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1.
Environmental Microbiology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2001574

ABSTRACT

SARS‐CoV‐2 diagnosis is a cornerstone for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Numerous studies have assessed saliva performance over nasopharyngeal sampling (NPS), but data in young children are still rare. We explored saliva performance for SARS‐CoV‐2 detection by RT‐PCR according to the time interval from initial symptoms or patient serological status. We collected 509 NPS and saliva paired samples at initial diagnosis from 166 children under 12 years of age (including 57 children under 6), 106 between 12 and 17, and 237 adults. In children under 12, overall detection rate for SARS‐CoV‐2 was comparable in saliva and NPS, with an overall agreement of 89.8%. Saliva sensitivity was significantly lower than that of NPS (77.1% compared to 95.8%) in pre‐school and school‐age children but regained 96% when considering seronegative children only. This pattern was also observed to a lesser degree in adolescents but not in adults. Sensitivity of saliva was independent of symptoms, in contrary to NPS, whose sensitivity decreased significantly in asymptomatic subjects. Performance of saliva is excellent in children under 12 at early stages of infection. This reinforces saliva as a collection method for early and unbiased SARS‐CoV‐2 detection and a less invasive alternative for young children. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Environmental Microbiology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Environmental Microbiology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1968040

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is a cornerstone for the management of Coronavirus disease 2019. Numerous studies have assessed saliva performance over nasopharyngeal sampling (NPS), but data in young children are still rare. We explored saliva performance for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR according to the time interval from initial symptoms or patient serological status. We collected 509 NPS and saliva paired samples at initial diagnosis from 166 children under 12?years of age (including 57 children under 6), 106 between 12 and 17, and 237 adults. In children under 12, overall detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was comparable in saliva and NPS, with an overall agreement of 89.8%. Saliva sensitivity was significantly lower than that of NPS (77.1% compared to 95.8%) in preschool and school children, but regained 96% when considering seronegative children only. This pattern was also observed to a lesser degree in adolescents, but not in adults. Sensitivity of saliva was independent of symptoms, in contrary to NPS whose sensitivity decreased significantly in asymptomatic subjects. Performance of saliva is excellent in children under 12 at early stages of infection. This reinforces saliva as a collection method for early and unbiased SARS-CoV-2 detection and a less invasive alternative for young children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 782894, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785385

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 were implemented in March 2020. These measures were followed by a major impact on viral and non-viral diseases. We aimed to assess the impact of NPI implementation in France on hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (hCAP) frequency and the clinical and biological characteristics of the remaining cases in children. We performed a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series analysis. Between June 2014 and December 2020, eight pediatric emergency departments throughout France reported prospectively all cases of hCAP in children from age 1 month to 15 years. We estimated the impact on the monthly number of hCAP using segmented linear regression with autoregressive error model. We included 2,972 hCAP cases; 115 occurred during the NPI implementation period. We observed a sharp decrease in the monthly number of hCAP after NPI implementation [-63.0% (95 confidence interval, -86.8 to -39.2%); p < 0.001]. Children with hCAP were significantly older during than before the NPI period (median age, 3.9 vs. 2.3 years; p < 0.0001), and we observed a higher proportion of low inflammatory marker status (43.5 vs. 33.1%; p = 0.02). Furthermore, we observed a trend with a decrease in the proportion of cases with pleural effusion (5.3% during the NPI period vs. 10.9% before the NPI; p = 0.06). NPI implementation during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic led not only to a strong decrease in the number of hCAP cases but also a modification in the clinical profile of children affected, which may reflect a change in pathogens involved.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307952

