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1.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271358, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938449

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics, management, and prognosis of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 during the first two waves of the outbreak and to evaluate the relationship between ICU strain (ICU demand due to COVID-19 admissions) and mortality. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, 1166 COVID-19 patients admitted to five ICUs in France between 20 February and 31 December 2020 were included. Data were collected at each ICU from medical records. A Cox proportional-hazards model identified factors associated with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: 640 patients (55%) were admitted during the first wave (February to June 2020) and 526 (45%) during the second wave (July to December 2020). ICU strain was lower during the second wave (-0.81 [-1.04 --0.31] vs. 1.18 [-0.34-1.29] SD when compared to mean COVID-19 admission in each center during study period, P<0.001). Patients admitted during the second wave were older, had more profound hypoxemia and lower SOFA. High flow nasal cannula was more frequently used during the second wave (68% vs. 39%, P<0.001) and intubation was less frequent (46% vs. 69%, P<0.001). Neither 28-day mortality (30% vs. 26%, P = 0.12) nor hospital mortality (37% vs. 31%, P = 0.27) differed between first and second wave. Overweight and obesity were associated with lower 28-day mortality while older age, underlying chronic kidney disease, severity at ICU admission as assessed by SOFA score and ICU strain were associated with higher 28-day mortality. ICU strain was not associated with hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: The characteristics and the management of patients varied between the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Rather than the wave, ICU strain was independently associated with 28-day mortality, but not with hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 828402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775697

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The clinical outcomes of the Beta (B.1.351) variant of concern (VOC) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus remain poorly understood. In early 2021, northeastern France experienced an outbreak of Beta that was not observed elsewhere. This outbreak slightly preceded and then overlapped with a second outbreak of the better understood VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7) in the region. This situation allowed us to contemporaneously compare Alpha and Beta in terms of the characteristics, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted on all consecutive adult patients who had laboratory confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection, underwent variant screening, and were admitted to one of four intensive care units (ICU) for acute respiratory failure between January 9th and May 15th, 2021. Primary outcome was 60-day mortality. Differences between Alpha and Beta in terms of other outcomes, patient variables, management, and vaccination characteristics were also explored by univariate analysis. The factors that associated with 60-day death in Alpha- and Beta-infected patients were examined with logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 333 patients (median age, 63 years; 68% male) were enrolled. Of these, 174 and 159 had Alpha and Beta, respectively. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of 60-day mortality (19 vs. 23%), 28-day mortality (17 vs. 20%), need for mechanical ventilation (60 vs. 61%), mechanical ventilation duration (14 vs. 15 days), other management variables, patient demographic variables, comorbidities, or clinical variables on ICU admission. The vast majority of patients were unvaccinated (94%). The remaining 18 patients had received a partial vaccine course and 2 were fully vaccinated. The vaccinated patients were equally likely to have Alpha and Beta. Conclusions: Beta did not differ from Alpha in terms of patient characteristics, management, or outcomes in critically ill patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04906850.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 534, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) is a standard of care for patients with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While adverse events associated with PP are well-documented in the literature, research examining the effect of PP on the risk of infectious complications of intravascular catheters is lacking. METHOD: All consecutive ARDS patients treated with PP were recruited retrospectively over a two-year period and formed the exposed group. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the same period without ARDS for whom PP was not conducted but who had an equivalent disease severity were matched 1:1 to the exposed group based on age, sex, centre, length of ICU stay and SAPS II (unexposed group). Infection-related catheter complications were defined by a composite criterion, including catheter tip colonization or intravascular catheter-related infection. RESULTS: A total of 101 exposed patients were included in the study. Most had direct ARDS (pneumonia). The median [Q1-Q3] PP session number was 2 [1-4]. These patients were matched with 101 unexposed patients. The mortality rates of the exposed and unexposed groups were 31 and 30%, respectively. The incidence of the composite criterion was 14.2/1000 in the exposed group compared with 8.2/1000 days in the control group (p = 0.09). Multivariate analysis identified PP as a factor related to catheter colonization or infection (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PP is associated with a higher risk of CVC infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 90, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on mental health of professionals working in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the intensity of the epidemic in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 77 French hospitals from April 22 to May 13 2020. All ICU frontline healthcare workers were eligible. The primary endpoint was the mental health, assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Sources of stress during the crisis were assessed using the Perceived Stressors in Intensive Care Units (PS-ICU) scale. Epidemic intensity was defined as high or low for each region based on publicly available data from Santé Publique France. Effects were assessed using linear mixed models, moderation and mediation analyses. RESULTS: In total, 2643 health professionals participated; 64.36% in high-intensity zones. Professionals in areas with greater epidemic intensity were at higher risk of mental health issues (p < 0.001), and higher levels of overall perceived stress (p < 0.001), compared to low-intensity zones. Factors associated with higher overall perceived stress were female sex (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08-0.17), having a relative at risk of COVID-19 (B = 0.14; 95%-CI = 0.09-0.18) and working in high-intensity zones (B = 0.11; 95%-CI = 0.02-0.20). Perceived stress mediated the impact of the crisis context on mental health (B = 0.23, 95%-CI = 0.05, 0.41) and the impact of stress on mental health was moderated by positive thinking, b = - 0.32, 95% CI = - 0.54, - 0.11. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 negatively impacted the mental health of ICU professionals. Professionals working in zones where the epidemic was of high intensity were significantly more affected, with higher levels of perceived stress. This study is supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC-COVID 2020).

5.
6.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(2): 577-581, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002092

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to SARS-CoV-2, is primarily a respiratory disease, causing in most severe cases life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Cardiovascular involvement can also occur, such as thrombosis or myocarditis, generally associated with pulmonary lesions. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis. We report the case of a 69-year-old man suffering from a refractory cardiogenic shock, without significant lung involvement. Prior to death, several nasopharyngeal swabs and distal bronchoalveolar lavage were sampled in order to perform RT-PCR analyses for SARS-CoV-2-RNA, which all gave negative results. Autopsy showed coronary atherosclerosis, without acute complication. Microscopic examination of the heart revealed the existence of an intense multifocal inflammatory infiltration, in both ventricles and septum, composed in its majority of macrophages and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4/CD8 ratio: 0.11). Immunohistochemistry for anti-SARS nucleocapsid protein antibody was strongly positive in myocardial cells, but not in lung tissue. RT-PCR was realized on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung and heart tissue blocks: only heart tissue was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In conclusion, this exhaustive post-mortem pathological case study of fulminant myocarditis demonstrates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in heart tissue, without significant lung involvement. Immunohistochemistry showed that the virus was specifically localized in cardiomyocytes and induced a strong cytotoxic T cells inflammatory response. This case report thus gives new insight in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis and emphasizes on the importance and reliability of post-mortem analyses in order to better understand the physiopathology of this worldwide spreading new viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Coronary Stenosis/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/pathology
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