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1.
J Control Release ; 342: 388-399, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562303

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of RNA-based vaccines has been recently demonstrated, leading to the use of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. The application of self-amplifying mRNA within these formulations may offer further enhancement to these vaccines, as self-amplifying mRNA replicons enable longer expression kinetics and more potent immune responses compared to non-amplifying mRNAs. To investigate the impact of administration route on RNA-vaccine potency, we investigated the immunogenicity of a self-amplifying mRNA encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein encapsulated in different nanoparticle platforms (solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)). These were administered via three different routes: intramuscular, intradermal and intranasal. Our studies in a mouse model show that the immunogenicity of our 4 different saRNA vaccine formulations after intramuscular or intradermal administration was initially comparable; however, ionizable LNPs gave higher long-term IgG responses. The clearance of all 4 of the nanoparticle formulations from the intramuscular or intradermal administration site was similar. In contrast, immune responses generated after intranasal was low and coupled with rapid clearance for the administration site, irrespective of the formulation. These results demonstrate that both the administration route and delivery system format dictate self-amplifying RNA vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937530

ABSTRACT

In the recent of years, the use of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for RNA delivery has gained considerable attention, with a large number in the clinical pipeline as vaccine candidates or to treat a wide range of diseases. Microfluidics offers considerable advantages for their manufacture due to its scalability, reproducibility and fast preparation. Thus, in this study, we have evaluated operating and formulation parameters to be considered when developing LNPs. Among them, the flow rate ratio (FRR) and the total flow rate (TFR) have been shown to significantly influence the physicochemical characteristics of the produced particles. In particular, increasing the TFR or increasing the FRR decreased the particle size. The amino lipid choice (cationic-DOTAP and DDAB; ionisable-MC3), buffer choice (citrate buffer pH 6 or TRIS pH 7.4) and type of nucleic acid payload (PolyA, ssDNA or mRNA) have also been shown to have an impact on the characteristics of these LNPs. LNPs were shown to have a high (>90%) loading in all cases and were below 100 nm with a low polydispersity index (≤0.25). The results within this paper could be used as a guide for the development and scalable manufacture of LNP systems using microfluidics.

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