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1.
Artif Organs ; 46(7): 1249-1267, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage occurs in up to 25% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. While veno-venous extracorporeal life support (V-V ECLS) is used as respiratory support, mechanical circulatory support (MCS) may be required for severe cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review summarizes the available literature regarding MCS use rates, disease drivers for MCS initiation, and MCS outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed/EMBASE were searched until October 14, 2021. Articles including adults receiving ECLS for COVID-19 were included. The primary outcome was the rate of MCS use. Secondary outcomes included mortality at follow-up, ECLS conversion rate, intubation-to-cannulation time, time on ECLS, cardiac diseases, use of inotropes, and vasopressors. RESULTS: Twenty-eight observational studies (comprising both ECLS-only populations and ECLS patients as part of larger populations) included 4218 COVID-19 patients (females: 28.8%; median age: 54.3 years, 95%CI: 50.7-57.8) of whom 2774 (65.8%) required ECLS with the majority (92.7%) on V-V ECLS, 4.7% on veno-arterial ECLS and/or Impella, and 2.6% on other ECLS. Acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest were reported in 7.8%, 9.7%, and 6.6% of patients, respectively. Vasopressors were used in 37.2%. Overall, 3.1% of patients required an ECLS change from V-V ECLS to MCS for heart failure, myocarditis, or myocardial infarction. The median ECLS duration was 15.9 days (95%CI: 13.9-16.3), with an overall survival of 54.6% and 28.1% in V-V ECLS and MCS patients. One study reported 61.1% survival with oxy-right ventricular assist device. CONCLUSION: MCS use for cardiocirculatory compromise has been reported in 7.3% of COVID-19 patients requiring ECLS, which is a lower percentage compared to the incidence of any severe cardiocirculatory complication. Based on the poor survival rates, further investigations are warranted to establish the most appropriated indications and timing for MCS in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart-Assist Devices , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Shock, Cardiogenic , Treatment Outcome
2.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 1-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800370

ABSTRACT

Rates of survival with functional recovery for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are notably low. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is emerging as a modality to improve prognosis by augmenting perfusion to vital end-organs by utilizing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during conventional CPR and stabilizing the patient for interventions aimed at reversing the aetiology of the arrest. Implementing this emergent procedure requires a substantial investment in resources, and even the most successful ECPR programs may nonetheless burden healthcare systems, clinicians, patients, and their families with unsalvageable patients supported by extracorporeal devices. Non-randomized and observational studies have repeatedly shown an association between ECPR and improved survival, versus conventional CPR, for in-hospital cardiac arrest in select patient populations. Recently, randomized controlled trials suggest benefit for ECPR over standard resuscitation, as well as the feasibility of performing such trials, in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest within highly coordinated healthcare delivery systems. Application of these data to clinical practice should be done cautiously, with outcomes likely to vary by the setting and system within which ECPR is initiated. ECPR introduces important ethical challenges, including whether it should be considered an extension of CPR, at what point it becomes sustained organ replacement therapy, and how to approach patients unable to recover or be bridged to heart replacement therapy. The economic impact of ECPR varies by health system, and has the potential to outstrip resources if used indiscriminately. Ideally, studies should include economic evaluations to inform health care systems about the cost-benefits of this therapy.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(3): 190-199, 2022 Mar.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765603

ABSTRACT

Post-infarction mechanical complications include left ventricular free-wall rupture, ventricular septal rupture, and papillary muscle rupture. With the advent of early reperfusion strategies, including thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention, these events now occur in fewer than 0.3% of patients following acute myocardial infarction. However, unfortunately, there has been no parallel decrease in associated mortality rates over the past two decades. Moreover, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the incidence of mechanical complications resulting from ST-elevation myocardial infarction has possibly risen. Early diagnosis and prompt management are crucial to improving outcomes. Although some percutaneous device repair approaches are available, surgical treatment remains the gold standard for these catastrophic post-infarction complications. The timing of surgery, also related to the type of complication and patient's clinical conditions, and the possible role of mechanical circulatory supports before and after surgery, represent main topics of debate that still need to be fully addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/complications , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316350

