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1.
J Biol Chem ; 299(7): 104886, 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230741

ABSTRACT

The effect of mutations of the catalytic dyad residues of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MProWT) on the thermodynamics of binding of covalent inhibitors comprising nitrile [nirmatrelvir (NMV), NBH2], aldehyde (GC373), and ketone (BBH1) warheads to MPro is examined together with room temperature X-ray crystallography. When lacking the nucleophilic C145, NMV binding is ∼400-fold weaker corresponding to 3.5 kcal/mol and 13.3 °C decrease in free energy (ΔG) and thermal stability (Tm), respectively, relative to MProWT. The H41A mutation results in a 20-fold increase in the dissociation constant (Kd), and 1.7 kcal/mol and 1.4 °C decreases in ΔG and Tm, respectively. Increasing the pH from 7.2 to 8.2 enhances NMV binding to MProH41A, whereas no significant change is observed in binding to MProWT. Structures of the four inhibitor complexes with MPro1-304/C145A show that the active site geometries of the complexes are nearly identical to that of MProWT with the nucleophilic sulfur of C145 positioned to react with the nitrile or the carbonyl carbon. These results support a two-step mechanism for the formation of the covalent complex involving an initial non-covalent binding followed by a nucleophilic attack by the thiolate anion of C145 on the warhead carbon. Noncovalent inhibitor ensitrelvir (ESV) exhibits a binding affinity to MProWT that is similar to NMV but differs in its thermodynamic signature from NMV. The binding of ESV to MProC145A also results in a significant, but smaller, increase in Kd and decrease in ΔG and Tm, relative to NMV.

2.
J Mol Biol ; 434(24): 167876, 2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131576

ABSTRACT

We recently demonstrated that inhibitor binding reorganizes the oxyanion loop of a monomeric catalytic domain of SARS CoV-2 main protease (MPro) from an unwound (E) to a wound (active, E*) conformation, independent of dimerization. Here we assess the effect of the flanking N-terminal residues, to imitate the MPro precursor prior to its autoprocessing, on conformational equilibria rendering stability and inhibitor binding. Thermal denaturation (Tm) of C145A mutant, unlike H41A, increases by 6.8 °C, relative to wild-type mature dimer. An inactivating H41A mutation to maintain a miniprecursor containing TSAVL[Q or E] of the flanking nsp4 sequence in an intact form [(-6)MProH41A and (-6*)MProH41A, respectively], and its corresponding mature MProH41A were systematically examined. While the H41A mutation exerts negligible effect on Tm and dimer dissociation constant (Kdimer) of MProH41A, relative to the wild type MPro, both miniprecursors show a 4-5 °C decrease in Tm and > 85-fold increase in Kdimer as compared to MProH41A. The Kd for the binding of the covalent inhibitor GC373 to (-6*)MProH41A increases ∼12-fold, relative to MProH41A, concomitant with its dimerization. While the inhibitor-free dimer exhibits a state in transit from E to E* with a conformational asymmetry of the protomers' oxyanion loops and helical domains, inhibitor binding restores the asymmetry to mature-like oxyanion loop conformations (E*) but not of the helical domains. Disorder of the terminal residues 1-2 and 302-306 observed in both structures suggest that N-terminal autoprocessing is tightly coupled to the E-E* equilibrium and stable dimer formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Catalytic Domain , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Crystallography, X-Ray , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 976, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036926

ABSTRACT

The monomeric catalytic domain (residues 1-199) of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro1-199) fused to 25 amino acids of its flanking nsp4 region mediates its autoprocessing at the nsp4-MPro1-199 junction. We report the catalytic activity and the dissociation constants of MPro1-199 and its analogs with the covalent inhibitors GC373 and nirmatrelvir (NMV), and the estimated monomer-dimer equilibrium constants of these complexes. Mass spectrometry indicates the presence of the accumulated adduct of NMV bound to MProWT and MPro1-199 and not of GC373. A room temperature crystal structure reveals a native-like fold of the catalytic domain with an unwound oxyanion loop (E state). In contrast, the structure of a covalent complex of the catalytic domain-GC373 or NMV shows an oxyanion loop conformation (E* state) resembling the full-length mature dimer. These results suggest that the E-E* equilibrium modulates autoprocessing of the main protease when converting from a monomeric polyprotein precursor to the mature dimer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amino Acids , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , Polyproteins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2268, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815534

