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1.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957404

ABSTRACT

Retrospective studies showed a relationship between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, with an inverse relation between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and circulating calcifediol levels. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the length of hospital stay and clinical improvement in patients with vitamin D deficiency hospitalized with COVID-19. The study was randomized, double blind and placebo controlled. A total of 50 subjects were enrolled and received, in addition to the best available COVID therapy, either vitamin D (25,000 IU per day over 4 consecutive days, followed by 25,000 IU per week up to 6 weeks) or placebo. The length of hospital stay decreased significantly in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (4 days vs. 8 days; p = 0.003). At Day 7, a significantly lower percentage of patients were still hospitalized in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (19% vs. 54%; p = 0.0161), and none of the patients treated with vitamin D were hospitalized after 21 days compared to 14% of the patients treated with placebo. Vitamin D significantly reduced the duration of supplemental oxygen among the patients who needed it (4 days vs. 7 days in the placebo group; p = 0.012) and significantly improved the clinical recovery of the patients, as assessed by the WHO scale (p = 0.0048). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization was improved by administration of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization , Humans , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917364

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is required to provide the best treatment to our patients, to prevent the epidemic from spreading in the community, and to reduce costs associated with the aggravation of the disease. We developed a decision tree model to evaluate the impact of using an artificial intelligence-based chest computed tomography (CT) analysis software (icolung, icometrix) to analyze CT scans for the detection and prognosis of COVID-19 cases. The model compared routine practice where patients receiving a chest CT scan were not screened for COVID-19, with a scenario where icolung was introduced to enable COVID-19 diagnosis. The primary outcome was to evaluate the impact of icolung on the transmission of COVID-19 infection, and the secondary outcome was the in-hospital length of stay. Using EUR 20000 as a willingness-to-pay threshold, icolung is cost-effective in reducing the risk of transmission, with a low prevalence of COVID-19 infections. Concerning the hospitalization cost, icolung is cost-effective at a higher value of COVID-19 prevalence and risk of hospitalization. This model provides a framework for the evaluation of AI-based tools for the early detection of COVID-19 cases. It allows for making decisions regarding their implementation in routine practice, considering both costs and effects.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911245

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic induced by the SARS-CoV-2, numerous chest scans were carried out in order to establish the diagnosis, quantify the extension of lesions but also identify the occurrence of potential pulmonary embolisms. In this perspective, the performed chest scans provided a varied database for a retrospective analysis of non-COVID-19 chest pathologies discovered de novo. The fortuitous discovery of de novo non-COVID-19 lesions was generally not detected by the automated systems for COVID-19 pneumonia developed in parallel during the pandemic and was thus identified on chest CT by the radiologist. The objective is to use the study of the occurrence of non-COVID-19-related chest abnormalities (known and unknown) in a large cohort of patients having suffered from confirmed COVID-19 infection and statistically correlate the clinical data and the occurrence of these abnormalities in order to assess the potential of increased early detection of lesions/alterations. This study was performed on a group of 362 COVID-19-positive patients who were prescribed a CT scan in order to diagnose and predict COVID-19-associated lung disease. Statistical analysis using mean, standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (IQR), logistic regression models and linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results were considered significant at the 5% critical level (p < 0.05). These de novo non-COVID-19 thoracic lesions detected on chest CT showed a significant prevalence in cardiovascular pathologies, with calcifying atheromatous anomalies approaching nearly 35.4% in patients over 65 years of age. The detection of non-COVID-19 pathologies was mostly already known, except for suspicious nodule, thyroid goiter and the ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The presence of vertebral compression or signs of pulmonary fibrosis has shown a significant impact on inpatient length of stay. The characteristics of the patients in this sample, both from a demographic and a tomodensitometric point of view on non-COVID-19 pathologies, influenced the length of hospital stay as well as the risk of intra-hospital death. This retrospective study showed that the potential importance of the detection of these non-COVID-19 lesions by the radiologist was essential in the management and the intra-hospital course of the patients.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 209-216, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Various symptoms and considerable organ dysfunction persist following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Uncertainty remains about the potential mid- and long-term health sequelae. This prospective study of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Liège University Hospital, Belgium aimed to determine the persistent consequences of COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to the University Hospital of Liège with moderate-to-severe confirmed COVID-19, discharged between 2 March and 1 October 2020, were recruited prospectively. Follow-up at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge included demographic and clinical data, biological data, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. RESULTS: In total, 199 individuals were included in the analysis. Most patients received oxygen supplementation (80.4%). Six months after discharge, 47% and 32% of patients still had exertional dyspnoea and fatigue. PFTs at 3-month follow-up revealed a reduced diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (mean 71.6 ± 18.6%), and this increased significantly at 6-month follow-up (P<0.0001). Chest CT scans showed a high prevalence (68.9% of the cohort) of persistent abnormalities, mainly ground glass opacities. Duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation were not associated with the persistence of symptoms 3 months after discharge. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent symptoms following hospitalization with COVID-19 is high and stable for up to 6 months after discharge. However, biological, functional and iconographic abnormalities improved significantly over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13476, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287817

