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1.
Diagnostics ; 12(8):1848, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969133

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning is frequently used for non-intubated hypoxemic patients with COVID-19, although conclusive evidence is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether baseline CT-scans could predict the improvement in oxygenation in COVID-19 related Acute respira-tory syndrome (ARDS) patients when pronated. Methods: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients who underwent non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and prone positioning was conducted. Results: Forty-five patients were included. On average, 50% of the overall lung volume was affected by the disease, as observed in the CT-scans, with ground glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations accounting for 44% and 4%, respectively. The abnormalities were mainly posterior, as demonstrated by posterior/anterior distribution ratios of 1.5 and 4.4 for GGO and consolidation, respectively. The median PaO2/FiO2 ratio during NIV in a supine position (SP1) was 140 [IQR 108–169], which improved by 67% (+98) during prone positioning, on average. Once supine positioning was resumed (SP2), the improvement in oxygenation was maintained in 28 patients (62% of the overall population, categorized as 'responders';). We found no significant differences between responders and non-responders in terms of the extent (p = 0.92) and the distribution of parenchymal abnormalities seen in the baseline CT (p = 0.526). Conclusion: Despite the lack of a priori estimation of the sample size, considering the absence of any trends in the differences and correlations, we can reasonably conclude that the baseline chest CT-scan does not predict a gas-exchange response in awake prone-positioned patients with COVID-19 related ARDS. Physicians dealing with this category of patients should not rely on the imaging at presentation when evaluating whether to pronate patients.

2.
Front Neurol ; 13: 884449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933727

ABSTRACT

It is increasingly acknowledged that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have neurological manifestations, and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been observed in this setting. The aim of this study was to characterize CMBs patterns on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. CMBs volume was quantified and correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters. The study included patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19, exhibited neurological manifestations, and underwent a brain MRI between March and May 2020. Neurological, clinical, and biochemical variables were reported. The MRI was acquired using a 3T scanner, with a standardized protocol including SWI. Patients were divided based on radiological evidence of CMBs or their absence. The CMBs burden was also assessed with a semi-automatic SWI processing procedure specifically developed for the purpose of this study. Odds ratios (OR) for CMBs were calculated using age, sex, clinical, and laboratory data by logistic regression analysis. Of the 1,760 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital between 1 March and 31 May 2020, 116 exhibited neurological symptoms requiring neuroimaging evaluation. Of these, 63 patients underwent brain MRI and were therefore included in the study. A total of 14 patients had radiological evidence of CMBs (CMBs+ group). CMBs+ patients had a higher prevalence of CSF inflammation (p = 0.020), a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.020), and lower lymphocytes (p = 0.010); the D-dimer (p = 0.026), LDH (p = 0.004), procalcitonin (p = 0.002), and CRP concentration (p < 0.001) were higher than in the CMBs- group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CRP (OR = 1.16, p = 0.011) indicated an association with CMBs. Estimated CMBs volume was higher in females than in males and decreased with age (Rho = -0.38; p = 0.18); it was positively associated with CRP (Rho = 0.36; p = 0.22), and negatively associated with lymphocytes (Rho = -0.52; p = 0.07). CMBs are a frequent imaging finding in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations and seem to be related to pro-inflammatory status.

3.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 759, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19, higher than expected level of intrapulmonary shunt has been described, in association with a discrepancy between the initial relatively preserved lung mechanics and the hypoxia severity. This study aim was to measure the shunt fraction and variations of PaO2/FiO2 ratio and oxygen alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a O2) at different FiO2. METHODS: Shunt was measured by a non-invasive system during spontaneous breathing in 12 patients hospitalized at COVID-19 Semi-Intensive Care Unit of Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy, between October 22 and November 23, 2020. RESULTS: Nine patients were men, mean age (±SD) 62±15 years, mean BMI 27.5±4.8 Kg/m2. Systemic hypertension, diabetes type 2 and previous myocardial infarction were referred in 33%, 17%, and 7%, respectively. Mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 234±66 and 11 patients presented a bilateral chest X-ray involvement. Mean shunt was 21±6%. Mainly in patients with a more severe respiratory failure, we found a progressive decrease of PaO2/FiO2 ratio with higher FiO2. Considering (A-a O2), we found a uniform tendency to increase with FiO2 increasing. Even in this case, the more severe were the patients, the higher was the slope, suggesting FiO2 insensitiveness due to a shunt effect, as strengthened by our measurements. CONCLUSION: Relying on a single evaluation of PaO2/FiO2 ratio, especially at high FiO2, could be misleading in COVID-19. We propose a two steps evaluation, the first at low SpO2 value (e.g., 92-94%) and the second one at high FiO2 (i.e., >0.7), allowing to characterize both the amendable (ventilation/perfusion mismatch), and the fixed (shunt) contribution quote of respiratory impairment, respectively.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304921