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is generally milder than in adults, yet a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis. To better understand these cases, we applied a multi-parametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most severe forms of MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to SARS-CoV-2), that resulted in myocarditis, were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis, characterized by sustained NF-κ B activity, TNF-α signaling, associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κ B inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type-I and type-II interferons, hyperinflammation and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and VEGF signaling. These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology.Funding: The study was supported by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), by the “URGENCE COVID-19” fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur, by the Atip-Avenir, Emergence ville de Paris program and fond de dotation Janssen Horizon and by government grants managed by the Agence National de la Recherche as part of the “Investment for the Future” program (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01, Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010, Laboratoire d’Excellence ‘‘Milieu Intérieur”, grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01), the Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires (CEREDIH), the Agence National de la Recherche (ANR-flash Covid19 “AIROCovid” to FRL and “CoVarImm” to DD and JDS), and by the FASTFoundation (French Friends of Sheba Tel Hashomer Hospital). The LabTech Single-Cell@Imagine is supported by the Paris Region and the “Investissements d’avenir” program through the 2019 ATF funding – Sésame Filières PIA (Grant N°3877871).CdC is the recipient of a CIFRE-PhD (Sanofi). L.B. was a recipient of an Imagine institute PhD international program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. L.B. was also supported by the EUR G.E.N.E. (reference #ANR-17-EURE-0013) and is part of the Université de Paris IdEx #ANR-18-IDEX-0001 funded by the French Government through its“Investments for the Future” program. S.M. was a recipient of an INSERM and Institut Imagine post-doctorat program supported by the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRMN°SPF20170938825). NS was a recipient of the Pasteur-Roux-Cantarini Fellowship. VGP obtained an Imagine international PhD fellowship program supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. BPP is the recipient of an ANRS post-doctoral fellowship.Conflict of Interest: DD, FRL, JT and MMM are listed as inventors on a patent application related to this technology (European Patent Application no. EP21305197, entitled “Methods of predicting multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) with severe myocarditis in subjects suffering from a SARS-CoV-2 infection”).Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Ouest IV, n° DC-2017-2987).

5.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 745364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515539

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe form associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. To reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 at the population level, educational setting closure have been implemented in many countries. However, the direct benefit of school closure on the MIS-C burden remains to be explored. We aimed to assess the role of educational settings in SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children with MIS-C. Methods: We conducted a French national prospective surveillance of MIS-C, coordinated by Public Health France, from April 2020 to March 2021. During this period, we included all children with MIS-C fulfilling the WHO definition who were reported to Public Health France. For each child, we traced the source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The main outcome was the proportion of children with MIS-C, with educational setting-related SARS-CoV-2 infection, during the period of school opening. Results: We included 142 children fulfilling WHO criteria for MIS-C: 104 (70%) cases occurred during school opening periods. In total, 62/104 children (60%, 95%CI [50; 69]) had been contaminated by a household contact and 5/104 in educational settings (5%, 95%CI [2; 11]). Among children with MIS-C occurring during school closure periods, the proportion of household transmission remained similar (66%, 25/38). Conclusion: Children with MIS-C were mainly infected by SARS-CoV-2 within their family environment, and the educational setting played a marginal role in this transmission. This suggests that mitigating school attendance may not reduce substantially the burden of MIS-C.

6.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 1072-1092.e7, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is generally milder than in adults, but a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis. METHODS: To better understand these cases, we applied a multiparametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma cytokine and chemokine levels and blood cellular composition were measured, alongside gene expression at the bulk and single-cell levels. FINDINGS: The most severe forms of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 that resulted in myocarditis were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomics analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis characterized by sustained nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling and associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κB inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type I and type II interferons, hyperinflammation, and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. FUNDING: Agence National de la Recherche (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01; Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010; Laboratoire d'Excellence ''Milieu Intérieur," grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01; ANR-flash Covid19 "AIROCovid" and "CoVarImm"), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), and the "URGENCE COVID-19" fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Monocytes , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(4): 256-264, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which very young children contribute to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in daycare centres that remained open for key workers' children during a nationwide lockdown in France. METHODS: Children and staff who attended one of 22 daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France (between March 15 and May 9, 2020) were included in this cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study. Hospital staff not occupationally exposed to patients with COVID-19, or to children, were enrolled in a comparator group. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children, daycare centre staff, and the comparator group. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in capillary whole blood was measured with a rapid chromatographic immunoassay. We computed raw prevalence as the percentage of individuals with a positive IgG or IgM test, and used Bayesian smoothing to account for imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04413968. FINDINGS: Between June 4 and July 3, 2020, we enrolled 327 children (mean age 1·9 [SD 0·9] years; range 5 months to 4·4 years), 197 daycare centre staff (mean age 40 [12] years), and 164 adults in the comparator group (42 [12] years). Positive serological tests were observed for 14 children (raw seroprevalence 4·3%; 95% CI 2·6-7·1) and 14 daycare centre staff (7·7%; 4·2-11·6). After accounting for imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the assay, we estimated that 3·7% (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 1·3-6·8) of the children and 6·8% (3·2-11·5) of daycare centre staff had SARS-CoV-2 infection. The comparator group fared similarly to the daycare centre staff; nine participants had a positive serological test (raw seroprevalence 5·5%; 95% CI 2·9-10·1), leading to a seroprevalence of 5·0% (95% CrI 1·6-9·8) after accounting for assay characteristics. An exploratory analysis suggested that seropositive children were more likely than seronegative children to have been exposed to an adult household member with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (six [43%] of 14 vs 19 [6%] of 307; relative risk 7·1 [95% CI 2·2-22·4]). INTERPRETATION: According to serological test results, the proportion of young children in our sample with SARS-CoV-2 infection was low. Intrafamily transmission seemed more plausible than transmission within daycare centres. Further epidemiological studies are needed to confirm this exploratory hypothesis. FUNDING: Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Mairie de Paris, Conseil Départemental de Seine Saint Denis. TRANSLATIONS: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Child Day Care Centers , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167263