ABSTRACT

Face masks and personal respirators are used to curb the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory droplets; filters embedded in some personal protective equipment could be used as a non-invasive sample source for applications, including at-home testing, but information is needed about whether filters are suited to capture viral particles for SARS-CoV-2 detection. In this study, we generated inactivated virus-laden aerosols of 0.3-2 microns in diameter (0.9 µm mean diameter by mass) and dispersed the aerosolized viral particles onto electrostatic face mask filters. The limit of detection for inactivated coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 extracted from filters was between 10 to 100 copies/filter for both viruses. Testing for SARS-CoV-2, using face mask filters and nasopharyngeal swabs collected from hospitalized COVID-19-patients, showed that filter samples offered reduced sensitivity (8.5% compared to nasopharyngeal swabs). The low concordance of SARS-CoV-2 detection between filters and nasopharyngeal swabs indicated that number of viral particles collected on the face mask filter was below the limit of detection for all patients but those with the highest viral loads. This indicated face masks are unsuitable to replace diagnostic nasopharyngeal swabs in COVID-19 diagnosis. The ability to detect nucleic acids on face mask filters may, however, find other uses worth future investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Masks/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aerosols , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Particle Size , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Static Electricity , Viral Load , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249920, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether one can build a mortality prediction model for COVID-19 patients based solely on demographics and comorbidity data that outperforms age alone. Such a model could be a precursor to implementing smart lockdowns and vaccine distribution strategies. METHODS: The training cohort comprised 2337 COVID-19 inpatients from nine hospitals in The Netherlands. The clinical outcome was death within 21 days of being discharged. The features were derived from electronic health records collected during admission. Three feature selection methods were used: LASSO, univariate using a novel metric, and pairwise (age being half of each pair). 478 patients from Belgium were used to test the model. All modeling attempts were compared against an age-only model. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the mortality group's median age was 77 years (interquartile range = 70-83), higher than the non-mortality group (median = 65, IQR = 55-75). The incidence of former/active smokers, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic cardiac disease, chronic neurological disease, and chronic kidney disease was higher in the mortality group. All stated differences were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. LASSO selected eight features, novel univariate chose five, and pairwise chose none. No model was able to surpass an age-only model in the external validation set, where age had an AUC of 0.85 and a balanced accuracy of 0.77. CONCLUSION: When applied to an external validation set, we found that an age-only mortality model outperformed all modeling attempts (curated on www.covid19risk.ai) using three feature selection methods on 22 demographic and comorbid features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Comorbidity , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006985

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has reached pandemic status. Drastic measures of social distancing are enforced in society and healthcare systems are being pushed to and beyond their limits. To help in the fight against this threat on human health, a fully automated AI framework was developed to extract radiomics features from volumetric chest computed tomography (CT) exams. The detection model was developed on a dataset of 1381 patients (181 COVID-19 patients plus 1200 non COVID control patients). A second, independent dataset of 197 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients and 500 control patients was used to assess the performance of the model. Diagnostic performance was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The model had an AUC of 0.882 (95% CI: 0.851-0.913) in the independent test dataset (641 patients). The optimal decision threshold, considering the cost of false negatives twice as high as the cost of false positives, resulted in an accuracy of 85.18%, a sensitivity of 69.52%, a specificity of 91.63%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.46% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 59.44%. Benchmarked against RT-PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19, our AI framework can accurately differentiate COVID-19 from routine clinical conditions in a fully automated fashion. Thus, providing rapid accurate diagnosis in patients suspected of COVID-19 infection, facilitating the timely implementation of isolation procedures and early intervention.