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 disease are being increasingly recognized. A growing number of studies has been showing CNS abnormalities on brain imaging.Purpose is to describe brain imaging findings of a population of COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations and peculiar abnormalities on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences. Methods: : we retrospectively evaluated imaging data from 50 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection, who underwent a brain MRI because of neurological symptoms between March and June 2020.We focused on those presenting with abnormalities on brain MRI on SWI (positive MRI, P-MRI). We also carried out comparative investigations using patients without SWI abnormalities (negative MRI, N-MRI) as a control group. Non-parametric tests were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: : From 50 patients presenting with neurological symptoms, 10 patients showed brain abnormalities on SWI (P-MRI). Mean age in P-MRI group was 63±12 years;7 were men. Six patients were admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and needed invasive ventilation support. P-MRI subjects showed lymphopenia and significantly higher levels of inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen. No significant differences were found in the coagulation profile. MRI showed diffuse SWI hypointense lesions mostly in occipital and temporal lobes, predominantly located at the grey-white matter junction. Genu and splenium of corpus callosum were involved in 8 of 10 patients. No restricted diffusion or enhancement was associated to SWI lesions. Conclusions: : SWI abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 with neurological symptoms may reflect microvascular endothelial damage in the setting of a pro-inflammatory state.

5.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl E): E95-E98, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584910

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with frequent thrombotic events, at the micro and macro-vascular level, due to the perpetuation of a state of hypercoagulability. The so-called 'COVID-19 associated coagulopathy' (CAC) represents a key aspect in the genesis of organ damage from SARS-CoV-2. The main coagulative alterations described in the literature are represented by high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen. Although CAC has some common features with disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis-induced coagulopathy, there are important differences between these clinical pictures and the phenotype of CAC is unique. The pathogenesis of CAC is complex and is affected by the strong interconnection between the inflammatory system and coagulation, in the phenomenon of immunothrombosis and thrombo-inflammation. Several mechanisms come into play, such as inflammatory cytokines, neutrophils, the complement system as well as an alteration of the fibrinolytic system. Finally, an altered platelet function and especially endothelial dysfunction also play a central role in the pathophysiology of CAC. Heparin has several potential effects in CAC, in fact in addition to the anticoagulant effect, it could have a direct antiviral effect and anti-inflammatory properties. The high incidence of thrombo-embolic phenomena despite the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis have led some experts to recommend the use of anticoagulant doses of heparin, but at present the optimal anticoagulant regimen remains to be determined.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711915, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317228

ABSTRACT

Passive antibody therapy has been used to treat outbreaks of viral disease, including the ongoing pandemic of severe respiratory acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19. However, the real benefits of the procedure are unclear. We infused a concentrated solution of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies obtained from a convalescent donor with a single session of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) into a 56-year-old woman with long history of unremitting, severe COVID-19. She was unable to establish an adequate antiviral immune response because of previous chemotherapy, including the infusion of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, administered to treat a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The disease promptly recovered despite evidence of no endogenous anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production. The observation that passive antibody therapy might prove particularly effective in immunodepressed COVID-19 patients requires evaluation in prospective randomized controlled trial.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Plasmapheresis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rituximab/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 102, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic affecting all countries in the world. Italy has been particularly afflicted by the health emergency, and since the peak phase has passed, major concern regarding medium to long term complications due to COVID-19 is arising. Little is known in literature regarding thromboembolic complications once healed after COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old patient recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by pulmonary embolism (PE) came to the hospital for palpitations and chest pain. Although he was on treatment dose of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC), massive recurrent PE was diagnosed. CONCLUSION: In the early post COVID-19 era, the question remains regarding the efficacy of DOACs in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Recurrence , Warfarin/therapeutic use
11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 96, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Bergamo, Italy, during the first three weeks of the outbreak. Medical records, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings upon admission and treatment have been collected. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality since hospitalization. RESULTS: 431 consecutive adult patients were admitted. Female patients were 119 (27.6%) with a mean age of 67.0 ± 14.5 years (vs 67.8 ± 12.5 for males, p = 0.54). Previous history of myocardial infarction, vasculopathy and former smoking habits were more common for males. At the time of admission PaO2/FiO2 was similar between men and women (228 [IQR, 134-273] vs 238 mmHg [150-281], p = 0.28). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) assistance was needed in the first 24 h more frequently in male patients (25.7% vs 13.0%; p = 0.006). Overall 28-day mortality was 26.1% in women and 38.1% in men (p = 0.018). Gender did not result an independent predictor of death once the parameters related to disease severity at presentation were included in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.898). Accordingly, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in female and male patients requiring CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in the first 24 h did not find a significant difference (p = 0.687). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized women are less likely to die from Covid-19; however, once severe disease occurs, the risk of dying is similar to men. Further studies are needed to better investigate the role of gender in clinical course and outcome of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 609440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120165