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to threaten the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, and small-molecule antivirals can provide an important therapeutic treatment option. The viral main protease (Mpro) is critical for virus replication and thus is considered an attractive drug target. We performed the design and characterization of three covalent hybrid inhibitors BBH-1, BBH-2 and NBH-2 created by splicing components of hepatitis C protease inhibitors boceprevir and narlaprevir, and known SARS-CoV-1 protease inhibitors. A joint X-ray/neutron structure of the Mpro/BBH-1 complex demonstrates that a Cys145 thiolate reaction with the inhibitor's keto-warhead creates a negatively charged oxyanion. Protonation states of the ionizable residues in the Mpro active site adapt to the inhibitor, which appears to be an intrinsic property of Mpro. Structural comparisons of the hybrid inhibitors with PF-07321332 reveal unconventional F···O interactions of PF-07321332 with Mpro which may explain its more favorable enthalpy of binding. BBH-1, BBH-2 and NBH-2 exhibit comparable antiviral properties in vitro relative to PF-07321332, making them good candidates for further design of improved antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cyclopropanes , Humans , Lactams , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Nitriles , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfones , Urea
5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 160, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721596

ABSTRACT

The role of dimer formation for the onset of catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MProWT) was assessed using a predominantly monomeric mutant (MProM). Rates of MProWT and MProM catalyzed hydrolyses display substrate saturation kinetics and second-order dependency on the protein concentration. The addition of the prodrug GC376, an inhibitor of MProWT, to MProM leads to an increase in the dimer population and catalytic activity with increasing inhibitor concentration. The activity reaches a maximum corresponding to a dimer population in which one active site is occupied by the inhibitor and the other is available for catalytic activity. This phase is followed by a decrease in catalytic activity due to the inhibitor competing with the substrate. Detailed kinetics and equilibrium analyses are presented and a modified Michaelis-Menten equation accounts for the results. These observations provide conclusive evidence that dimer formation is coupled to catalytic activity represented by two equivalent active sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Circular Dichroism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Thermodynamics
6.
IUCrJ ; 8(Pt 6): 973-979, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522472

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged at the end of 2019 to cause an unprecedented pandemic of the deadly respiratory disease COVID-19 that continues to date. The viral main protease (Mpro) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication and is therefore an important drug target. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of Mpro, a cysteine protease with a catalytic site comprising the noncanonical Cys145-His41 dyad, can help in guiding drug design. Here, a 2.0 Šresolution room-temperature X-ray crystal structure is reported of a Michaelis-like complex of Mpro harboring a single inactivating mutation C145A bound to the octapeptide Ac-SAVLQSGF-CONH2 corresponding to the nsp4/nsp5 autocleavage site. The peptide substrate is unambiguously defined in subsites S5 to S3' by strong electron density. Superposition of the Michaelis-like complex with the neutron structure of substrate-free Mpro demonstrates that the catalytic site is inherently pre-organized for catalysis prior to substrate binding. Induced fit to the substrate is driven by P1 Gln binding in the predetermined subsite S1 and rearrangement of subsite S2 to accommodate P2 Leu. The Michaelis-like complex structure is ideal for in silico modeling of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic mechanism.

7.
J Med Chem ; 64(23): 17366-17383, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493002

ABSTRACT

Creating small-molecule antivirals specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins is crucial to battle coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is an established drug target for the design of protease inhibitors. We performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of noncovalent compounds that bind in the enzyme's substrate-binding subsites S1 and S2, revealing structural, electronic, and electrostatic determinants of these sites. The study was guided by the X-ray/neutron structure of Mpro complexed with Mcule-5948770040 (compound 1), in which protonation states were directly visualized. Virtual reality-assisted structure analysis and small-molecule building were employed to generate analogues of 1. In vitro enzyme inhibition assays and room-temperature X-ray structures demonstrated the effect of chemical modifications on Mpro inhibition, showing that (1) maintaining correct geometry of an inhibitor's P1 group is essential to preserve the hydrogen bond with the protonated His163; (2) a positively charged linker is preferred; and (3) subsite S2 prefers nonbulky modestly electronegative groups.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors , Orotic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Piperazines , Protein Conformation , Static Electricity
8.
Sci Adv ; 7(41): eabk2226, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462895

ABSTRACT

Entry of SARS-CoV-2 into a host cell is mediated by spike, a class I viral fusion protein responsible for merging the viral and host cell membranes. Recent studies have revealed atomic-resolution models for both the postfusion 6-helix bundle (6HB) and the prefusion state of spike. However, a mechanistic understanding of the molecular basis for the intervening structural transition, important for the design of fusion inhibitors, has remained elusive. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and other biophysical methods, we demonstrate the presence of α-helical, membrane-bound, intermediate states of spike's heptad repeat (HR1 and HR2) domains that are embedded at the lipid-water interface while in a slow dynamic equilibrium with the postfusion 6HB state. These results support a model where the HR domains lower the large energy barrier associated with membrane fusion by destabilizing the host and viral membranes, while 6HB formation actively drives their fusion by forcing physical proximity.

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