ABSTRACT

BackgroundChildren have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections.AimWe tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections.ResultsPrevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children.ConclusionPrior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Paris , Seasons , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
JAMA ; 325(9): 855-864, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135043

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, potentially life-threatening, but the optimal therapeutic strategy remains unknown. Objective: To compare intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) plus methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone as initial therapy in MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study drawn from a national surveillance system with propensity score-matched analysis. All cases with suspected MIS-C were reported to the French National Public Health Agency. Confirmed MIS-C cases fulfilling the World Health Organization definition were included. The study started on April 1, 2020, and follow-up ended on January 6, 2021. Exposures: IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was persistence of fever 2 days after the introduction of initial therapy or recrudescence of fever within 7 days, which defined treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included a second-line therapy, hemodynamic support, acute left ventricular dysfunction after first-line therapy, and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. The primary analysis involved propensity score matching with a minimum caliper of 0.1. Results: Among 181 children with suspected MIS-C, 111 fulfilled the World Health Organization definition (58 females [52%]; median age, 8.6 years [interquartile range, 4.7 to 12.1]). Five children did not receive either treatment. Overall, 3 of 34 children (9%) in the IVIG and methylprednisolone group and 37 of 72 (51%) in the IVIG alone group did not respond to treatment. Treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (absolute risk difference, -0.28 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.08]; odds ratio [OR], 0.25 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.70]; P = .008). IVIG and methylprednisolone therapy vs IVIG alone was also significantly associated with lower risk of use of second-line therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.22 [95% CI, -0.40 to -0.04]; OR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.61]; P = .004), hemodynamic support (absolute risk difference, -0.17 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.004]; OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.76]), acute left ventricular dysfunction occurring after initial therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.35 to -0.01]; OR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.66]), and duration of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (median, 4 vs 6 days; difference in days, -2.4 [95% CI, -4.0 to -0.7]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with MIS-C, treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with a more favorable fever course. Study interpretation is limited by the observational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , France , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Male , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Propensity Score , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
JAMA ; 325(9): 855-864, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055854

