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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928696

ABSTRACT

The aims of the study are to: (a) Describe the reactogenicity of WHO-approved two mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) and two non-RNA (Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sinovac) vaccines among lactating mother and child pairs, and (b) Compare and contrast the reactogenicity between mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted amongst 1784 lactating women who received COVID-19 vaccinations. The most common maternal adverse reaction was a local reaction at the injection site, and the largest minority of respondents, 49.6% (780/1571), reported experiencing worse symptoms when receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. Respondents reported no major adverse effects or behavioural changes in the breastfed children for the duration of the study period. Among respondents who received non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, a majority reported no change in lactation, but those who did more commonly reported changes in the quantity of milk supply and pain in the breast. The more commonly reported lactation changes (fluctuations in breast milk supply quantity and pain in the breast) for the non-mRNA vaccines were similar to those of respondents who received mRNA vaccines. Our study, with a large, racially diverse cohort, further augments earlier reported findings in that the COVID-19 vaccines tested in this study did not cause any serious adverse events in our population for the duration of our survey period, although long-term effects are yet to be studied.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336734

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has been a major public health threat for the past two years, with disproportionate effects on the elderly, immunocompromised, and pregnant women. While much has been done in delineating immune dysfunctions and pathogenesis in the former two groups, less is known about the disease’s progression in expectant women and children born to them. To address this knowledge gap, we profiled the immune responses in maternal and child sera as well as breast milk in terms of antibody and cytokine expression and performed histopathological studies on placentae obtained from mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19. Methods and findings A total of 17 mother-child dyads (8 cases of antenatal COVID-19 and 9 healthy unrelated controls;34 individuals in total) were recruited to the Gestational Immunity For Transfer (GIFT) study. Maternal and infant sera, and breast milk samples were collected over the first year of life. All samples were analyzed for IgG and IgA against whole SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and previously reported immunodominant epitopes, with conventional ELISA approaches. Cytokine levels were quantified in maternal sera using multiplex microbead-based Luminex arrays. The placentae were examined microscopically. We found high levels of virus-specific IgG in convalescent mothers and similarly elevated titers in newborn children. Virus-specific IgG in infant circulation waned within 3-6 months of life. Virus-specific IgA levels were variable among convalescent individuals’ sera and breast milk. Convalescent mothers also showed a blood cytokine signature indicative of a persistent pro-inflammatory state. Four placentae presented signs of acute inflammation marked by neutrophil infiltration even though >50 days had elapsed between virus clearance and delivery. Administration of a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19 increased virus-specific IgG and IgA titers in breast milk. Conclusions Antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection led to high plasma titres of virus-specific antibodies in infants postnatally. However, this was not reflected in milk;milk-borne antibody levels varied widely. Additionally, placentae from COVID-19 positive mothers exhibited signs of acute inflammation with neutrophilic involvement, particularly in the subchorionic region. Virus neutralisation by plasma was not uniformly achieved, and the presence of antibodies targeting known immunodominant epitopes did not assure neutralisation. Antibody transfer ratios and the decay of transplacentally transferred virus-specific antibodies in neonatal circulation resembled that for other pathogens. Convalescent mothers showed signs of chronic inflammation marked by persistently elevated IL17RA levels in their blood. A single dose of the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine provided significant boosts to milk-borne virus-specific antibodies, highlighting the importance of receiving the vaccine even after natural infection with the added benefit of enhanced passive immunity. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under the identifier NCT04802278 .

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335833

ABSTRACT

The aims of the study are: a) Describe the reactogenicity of WHO-approved two mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) and two non-RNA vaccines (Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sinovac) among lactating mother and baby pairs;and b) compare and contrast the reactogenicity between mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines. A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted amongst 1784 lactating women who received COVID-19 vaccinations. The most common maternal adverse reaction was a local reaction at the injection site;the largest minority of respondents, 43.7% (780/1784), reported experiencing worse symptoms when receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. There were no major reported adverse effects or behavioural changes in the breastfed infants. Among the respondents who received non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations, a majority reported no change in lactation but those who did more commonly reported an increase in milk supply, decrease in milk supply and pain in the breast. The more commonly reported lactation changes (fluctuations in breastmilk supply and pain in the breast) for the non-mRNA vaccines were similar to that of respondents who received mRNA vaccines. Our study, with a large cohort and wide geographical and racial mix, further augments earlier reported findings that COVID-19 vaccines are safe for breastfeeding mothers and her children.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667380

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses are engendered in human milk after BNT162b2 vaccination. However, the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) raises concerns about the specificity of and potential cross-protection mediated by milk antibody responses, which are crucial for passive immunity transferred from breastfeeding mothers to their infants. In this study, we collected milk samples at three different time points pre- and post-vaccination, and measured milk IgA antibody binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, and the four VOCs, namely Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. We report a significant level of anti-RBD IgA in milk collected at 4-6 weeks after the second dose of vaccination compared to pre-vaccination. We observed around a 30% reduction in binding to most VOCs, including the major circulating Delta variant, compared to the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. As COVID-19 vaccines may take some time to be approved for infants, these individuals remain at risk for severe disease and rely mainly on transferred passive immunity. Our findings support the current recommendations for vaccinating lactating women with the aim of transferring mucosal immunity to breastfeeding infants.