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ECMO have been restrained. In the meantime, ECMO has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality.Objective: We performed an international email survey to assess how ECMO providers worldwide have previously used ECMO during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19.MethodsA questionnaire with 45 questions (covering e.g. indication, technical aspects, benefit and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple-choice, was distributed by email to ECMO centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO).Results: 276 centers worldwide responded that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID-19 cases, mostly in veno-venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECMO was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno-arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECMO varied between less than two and more than four weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECMO treatment prior to patient’s recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators were responsible for discontinuation of ECMO support. Most ECMO physicians (66% ± 26%) agreed that patients with COVID-19 induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECMO. Overall mortality of COVID-19 patients on ECMO was estimated to be about 55%, scoring higher than what has previously been reported for Influenza patients on ECMO (29 – 36%).Conclusion: ECMO has been utilized successfully during the COVID-19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECMO. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECMO providers stated that patients with severe COVID-19 benefitted from ECMO. An increasing use in patients with respiratory failure in a future stage of the pandemic may be expected.Funding Statement: COVID-19 research was funded by the Federal state of Saarland, Saarland University and Dr. Rolf M. Schwiete Foundation.Declaration of Interests: Robert Bals declares funding from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Grifols, Novartis, CLS Behring, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Competence Network Asthma and COPD (ASCONET), Sander-Stiftung, Schwiete-Stiftung, Krebshilfe and Mukoviszidose eV. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed. All other authors: No potential conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The ethical committee (Ärztekammer des Saarlandes) waived the need for a formal approval since the questionnaire did not retrieve actual patient data.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324001

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has increased worldwide over the last decade including for new emerging indications like extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, trauma, and COVID-19. Bleeding complications remain feared and frequent, with high morbidity and increased mortality. Yet, data about trends, and in-hospital outcomes, have been poorly investigated.Methods: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry database was explored for patients who received veno-venous (V-V) and veno-arterial (V-A) ECLS between the years 2000 and 2020. Trends in bleeding complications and mortality were analyzed. Bleeding complications were classified according to site (gastro-intestinal, cannulation site, surgical site, pulmonary, tamponade and central nervous system) and analyzed separately. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify risk factors for bleeding complications.Results: ELSO database analysis included 53.644 patients with single ECLS runs, mean age 51.4± 15.9 years, 33.859 (64.5%) male. Study cohort included 19.748 patients cannulated for V-V ECLS and 30.696 patients for V-A ECLS. Bleeding complications were reported in 14.786 patients (27.6%) and occurred more often in V-A-modalities compared to V-V modalities (30.0% versus 21.9%, p<0.001). Patients with a bleeding complication had a lower hospital survival in the V-V ECLS (49.6% versus 66.6%, p<0.001) and V-A ECLS subgroup (33.9 versus 44.9%, p<0.001). Bleeding complications in V-V ECLS and V-A ECLS have been decreasing over the past two decades with coefficient of -1.124;P<0.001 and -1.661;P<0.001, respectively. Cannulation site bleeding and surgical site bleeding rates showed the highest negative trend in both V-V and V-A ECLS patients. No change in mortality rates over time in V-V or V-A ECLS patients (coef.: -0.147;P=0.442 and coef.: -0.195;P=0.139) was observed. For V-V ECLS supported patients, multivariate regression revealed the following independent association with bleeding: advanced age, ECLS duration, surgical cannulation, pre-ECLS support with cardiopulmonary bypass, renal replacement therapy, prone positioning, vasodilatory and anti-hypotensive agents. For V-A ECLS supported patients, predictors for bleeding included: female gender, ECLS duration, pre-ECLS arrest or bridge to transplant, therapeutic hypothermia, surgical cannulation and pre-ECLS support with cardiopulmonary bypass, ventricular assist devices, cardiac pacemakers, vasodilatory and anti-hypotensive agents.Conclusions: The steady decrease in particular cannulation and surgical site related bleeding complications over the past 20 years suggests advances in equipment development (membrane and tubes surfaces) as well as better understanding of anticoagulation management. However, the high incidence of bleeding and association with hospital mortality reinforces the need for studies to understand bleeding complications more thoroughly during ECLS.Funding Information: No funding.Declaration of Interests: Prof. Dr. Lorusso is a consultant for Medtronic, Getinge and LivaNova and medical advisory board member for EUROSETS, all unrelated to this work;all honoraria to the university for research funding. Dr. Tonna is supported by a Career Development Award from the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute (K23 HL141596). Dr. Tonna received speaker fees and travel compensation from LivaNova and Philips Healthcare, unrelated to this work. Prof. Ten Cate received research support from Bayer and Pfizer, is a consultant for Alveron and stockholder with Coagulation Profile;all unrelated to this work. Prof Zoe McQuilten is supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Council (NHMRC) Investigator Grant.Other authors have no conflict of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: Each institution participating in ELSO Registry approves data reported to the registry through their local institutional review board. This study involv d only analysis of pre-existing de-identified data from an international registry, and as such no ethics approval was required. Similarly, no patient consent was required.