8.
J Vis Exp ; (165)2020 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940257

ABSTRACT

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic motile ciliopathy, leading to significant otosinopulmonary disease. PCD diagnosis is often missed or delayed due to challenges with different diagnostic modalities. Ciliary videomicroscopy, using Digital High-Speed Videomicroscopy (DHSV), one of the diagnostic tools for PCD, is considered the optimal method to perform ciliary functional analysis (CFA), comprising of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern (CBP) analysis. However, DHSV lacks standardized, published operating procedure for processing and analyzing samples. It also uses living respiratory epithelium, a significant infection control issue during the COVID-19 pandemic. To continue providing a diagnostic service during this health crisis, the ciliary videomicroscopy protocol has been adapted to include adequate infection control measures. Here, we describe a revised protocol for sampling and laboratory processing of ciliated respiratory samples, highlighting adaptations made to comply with COVID-19 infection control measures. Representative results of CFA from nasal brushing samples obtained from 16 healthy subjects, processed and analyzed according to this protocol, are described. We also illustrate the importance of obtaining and processing optimal quality epithelial ciliated strips, as samples not meeting quality selection criteria do now allow for CFA, potentially decreasing the diagnostic reliability and the efficiency of this technique.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Ciliary Motility Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control , Nasal Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Cilia/physiology , Ciliary Motility Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Video , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(1): 160-169, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthmatics and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more severe outcomes with viral infections than people without obstructive disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if obstructive diseases are risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) stay and death due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19). METHODS: We collected data from the electronic medical record from 596 adult patients hospitalized in University Hospital of Liege between March 18 and April 17, 2020, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. We classified patients into 3 groups according to the underlying respiratory disease, present before the COVID19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among patients requiring hospitalization for COVID19, asthma and COPD accounted for 9.6% and 7.7%, respectively. The proportions of asthmatics, patients with COPD, and patients without obstructive airway disease hospitalized in the ICU were 17.5%, 19.6%, and 14%, respectively. One-third of patients with COPD died during hospitalization, whereas only 7.0% of asthmatics and 13.6% of patients without airway obstruction died due to SARS-CoV2. The multivariate analysis showed that asthma, COPD, inhaled corticosteroid treatment, and oral corticosteroid treatment were not independent risk factors for ICU admission or death. Male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.2) and obesity (OR: 8.5; 95% CI: 5.1-14.1) were predictors of ICU admission, whereas male gender (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2), older age (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3), cardiopathy (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1), and immunosuppressive diseases (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.5-8.4) were independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are not risk factors for ICU admission and death related to SARS-CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Belgium/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has globally strained medical resources and caused significant mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a machine-learning model based on clinical features for severity risk assessment and triage for COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHOD: 725 patients were used to train and validate the model. This included a retrospective cohort from Wuhan, China of 299 hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 23 December 2019 to 13 February 2020, and five cohorts with 426 patients from eight centres in China, Italy and Belgium from 20 February 2020 to 21 March 2020. The main outcome was the onset of severe or critical illness during hospitalisation. Model performances were quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and metrics derived from the confusion matrix. RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, the median age was 50 years and 137 (45.8%) were male. In the five test cohorts, the median age was 62 years and 236 (55.4%) were male. The model was prospectively validated on five cohorts yielding AUCs ranging from 0.84 to 0.93, with accuracies ranging from 74.4% to 87.5%, sensitivities ranging from 75.0% to 96.9%, and specificities ranging from 55.0% to 88.0%, most of which performed better than the pneumonia severity index. The cut-off values of the low-, medium- and high-risk probabilities were 0.21 and 0.80. The online calculators can be found at www.covid19risk.ai. CONCLUSION: The machine-learning model, nomogram and online calculator might be useful to access the onset of severe and critical illness among COVID-19 patients and triage at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Belgium , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internationality , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
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