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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDVaccine-elicited adaptive immunity is a prerequisite for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) differentially target humoral and cellular immunity. A comprehensive comparison of the effects of MS DMTs on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-specific immunity is needed, including quantitative and functional B and T cell responses.METHODSSpike-specific Ab and T cell responses were measured before and following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a cohort of 80 study participants, including healthy controls and patients with MS in 6 DMT groups: untreated and treated with glatiramer acetate (GA), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), natalizumab (NTZ), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators, and anti-CD20 mAbs. Anti-spike-Ab responses were assessed by Luminex assay, VirScan, and pseudovirus neutralization. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were characterized by activation-induced marker and cytokine expression and tetramer.RESULTSAnti-spike IgG levels were similar between healthy control participants and patients with untreated MS and those receiving GA, DMF, or NTZ but were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Anti-spike seropositivity in anti-CD20 mAb-treated patients was correlated with CD19+ B cell levels and inversely correlated with cumulative treatment duration. Spike epitope reactivity and pseudovirus neutralization were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity remained robust across all groups, except in S1P-treated patients, in whom postvaccine CD4+ T cell responses were attenuated.CONCLUSIONThese findings from a large cohort of patients with MS exposed to a wide spectrum of MS immunotherapies have important implications for treatment-specific COVID-19 clinical guidelines.FUNDINGNIH grants 1K08NS107619, K08NS096117, R01AI159260, R01NS092835, R01AI131624, and R21NS108159; NMSS grants TA-1903-33713 and RG1701-26628; Westridge Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub; Maisin Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology
2.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368933

ABSTRACT

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Protein Domains , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100288, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213573

ABSTRACT

Individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently develop neurological symptoms, but the biological underpinnings of these phenomena are unknown. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and cytokine analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from individuals with COVID-19 with neurological symptoms, we find compartmentalized, CNS-specific T cell activation and B cell responses. All affected individuals had CSF anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies whose target epitopes diverged from serum antibodies. In an animal model, we find that intrathecal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are present only during brain infection and not elicited by pulmonary infection. We produced CSF-derived monoclonal antibodies from an individual with COVID-19 and found that these monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target antiviral and antineural antigens, including one mAb that reacted to spike protein and neural tissue. CSF immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 5 of 7 patients showed antineural reactivity. This immune survey reveals evidence of a compartmentalized immune response in the CNS of individuals with COVID-19 and suggests a role of autoimmunity in neurologic sequelae of COVID-19.

5.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903184

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a wholeblood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferonstimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and autodirected antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense.

6.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(7): 100123, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793949

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive understanding of the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is important for both pathophysiologic insight and diagnostic development. Here, we generate a pan-human coronavirus programmable phage display assay to perform proteome-wide profiling of coronavirus antigens enriched by 98 COVID-19 patient sera. Next, we use ReScan, a method to efficiently sequester phage expressing the most immunogenic peptides and print them onto paper-based microarrays using acoustic liquid handling, which isolates and identifies nine candidate antigens, eight of which are derived from the two proteins used for SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays: spike and nucleocapsid proteins. After deployment in a high-throughput assay amenable to clinical lab settings, these antigens show improved specificity over a whole protein panel. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that ReScan will have broad applicability for other emerging infectious diseases or autoimmune diseases that lack a valid biomarker, enabling a seamless pipeline from antigen discovery to diagnostic using one recombinant protein source.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
7.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772263

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread around the world, there is an urgent need for new assay formats to characterize the humoral response to infection. Here, we present an efficient, competitive serological assay that can simultaneously determine an individual's seroreactivity against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and determine the proportion of anti-Spike antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. In this approach based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we present natively folded viral Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-containing antigens via avidin-biotin interactions. Sera are then competed with soluble ACE2-Fc, or with a higher-affinity variant thereof, to determine the proportion of ACE2 blocking anti-RBD antibodies. Assessment of sera from 144 SARS-CoV-2 patients ultimately revealed that a remarkably consistent and high proportion of antibodies in the anti-RBD pool targeted the epitope responsible for ACE2 engagement (83% ± 11%; 50% to 107% signal inhibition in our largest cohort), further underscoring the importance of tailoring vaccines to promote the development of such antibodies.IMPORTANCE With the emergence and continued spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and of the associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for improved understanding of how the body mounts an immune response to the virus. Here, we developed a competitive SARS-CoV-2 serological assay that can simultaneously determine whether an individual has developed antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and measure the proportion of these antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. Using this assay and 144 SARS-CoV-2 patient serum samples, we found that a majority of anti-RBD antibodies compete for ACE2 binding. These results not only highlight the need to design vaccines to generate such blocking antibodies but also demonstrate the utility of this assay to rapidly screen patient sera for potentially neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(10): 1174-1183, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733514

ABSTRACT

Appropriate use and interpretation of serological tests for assessments of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposure, infection and potential immunity require accurate data on assay performance. We conducted a head-to-head evaluation of ten point-of-care-style lateral flow assays (LFAs) and two laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in 5-d time intervals from symptom onset and studied the specificity of each assay in pre-coronavirus disease 2019 specimens. The percent of seropositive individuals increased with time, peaking in the latest time interval tested (>20 d after symptom onset). Test specificity ranged from 84.3% to 100.0% and was predominantly affected by variability in IgM results. LFA specificity could be increased by considering weak bands as negative, but this decreased detection of antibodies (sensitivity) in a subset of SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR-positive cases. Our results underline the importance of seropositivity threshold determination and reader training for reliable LFA deployment. Although there was no standout serological assay, four tests achieved more than 80% positivity at later time points tested and more than 95% specificity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biotechnology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chromatography, Affinity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Point-of-Care Testing , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
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