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1.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(7): 850-864, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899125

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although there is evidence supporting the benefits of corticosteroids in patients affected with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is little information related to their potential benefits or harm in some subgroups of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19. We aim to investigate to find candidate variables to guide personalized treatment with steroids in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicentre, observational cohort study including consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to 55 Spanish ICUs. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Subsequent analyses in clinically relevant subgroups by age, ICU baseline illness severity, organ damage, laboratory findings and mechanical ventilation were performed. High doses of corticosteroids (≥ 12 mg/day equivalent dexamethasone dose), early administration of corticosteroid treatment (< 7 days since symptom onset) and long term of corticosteroids (≥ 10 days) were also investigated. RESULTS: Between February 2020 and October 2021, 4226 patients were included. Of these, 3592 (85%) patients had received systemic corticosteroids during hospitalisation. In the propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis, the use of corticosteroids was protective for 90-day mortality in the overall population (HR 0.77 [0.65-0.92], p = 0.003) and in-hospital mortality (SHR 0.70 [0.58-0.84], p < 0.001). Significant effect modification was found after adjustment for covariates using propensity score for age (p = 0.001 interaction term), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (p = 0.014 interaction term), and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001 interaction term). We observed a beneficial effect of corticosteroids on 90-day mortality in various patient subgroups, including those patients aged ≥ 60 years; those with higher baseline severity; and those receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. Early administration was associated with a higher risk of 90-day mortality in the overall population (HR 1.32 [1.14-1.53], p < 0.001). Long-term use was associated with a lower risk of 90-day mortality in the overall population (HR 0.71 [0.61-0.82], p < 0.001). No effect was found regarding the dosage of corticosteroids. Moreover, the use of corticosteroids was associated with an increased risk of nosocomial bacterial pneumonia and hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 may be administered based on age, severity, baseline inflammation, and invasive mechanical ventilation. Early administration since symptom onset may prove harmful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Precision Medicine , Respiration, Artificial , Steroids/therapeutic use
2.
Archivos de bronconeumologia ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801724

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic created tremendous challenges for health-care systems. Intensive care units (ICU) were hit with a large volume of patients requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and other organ support with very high mortality. The Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), a network of Spanish researchers to investigate in respiratory disease, commissioned the current proposal in response to the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) call. Methods CIBERESUCICOVID is a multicenter, observational, prospective/retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Spanish ICUs. Several work packages were created, including study population and ICU data collection, follow-up, biomarkers and miRNAs, data management and quality. Results This study included 6102 consecutive patients admitted to 55 ICUs homogeneously distributed throughout Spain and the collection of blood samples from more than 1000 patients. We enrolled a large population of COVID-19 ICU-admitted patients including baseline characteristics, ICU and MV data, treatments complications, and outcomes. The in-hospital mortality was 31%, and 76% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. A 3-6 month and 1 year follow-up was performed. Few deaths after 1 year discharge were registered. Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. These antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2. The severity of COVID-19 impacts the circulating miRNA profile. Plasma miRNA profiling emerges as a useful tool for risk-based patient stratification in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Conclusions We present the methodology used in a large multicenter study sponsored by ISCIII to determine the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with COVID-19 admitted to more than 50 Spanish ICUs.

3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58 Suppl 1: 22-31, 2022 Apr.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic created tremendous challenges for health-care systems. Intensive care units (ICU) were hit with a large volume of patients requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and other organ support with very high mortality. The Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), a network of Spanish researchers to investigate in respiratory disease, commissioned the current proposal in response to the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) call. METHODS: CIBERESUCICOVID is a multicenter, observational, prospective/retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Spanish ICUs. Several work packages were created, including study population and ICU data collection, follow-up, biomarkers and miRNAs, data management and quality. RESULTS: This study included 6102 consecutive patients admitted to 55 ICUs homogeneously distributed throughout Spain and the collection of blood samples from more than 1000 patients. We enrolled a large population of COVID-19 ICU-admitted patients including baseline characteristics, ICU and MV data, treatments complications, and outcomes. The in-hospital mortality was 31%, and 76% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. A 3-6 month and 1 year follow-up was performed. Few deaths after 1 year discharge were registered. Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. These antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2. The severity of COVID-19 impacts the circulating miRNA profile. Plasma miRNA profiling emerges as a useful tool for risk-based patient stratification in critically ill COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We present the methodology used in a large multicenter study sponsored by ISCIII to determine the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with COVID-19 admitted to more than 50 Spanish ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154014, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone is the only drug that has consistently reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, especially in patients needing oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. However, there is a growing concern about the relation of dexamethasone with the unprecedented rates of ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections (ICU-RTI) observed in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study; conducted in ten countries in Latin America and Europe. We included patients older than 18 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 requiring ICU admission. A multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was conducted to determine the relation between dexamethasone treatment and ICU-RTI. RESULTS: A total of 3777 patients were included. 2065 (54.7%) were treated with dexamethasone within the first 24 h of admission. After performing the PSM, patients treated with dexamethasone showed significantly higher proportions of VAP (282/1652 [17.1%] Vs. 218/1652 [13.2%], p = 0.014). Also, dexamethasone treatment was identified as an adjusted risk factor of ICU-RTI in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.37-1.97; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients treated with dexamethasone for severe COVID-19 had a higher risk of developing ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections after adjusting for days of invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, suggesting a cautious use of this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316534