8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1353: 173-195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680584

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently and rapidly emerged and developed into a global pandemic. In SARS-CoV-2 patients with refractory respiratory failure, there may be a role for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) as a life-saving rescue intervention. METHODS: This review summarizes the evidence gathered until June 12, 2020; electronic databases were screened for pertinent reports on coronavirus and V-V ECMO. Search was conducted by two independent investigators; keywords used were SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, ECMO, and extracorporeal life support (ECLS). RESULTS: Many patients with COVID-19 experience moderate symptoms and a relatively quick recovery, but others must be admitted into the intensive care unit due to severe respiratory failure and often must be mechanically ventilated. Further deterioration may require institution of extracorporeal oxygenation. Infection mechanisms may trigger "cytokine storm," an inflammatory disorder notable for multi-organ system failure; together with other metabolic and hematological changes, these amplify the changes pertinent to ECMO therapy, often exaggerating blood coagulation disorders. Thirty-two studies were found describing experiences with ECMO in the treatment of COVID-19. Of 4,912 COVID-19 patients, 2,119 (43%) developed ARDS and 2,086 (42%) were transferred to the ICU; 1,015 patients (21%) were treated with ECMO. While in an overall cohort, observed mortality was 640 (13%), the mortality within ECMO subgroups reached up to 34.6% (range 0-100%). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of ECMO treatment for COVID-19 is largely dependent on the expertise of the center in ECLS due to the interplay between the changes in hematological and inflammatory modulators associated with both COVID-19 and ECMO. In order to support gas exchange during early infection with SARS-CoV-2, ECMO has a strong rationale for the treatment of the most critically ill patients. Due to the limited resources during a global pandemic, ECMO should be reserved for only the most severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1352: 73-86, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669697

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently and rapidly emerged and developed into a global pandemic. Through the renin-angiotensin system, the virus may impact the lung circulation, but the expression on endothelium may conduct to its activation and further systemic damage. While precise mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain to be further clarified, the understanding of the disease, its clinical course, as well as its immunological and hematological implications is of paramount importance in this phase of the pandemic. METHODS: This review summarizes the evidence gathered until 12 June; electronic databases were screened for pertinent reports on coronavirus and inflammatory and hematological changes. Search was conducted by two independent investigators; keywords used were "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," "inflammation," "immunological," and "therapy." RESULTS: The viral infection is able to trigger an excessive immune response in predisposed individuals, which can result in a "cytokine storm" that presents an hyperinflammation state able to determine tissue damage and vascular damage. An explosive production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α IL-1ß and others occurs, greatly exaggerating the generation of molecule-damaging reactive oxygen species. These changes are often followed by alterations in hematological parameters. Elucidating those changes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients could help to understand the pathophysiology of disease and may provide early clues to diagnosis. Several studies have shown that hematological parameters are markers of disease severity and suggest that they mediate disease progression. According to the available literature, the primary hematological symptoms-associated COVID-19, and which distinguish patients with severe disease from patients with nonsevere disease, are lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a significant increase in D-dimer levels. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a complex response altering inflammatory, hematological, and coagulation parameters. Measuring these alterations at certain time points may help identify patients at high risk of disease progression and monitor the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Card Surg ; 37(5): 1168-1170, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666322