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread rapidly. Here we discuss the dramatic situation created by COVID-19 in Italy, particularly in the province of Bergamo (the most severely affected in the first wave), as an example of how, in the face of an unprecedented tragedy, acting (albeit belatedly)-including imposing a very strict lockdown-can largely resolve the situation within approximately 2 months. The measures taken here ensured that Bergamo hospital, which was confronted with rapidly rising numbers of severely ill COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, was able to meet the initial challenges of the pandemic. We also report that local organization and, more important, the large natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 of the Bergamo population developed during the first wave of the epidemic, can explain the limited number of new COVID-19 cases during the more recent second wave compared to the numbers in other areas of Lombardy. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of coordinating the easing of containment measures to avoid what is currently observed in other countries, especially in the United States, Latin American and India, where this approach has not been adopted, and a dramatic resurgence of COVID-19 cases and an increase in the number of hospitalisations and deaths have been reported.

13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1345-1355, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042172

ABSTRACT

Importance: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures: Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 1020-1026, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006326

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Treatment with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is frequent. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds led clinicians to deliver NIV also outside ICUs. Data about the use of NIV in COVID-19 is limited.Objectives: To describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 treated with NIV outside the ICUs. To investigate the factors associated with NIV failure (need for intubation or death).Methods: In this prospective, single-day observational study, we enrolled adult patients with COVID-19 who were treated with NIV outside the ICU from 31 hospitals in Lombardy, Italy.Results: We collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics, ventilatory management, and patient outcomes. Of 8,753 patients with COVID-19 present in the hospitals on the study day, 909 (10%) were receiving NIV outside the ICU. A majority of patients (778/909; 85%) patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was delivered by helmet in 617 (68%) patients. NIV failed in 300 patients (37.6%), whereas 498 (62.4%) patients were discharged alive without intubation. Overall mortality was 25%. NIV failure occurred in 152/284 (53%) patients with an arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio <150 mm Hg. Higher C-reactive protein and lower PaO2/FiO2 and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Conclusions: The use of NIV outside the ICUs was common in COVID-19, with a predominant use of helmet CPAP, with a rate of success >60% and close to 75% in full-treatment patients. C-reactive protein, PaO2/FiO2, and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04382235).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Hospital Mortality , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Patients' Rooms , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Cannula , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2228-2237, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965861