ABSTRACT

Background: . Some patients who had previously presented with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Whilst this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the prevalence and risk factors and characteristics of persistent COVID_19 . On other hand these patients have very often intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP). A second infectious hit after COVID increases the length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation and could have an influence in the poor health post-Covid 19 syndrome in ICU discharged patients Methods: This prospective, multicentre and observational study was done across 40 selected ICUs in Spain. Consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission were recruited and evaluated three months after hospital discharge. Results: A total of 1,255 ICU patients were scheduled to be followed up at 3 months;however, the final cohort comprised 991 (78.9%) patients. A total of 315 patients developed ICUAP (97% of them had ventilated ICUAP) Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation had persistent, post-COVID-19 symptoms than those who did not require mechanical ventilation. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, and development of ICUAP were independent risk factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Conclusions: : Persistent, post-COVID-19 symptoms occurred in more than two-thirds of patients. Female sex, duration of ICU stay and the onset of ICUAP comprised all independent risk factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Prevention of ICUAP could have beneficial effects in poor health post-Covid 19

6.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients previously presenting with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. While this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the incidence and factors associated with the characteristics of persistent COVID-19. On the other hand, these patients very often have intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP). A second infectious hit after COVID increases the length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation and could have an influence on poor health post-COVID 19 syndrome in ICU-discharged patients. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, and observational study was carrid out across 40 selected ICUs in Spain. Consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission were recruited and evaluated three months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 1255 ICU patients were scheduled to be followed up at 3 months; however, the final cohort comprised 991 (78.9%) patients. A total of 315 patients developed ICUAP (97% of them had ventilated ICUAP). Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation had more persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms than those who did not require mechanical ventilation. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, development of ICUAP, and ARDS were independent factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms occurred in more than two-thirds of patients. Female sex, duration of ICU stay, development of ICUAP, and ARDS all comprised independent factors for persistent poor health post-COVID-19. Prevention of ICUAP could have beneficial effects in poor health post-COVID-19.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 159, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some unanswered questions persist regarding the effectiveness of corticosteroids for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to assess the clinical effect of corticosteroids on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality among mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data conducted in 70 ICUs (68 Spanish, one Andorran, one Irish), including mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated ARDS patients admitted between February 6 and September 20, 2020. Individuals who received corticosteroids for refractory shock were excluded. Patients exposed to corticosteroids at admission were matched with patients without corticosteroids through propensity score matching. Primary outcome was all-cause ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes were to compare in-hospital mortality, ventilator-free days at 28 days, respiratory superinfection and length of stay between patients with corticosteroids and those without corticosteroids. We performed survival analysis accounting for competing risks and subgroup sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: We included 1835 mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated ARDS, of whom 1117 (60.9%) received corticosteroids. After propensity score matching, ICU mortality did not differ between patients treated with corticosteroids and untreated patients (33.8% vs. 30.9%; p = 0.28). In survival analysis, corticosteroid treatment at ICU admission was associated with short-term survival benefit (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.39-0.72), although beyond the 17th day of admission, this effect switched and there was an increased ICU mortality (long-term HR 1.68; 95% CI 1.16-2.45). The sensitivity analysis reinforced the results. Subgroups of age < 60 years, severe ARDS and corticosteroids plus tocilizumab could have greatest benefit from corticosteroids as short-term decreased ICU mortality without long-term negative effects were observed. Larger length of stay was observed with corticosteroids among non-survivors both in the ICU and in hospital. There were no significant differences for the remaining secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that corticosteroid treatment for mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated ARDS had a biphasic time-dependent effect on ICU mortality. Specific subgroups showed clear effect on improving survival with corticosteroid use. Therefore, further research is required to identify treatment-responsive subgroups among the mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated ARDS patients.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 331, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first three days of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 intubated at ICU admission. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, cohort study includes consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 44 Spanish ICUs between February 25 and July 31, 2020, who required intubation at ICU admission and mechanical ventilation for more than three days. We collected demographic and clinical data prior to admission; information about clinical evolution at days 1 and 3 of mechanical ventilation; and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 2,095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU, 1,118 (53.3%) were intubated at day 1 and remained under mechanical ventilation at day three. From days 1 to 3, PaO2/FiO2 increased from 115.6 [80.0-171.2] to 180.0 [135.4-227.9] mmHg and the ventilatory ratio from 1.73 [1.33-2.25] to 1.96 [1.61-2.40]. In-hospital mortality was 38.7%. A higher increase between ICU admission and day 3 in the ventilatory ratio (OR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.07], p = 0.030) and creatinine levels (OR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.005) and a lower increase in platelet counts (OR 0.96 [CI 0.93-1.00], p = 0.037) were independently associated with a higher risk of death. No association between mortality and the PaO2/FiO2 variation was observed (OR 0.99 [CI 0.95 to 1.02], p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Higher ventilatory ratio and its increase at day 3 is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. No association was found in the PaO2/FiO2 variation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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