5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295347

ABSTRACT

We detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA against all major VOCs in milk out to 6 weeks after D2 of BNT162b2. These likely confer some protection to the breastfed infants, who are ineligible for vaccination and are at risk of severe COVID-19. However, we detected significantly reduced milk IgA binding to VOCs, including the globally dominant Delta variant, suggesting reduced protection for breastfeeding infants. Additionally, these antibodies were significantly reduced by as early as 4-6 weeks after D2.

6.
J Hum Lact ; 38(1): 37-42, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-approval clinical trials of the Pfizer/BioNTech messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2 did not include participants who were breastfeeding. Therefore, there is limited evidence about outcomes of breastfeeding mother-child dyads and effects on breastfeeding after vaccination. RESEARCH AIMS: To determine: (1) solicited adverse effects (e.g., axillary lymphadenopathy, mastitis, and breast engorgement), which are unique to lactating individuals; and (2) systemic and local adverse effects of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine on mothers and potential effects on their breastfed infants. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers (N = 88) in Singapore who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination (Pfizer/BioNTech). The outcomes of mother-child dyads within 28 days after the second vaccine dose were determined through a participant-completed questionnaire. RESULTS: Minimal effects related to breastfeeding were reported by this cohort; three of 88 (3.4%) participants had mastitis, one (1.1%) participant experienced breast engorgement, five of 88 (5.7%) participants reported cervical or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no change in human milk supply after vaccination. The most common side effect was pain/redness/swelling at the injection site, which was experienced by 57 (64.8%) participants. There were no serious adverse events of anaphylaxis or hospital admissions. There were no short-term adverse effects reported in the infants of 67 lactating participants who breastfed within 72 hr after BNT162b2 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination was well tolerated in lactating participants and was not associated with short-term adverse effects in their breastfed infants. STUDY PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04802278).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Mothers , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 105, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366818

ABSTRACT

Lactating women can produce protective antibodies in their milk after vaccination, which has informed antenatal vaccination programs for diseases such as influenza and pertussis. However, whether SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are produced in human milk as a result of COVID-19 vaccination is still unclear. In this study, we show that lactating mothers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine secreted SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibodies into milk, with the most significant increase at 3-7 days post-dose 2. Virus-specific IgG titers were stable out to 4-6 weeks after dose 2. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA levels showed substantial decay. Vaccine mRNA was detected in few milk samples (maximum of 2 ng/ml), indicative of minimal transfer. Additionally, infants who consumed post-vaccination human milk had no reported adverse effects up to 28 days post-ingestion. Our results define the safety and efficacy profiles of the vaccine in this demographic and provide initial evidence for protective immunity conferred by milk-borne SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Taken together, our study supports recommendations for uninterrupted breastfeeding subsequent to mRNA vaccination against COVID-19.

8.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 174-180, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Synthesise evidence on production of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human milk of individuals who had COVID-19, and antibodies' ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. DESIGN: A systematic review of studies published from 1 December 2019 to 16 February 2021 without study design restrictions. SETTING: Data were sourced from PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CNKI, CINAHL and WHO COVID-19 database. Search was also performed through reviewing references of selected articles, Google Scholar and preprint servers. Studies that tested human milk for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were included. PATIENTS: Individuals with COVID-19 infection and human milk tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of neutralising antibodies in milk samples provided by individuals with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Individual participant data from 161 persons (14 studies) were extracted and re-pooled. Milk from 133 (82.6%) individuals demonstrated the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM and/or IgG. Illness severity data were available in 146 individuals; 5 (3.4%) had severe disease, 128 (87.7%) had mild disease, while 13 (8.9%) were asymptomatic. Presence of neutralising antibodies in milk from 20 (41.7%) of 48 individuals neutralised SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro. Neutralising capacity of antibodies was lost after Holder pasteurisation but preserved after high-pressure pasteurisation. CONCLUSION: Human milk of lactating individuals after COVID-19 infection contains anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM and/or IgA, even after mild or asymptomatic infection. Current evidence demonstrates that these antibodies can neutralise SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. Holder pasteurisation deactivates SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, while high-pressure pasteurisation preserves the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Humans , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
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