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, potentially life-threatening, but the optimal therapeutic strategy remains unknown. Objective: To compare intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) plus methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone as initial therapy in MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study drawn from a national surveillance system with propensity score-matched analysis. All cases with suspected MIS-C were reported to the French National Public Health Agency. Confirmed MIS-C cases fulfilling the World Health Organization definition were included. The study started on April 1, 2020, and follow-up ended on January 6, 2021. Exposures: IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was persistence of fever 2 days after the introduction of initial therapy or recrudescence of fever within 7 days, which defined treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included a second-line therapy, hemodynamic support, acute left ventricular dysfunction after first-line therapy, and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. The primary analysis involved propensity score matching with a minimum caliper of 0.1. Results: Among 181 children with suspected MIS-C, 111 fulfilled the World Health Organization definition (58 females [52%]; median age, 8.6 years [interquartile range, 4.7 to 12.1]). Five children did not receive either treatment. Overall, 3 of 34 children (9%) in the IVIG and methylprednisolone group and 37 of 72 (51%) in the IVIG alone group did not respond to treatment. Treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (absolute risk difference, -0.28 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.08]; odds ratio [OR], 0.25 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.70]; P = .008). IVIG and methylprednisolone therapy vs IVIG alone was also significantly associated with lower risk of use of second-line therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.22 [95% CI, -0.40 to -0.04]; OR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.61]; P = .004), hemodynamic support (absolute risk difference, -0.17 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.004]; OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.76]), acute left ventricular dysfunction occurring after initial therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.35 to -0.01]; OR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.66]), and duration of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (median, 4 vs 6 days; difference in days, -2.4 [95% CI, -4.0 to -0.7]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with MIS-C, treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with a more favorable fever course. Study interpretation is limited by the observational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , France , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Male , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Propensity Score , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Pediatrics ; 147(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in children suggested that very young age and comorbidities may increase risk of severe evolution, but these findings remained to be confirmed. We aimed to analyze the clinical spectrum of hospitalized pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and predictors of severe disease evolution. METHODS: We conducted a French national prospective surveillance of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included all children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 60 hospitals during February 15 to June 1, 2020. The main outcome was the proportion of children with severe disease, defined by hemodynamic or ventilatory (invasive or not) support requirement. RESULTS: We included 397 hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We identified several clinical patterns, ranging from paucisymptomatic children, admitted for surveillance, to lower respiratory tract infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children <90 days old accounted for 37% of cases (145 of 397), but only 4 (3%) had severe disease. Excluding children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (n = 29) and hospitalized for a diagnosis not related to SARS-CoV-2 (n = 62), 23 of 306 (11%) children had severe disease, including 6 deaths. Factors independently associated with severity were age ≥10 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.3), hypoxemia (OR = 8.9 [2.6-29.7]), C-reactive protein level ≥80 mg/L (OR = 6.6 [1.4-27.5]). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with preliminary reports, young age was not an independent factor associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and children <90 days old were at the lowest risk of severe disease evolution. This may help physicians to better identify risk of severe disease progression in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
13.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(3): 922-932, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944632

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study determined the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the occurrence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and compared the main characteristics of MIS-C and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We included patients aged up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with MIS-C or KD in a paediatric university hospital in Paris from 1 January 2018 to 15 July 2020. Clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics were compared, and new French COVID-19 cases were correlated with MIS-C cases in our hospital. RESULTS: There were seven children with MIS-C, from 6 months to 12 years of age, who were all positive for the virus that causes COVID-19, and 40 virus-negative children with KD. Their respective characteristics were as follows: under 5 years of age (14.3% vs. 85.0%), paediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 10.0%), abdominal pain (71.4% vs. 12.5%), myocardial dysfunction (85.7% vs. 5.0%), shock syndrome (85.7% vs. 2.5%) and mean and standard deviation C-reactive protein (339 ± 131 vs. 153 ± 87). There was a strong lagged correlation between the rise and fall in MIS-C patients and COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: The rise and fall of COVID-19 first wave mirrored the MIS-C cases. There were important differences between MIS-C and KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
14.
Radiology ; 297(3): E283-E288, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930393

ABSTRACT

This case series examines cardiac MRI findings in four children and adolescents admitted to intensive care in April 2020 for multisystem inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki disease-like features related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Acute myocarditis occurred less than 1 week after onset of fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Physical examination showed rash and cheilitis or conjunctivitis. All patients recovered after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was negative in nasopharyngeal, stool, and respiratory samples and was positive on serology. Cardiac MRI showed diffuse myocardial edema on T2 short tau inversion-recovery sequences and native T1 mapping, with no evidence of late gadolinium enhancement suggestive of replacement fibrosis or focal necrosis. These findings favor postinfectious myocarditis in children and adolescents with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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