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often complicated by severe respiratory failure. In addition to reduced lung compliance and ventilation/perfusion mismatch, a blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has been hypothesized, that could explain part of the peculiar pathophysiology of the COVID-19 cardiorespiratory syndrome. However, no invasive haemodynamic characterization of COVID-19 patients has been reported so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients underwent right heart catheterization. Their data were compared both with those obtained from non-mechanically ventilated paired control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index, and with pooled data of 1937 patients with 'typical' acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from a systematic literature review. Cardiac index was higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls [3.8 (2.7-4.5) vs. 2.4 (2.1-2.8) L/min/m2 , P < 0.001], but slightly lower than in ARDS patients (P = 0.024). Intrapulmonary shunt and lung compliance were inversely related in COVID-19 patients (r = -0.57, P = 0.011) and did not differ from ARDS patients. Despite this, pulmonary vascular resistance of COVID-19 patients was normal, similar to that of control subjects [1.6 (1.1-2.5) vs. 1.6 (0.9-2.0) WU, P = 0.343], and lower than reported in ARDS patients (P < 0.01). Pulmonary hypertension was present in 76% of COVID-19 patients and in 19% of control subjects (P < 0.001), and it was always post-capillary. Pulmonary artery wedge pressure was higher in COVID-19 than in ARDS patients, and inversely related to lung compliance (r = -0.46, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The haemodynamic profile of COVID-19 patients needing mechanical ventilation is characterized by combined cardiopulmonary alterations. Low pulmonary vascular resistance, coherent with a blunted hypoxic vasoconstriction, is associated with high cardiac output and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension, that could eventually contribute to lung stiffness and promote a vicious circle between the lung and the heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Output/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Lung Compliance/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
16.
Eur Radiol ; 31(4): 1999-2012, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the inter-rater agreement of chest X-ray (CXR) findings in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to determine the value of initial CXR along with demographic, clinical, and laboratory data at emergency department (ED) presentation for predicting mortality and the need for ventilatory support. METHODS: A total of 340 COVID-19 patients who underwent CXR in the ED setting (March 1-13, 2020) were retrospectively included. Two reviewers independently assessed CXR abnormalities, including ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidation. Two scoring systems (Brixia score and percentage of lung involvement) were applied. Inter-rater agreement was assessed by weighted Cohen's kappa (κ) or intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Predictors of death and respiratory support were identified by logistic or Poisson regression. RESULTS: GGO admixed with consolidation (n = 235, 69%) was the most common CXR finding. The inter-rater agreement was almost perfect for type of parenchymal opacity (κ = 0.90), Brixia score (ICC = 0.91), and percentage of lung involvement (ICC = 0.95). The Brixia score (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.34; p = 0.003), age (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.22; p < 0.001), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 1; p = 0.002), and cardiovascular diseases (OR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.28, 8.39; p = 0.014) predicted death. Percentage of lung involvement (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03; p = 0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.00; p < 0.001) were significant predictors of the need for ventilatory support. CONCLUSIONS: CXR is a reproducible tool for assessing COVID-19 and integrates with patient history, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and SpO2 values to early predict mortality and the need for ventilatory support. KEY POINTS: • Chest X-ray is a reproducible tool for assessing COVID-19 pneumonia. • The Brixia score and percentage of lung involvement on chest X-ray integrate with patient history, PaO2/FIO2 ratio, and SpO2 values to early predict mortality and the need for ventilatory support in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Lung , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 24: 100419, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is spreading around the world. At the end of February, the outburst of the pandemic has hit hard on northern Italian's hospitals. As of today, no data have been published regarding the severity of respiratory failure of patients presenting to the Emergency Departments. Moreover, the outcome the patients forced to undergo Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) due to lack of Intensive Care resources is unknown. "Papa Giovanni XXIII" hospital (HPG23) of Bergamo is one of the largest hospitals in the Country, with an Emergency Department (ED) managing over 100,000 patients per year. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study based on chart review of patients presenting to the Emergency Department of HPG23 from 29/02/2020 to 10/03/2020 with a clinical condition highly suspicious for COVID-19 infection. Registration of admission rates, severity of respiratory failure (ARDS classification), need of respiratory support, SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and outcome of patients treated with a ventilatory support were registered on 10th of May 2020. FINDINGS: From 29/02 to 10/03 611 patients with a suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were evaluated in our ED; 320 (52%) met the criteria for hospital admission and 99 (31%) needed to be immediately started on ventilatory support (81% CPAP, 7% NIPPV, 12% Invasive Mechanical Ventilation). Eighty-five (86%) of the 99 patients needing a ventilatory support eventually had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR test on nasal-pharyngeal swab. Their median PO2/FiO2 ratio was 128 (IQR 85-168), with 23 patients (29.5%) classified as severe ARDS. Mortality rate as of 10th of May was 76.5%, ranging from 44.4% within patients <60 years old to 85% within those older than 60 years (p = 0.001). NIPPV/CPAP failure occurred in 91.5% of patients. INTERPRETATION: The population of patients suspected for COVID-19 infection presenting at our ED showed a very high rate of severe respiratory failure, with urgent need of a large amount of intensive care resources. Mortality rates of critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 (76.5%) are similar to previously reported studies with similar population. CPAP/NIPPV could be a valid strategy to treat severely hypoxic patients that cannot be intubated in the ED due to lack of intensive care resources. FUNDING: No funds were received for this research project.

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