid the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, an 89-year-old male with chronic kidney disease presented with acute dacryocystitis and a persistent dry cough. After a course of antibiotics, external dacryocystorhinostomy was performed under local anesthesia without sedation. During planned hemodialysis in the early hours after the procedure, the patient developed nausea and hematemesis followed by severe dyspnea and hypoxemia. The patient was diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, a previously unreported complication in lacrimal surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dacryocystitis , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Aged, 80 and over , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Dacryocystitis/diagnosis , Dacryocystitis/etiology , Dacryocystitis/surgery , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
12.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(4): 741-748, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyse data obtained from the multi-domain assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, to describe their health status at discharge, and to investigate whether subgroups of patients, more specific ICU patients and older adults (> 70 years), had more (or less) risk to experience specific impairments. METHODS: Retrospective case series in the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium of confirmed COVID-19 patients 'after surviving an ICU-stay', 'aged ≥ 70 years', or 'aged < 70 years with a length of hospitalization > 7 days'. Exclusion criteria were 'unwilling to cooperate', 'medically unstable', or 'palliative care policy'. Following tests were used: 'Five Times Sit To Stand Test', 'hand grip dynamometry', 'Barthel index', 'Swallowing screening', 'Montreal Cognitive Assessment', 'Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale', and 'Nutritional Risk Screening 2002'. RESULTS: One or more tests were obtained in 135/163 patients (83.3%). Physical impairments were present in 43.2-82.8% of the patients. Median BI was 10/20 indicating limited self-dependency. Swallow impairments were present in 3/53 (5.7%) and 24/76 (31.6%) had risk of malnutrition. Impaired memory was seen in 26/43 (60.5%) and 22/47 (46.8%) had elevated anxiety/depression scores. Older adults had more physical, functional, and cognitive impairments. ICU patients had a lower hand grip force. CONCLUSION(S): The high prevalence of physical, cognitive, psychological, and functional impairments in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, both ICU and non-ICU patients, indicates that assessment of impairments is imperative. These results imply that rehabilitation and follow-up is essential for these patients. This paper proposes a short, workable assessment composed with known outcome measures to assess different domains of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Critical Illness , Malnutrition/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Nutrition Assessment , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Clin Virol ; 136: 104765, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most SARS-CoV-2 infected patients develop IgG antibodies within 2-3 weeks after symptom onset. Antibody levels have been shown to gradually decrease in the first months after infection, but few data are available at six months or later. METHODS: A retrospective multi-center study was performed using 652 samples of 236 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from 2 Belgian University hospitals. Patients were included if at least two samples were available (range 2-7 samples); including at least one sample collected 30 days or later after first positive PCR (range 0-240 days). Of those 236 patients, 19.1 % were classified as mild/asymptomatic (mild) and 80.9 % as moderate to critical (severe). IgG anti-nucleocapsid antibodies (anti-N) were measured using the Abbott Architect immunoassay. RESULTS: 22.2 % of mild and 2.6 % of severe COVID-19 cases never seroconverted (p < 0.001). Of the mild patients who seroconverted 0-59 days after PCR; 18.8 %, 40.0 % and 61.1 % were seronegative in the windows 60-119 days, 120-179 days and 180-240 days after PCR, respectively. In severe patients, these numbers were 1.9 %, 10.8 % and 29.4 % respectively (p < 0.05 each). Antibody levels were significantly higher in severe patients compared to mild patients in each 60 day window (p < 0.001 each). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG antibody levels steadily decreased after 2 months up to 8 months post PCR. Of severe COVID-19 patients, 70.6 % remained positive up to eight months after infection. Antibody levels were significantly lower in mild SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 61.1 % became seronegative within 6 months after the first positive PCR.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
15.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(6): 880-887, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 on patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite being considered a high-risk group. This study explored the early impact of COVID-19 on the emotional well-being of patients and self-reported changes in their home therapy since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: Adult patients with CF, lung-transplanted (LTX) CF patients and parents of children with CF completed an online questionnaire, securely linked to their medical files. The questionnaire covered the emotional impact of the pandemic, changes in CF and LTX treatment, changes in health-protecting behaviours and CF-related concerns, and their perception of their COVID-19 status. RESULTS: The response rate was 63% (80 CF, 66 LTX and 73 parents). A wide range of illness severity was included. None of the respondents had contracted COVID-19 and all strictly followed the social distancing rules. There was evident psychological impact, with many reporting increased stress, fear and worry about CF and the future. Changes in treatment were positive, including more physiotherapy for adults and better-quality nebulizing. Changes in routine were reported, such as different treatment timing. Adult patients and parents had cancelled their CF appointments more often since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The initial psychological impact of COVID-19 was evident. The impact on home treatment was reassuringly small. Psychological care is needed for patients suffering prolonged psychological impact, and CF teams need to contextualize the information that patients and parents receive from the media and support them to balance the perceived risk with true risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis , Home Care Services , Parents/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/surgery , Female , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Lung Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3234-3238, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640838

ABSTRACT

Several case reports and small case series have been published on coronavirus disease 2019 infection after solid organ transplantation; however, thus far there are limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 infections in lung transplant patients. In the present single-center case series we discuss 10 lung transplant patients with a documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, diagnosed with nasopharyngeal swab in 8 and bronchoalveolar lavage in 2. Eight of 10 patients needed hospital admission, of whom 1 was in the intensive care unit. He died after 2 weeks from multiple organ failure. The remaining nine patients recovered. Cell cycle inhibitors were withheld in all patients, whereas the calcineurin inhibitor and corticosteroids were continued at the same dose, with an acceptable outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Belgium/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Young Adult
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