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has remarkably impacted the hospital management and the profile of patients suffering from acute cardiovascular syndromes. Among them, acute infective endocarditis (AIE) represented a rather frequent part of these urgent/emergent procedures. The paper by Liu et al. has clearly shown the higher risk features which patients with a diagnosis of AIE presented at hospital admission during the first part (first and second waves) of the outbreak, often requiring challenging operations, but fortunately not associated with the worse outcome if compared to results obtained before the SARS-2 pandemic. The report discussed herein presents several other aspects worth discussion and comments, particularly in relation to hospital management and postdischarge outcome which certainly deserve to be highlighted, but also further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Aftercare , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Endocarditis/etiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge
11.
Artif Organs ; 46(5): 932-952, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During extracorporeal life support (ECLS), bleeding is one of the most frequent complications, associated with high morbidity and increased mortality, despite continuous improvements in devices and patient care. Risk factors for bleeding complications in veno-venous (V-V) ECLS applied for respiratory support have been poorly investigated. We aim to develop and internally validate a prediction model to calculate the risk for bleeding complications in adult patients receiving V-V ECLS support. METHODS: Data from adult patients reported to the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) registry between the years 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The primary outcome was bleeding complications recorded during V-V ECLS. Multivariable logistic regression with backward stepwise elimination was used to develop the predictive model. The performance of the model was tested by discriminative ability and calibration with receiver operating characteristic curves and visual inspection of the calibration plot. RESULTS: In total, 18 658 adult patients were included, of which 3 933 (21.1%) developed bleeding complications. The prediction model showed a prediction of bleeding complications with an AUC of 0.63. Pre-ECLS arrest, surgical cannulation, lactate, pO2 , HCO3 , ventilation rate, mean airway pressure, pre-ECLS cardiopulmonary bypass or renal replacement therapy, pre-ECLS surgical interventions, and different types of diagnosis were included in the prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: The model is based on the largest cohort of V-V ECLS patients and reveals the most favorable predictive value addressing bleeding events given the predictors that are feasible and when compared to the current literature. This model will help identify patients at risk of bleeding complications, and decision making in terms of anticoagulation and hemostatic management.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Logistic Models , Registries , Retrospective Studies
12.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1230-1238, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of patients with COVID-19 has changed and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased. We aimed to examine patient selection, treatments, outcomes, and ECMO centre characteristics over the course of the pandemic to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and COVID-19 Addendum to compare three groups of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (aged ≥16 years). At early-adopting centres-ie, those using ECMO support for COVID-19 throughout 2020-we compared patients who started ECMO on or before May 1, 2020 (group A1), and between May 2 and Dec 31, 2020 (group A2). Late-adopting centres were those that provided ECMO for COVID-19 only after May 1, 2020 (group B). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in a time-to-event analysis assessed 90 days after ECMO initiation. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to compare the patient and centre-level adjusted relative risk of mortality among the groups. FINDINGS: In 2020, 4812 patients with COVID-19 received ECMO across 349 centres within 41 countries. For early-adopting centres, the cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO initiation was 36·9% (95% CI 34·1-39·7) in patients who started ECMO on or before May 1 (group A1) versus 51·9% (50·0-53·8) after May 1 (group A2); at late-adopting centres (group B), it was 58·9% (55·4-62·3). Relative to patients in group A2, group A1 patients had a lower adjusted relative risk of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO (hazard ratio 0·82 [0·70-0·96]), whereas group B patients had a higher adjusted relative risk (1·42 [1·17-1·73]). INTERPRETATION: Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Duration of Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264493

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (V-V ECMO) was shown to provide valuable treatment with reasonable survival in large multi-centre investigations. However, in some patients, conversion to modified ECMO support forms may be needed. In this single-centre retrospective registry, all consecutive patients receiving V-V ECMO between 1 March 2020 to 1 May 2021 were included and analysed. The patient cohort was divided into two groups: those who remained on V-V ECMO and those who required conversion to other modalities. Seventy-eight patients were included, with fourteen cases (18%) requiring conversions to veno-arterial (V-A) or hybrid ECMO. The reasons for the ECMO mode configuration change were inadequate drainage (35.7%), inadequate perfusion (14.3%), myocardial infarction (7.1%), hypovolemic shock (14.3%), cardiogenic shock (14.3%) and septic shock (7.1%). In multivariable analysis, the use of dobutamine (p = 0.007) and a shorter ICU duration (p = 0.047) predicted the conversion. The 30-day mortality was higher in converted patients (log-rank p = 0.029). Overall, only 19 patients (24.4%) survived to discharge or lung transplantation. Adverse events were more common after conversion and included renal, cardiovascular and ECMO-circuit complications. Conversion itself was not associated with mortality in the multivariable analysis. In conclusion, as many as 18% of patients undergoing V-V ECMO for COVID-19 ARDS may require conversion to advanced ECMO support.

15.
ASAIO J ; 67(5): 485-495, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203774

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: This is an updated guideline from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) for the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The great majority of COVID-19 patients (>90%) requiring ECMO have been supported using venovenous (V-V) ECMO for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While COVID-19 ECMO run duration may be longer than in non-COVID-19 ECMO patients, published mortality appears to be similar between the two groups. However, data collection is ongoing, and there is a signal that overall mortality may be increasing. Conventional selection criteria for COVID-19-related ECMO should be used; however, when resources become more constrained during a pandemic, more stringent contraindications should be implemented. Formation of regional ECMO referral networks may facilitate communication, resource sharing, expedited patient referral, and mobile ECMO retrieval. There are no data to suggest deviation from conventional ECMO device or patient management when applying ECMO for COVID-19 patients. Rarely, children may require ECMO support for COVID-19-related ARDS, myocarditis, or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); conventional selection criteria and management practices should be the standard. We strongly encourage participation in data submission to investigate the optimal use of ECMO for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
16.
Artif Organs ; 45(5): 495-505, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085292

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ECLS have been restrained. In the meantime, ECLS has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality. We performed an international email survey to assess how ECLS providers worldwide have previously used ECLS during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. A questionnaire with 45 questions (covering, e.g., indication, technical aspects, benefit, and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple choice, was distributed by email to ECLS centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO); 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers in 30 different countries on four continents reported that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID-19 cases, mostly in veno-venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECLS was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno-arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECLS varied between less than 2 and more than 4 weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECLS treatment prior to patient's recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators, were responsible for discontinuation of ECLS support. Most ECLS physicians (51%, IQR 30%) agreed that patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID-19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%. ECLS has been utilized successfully during the COVID-19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECLS providers stated that patients with severe COVID-19 benefitted from ECLS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Internationality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 430-434, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic strained health-care systems throughout the world. For some, available medical resources could not meet the increased demand and rationing was ultimately required. Hospitals and governments often sought to establish triage committees to assist with allocation decisions. However, for institutions operating under crisis standards of care (during times when standards of care must be substantially lowered in the setting of crisis), relying on these committees for rationing decisions was impractical-circumstances were changing too rapidly, occurring in too many diverse locations within hospitals, and the available information for decision making was notably scarce. Furthermore, a utilitarian approach to decision making based on an analysis of outcomes is problematic due to uncertainty regarding outcomes of different therapeutic options. We propose that triage committees could be involved in providing policies and guidance for clinicians to help ensure equity in the application of rationing under crisis standards of care. An approach guided by egalitarian principles, integrated with utilitarian principles, can support physicians at the bedside when they must ration scarce resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triage/organization & administration , Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Advisory Committees/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/economics , Critical Care/standards , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Decision Making, Organizational , Global Health/economics , Global Health/standards , Health Care Rationing/economics , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Policy , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Pandemics/economics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Standard of Care/economics , Triage/standards
20.
Acta Cardiol ; 76(2): 200-203, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028835

ABSTRACT

This case report describes an intentional intoxication with 18 g of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) presenting with unconsciousness, ventricular dysrhythmias, cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. Initial treatment consisted of sodium bicarbonate, lipid emulsion, diazepam and norepinephrine. Because of persistent cardiogenic shock veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) was successfully used as a bridge to recovery. This case underscores the possible side effects of HCQ and the importance of considering ECMO in cardiogenic shock caused by HCQ intoxication which may occur also in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on the currently frequent use of such a compound.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hydroxychloroquine/poisoning , Antirheumatic Agents/poisoning , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
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