Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
2.
mSphere ; 7(4): e0019322, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891742

ABSTRACT

In October 2020, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was established to study the immune response to COVID-19, and "to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological testing and associated technologies" (https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/covid-19/coronavirus-research-initiatives/serological-sciences-network). SeroNet is comprised of 25 participating research institutions partnering with the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) and the SeroNet Coordinating Center. Since its inception, SeroNet has supported collaborative development and sharing of COVID-19 serological assay procedures and has set forth plans for assay harmonization. To facilitate collaboration and procedure sharing, a detailed survey was sent to collate comprehensive assay details and performance metrics on COVID-19 serological assays within SeroNet. In addition, FNLCR established a protocol to calibrate SeroNet serological assays to reference standards, such as the U.S. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology standard reference material and first WHO international standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (20/136), to facilitate harmonization of assay reporting units and cross-comparison of study data. SeroNet institutions reported development of a total of 27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, 13 multiplex assays, and 9 neutralization assays and use of 12 different commercial serological methods. FNLCR developed a standardized protocol for SeroNet institutions to calibrate these diverse serological assays to reference standards. In conclusion, SeroNet institutions have established a diverse array of COVID-19 serological assays to study the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and vaccines. Calibration of SeroNet serological assays to harmonize results reporting will facilitate future pooled data analyses and study cross-comparisons. IMPORTANCE SeroNet institutions have developed or implemented 61 diverse COVID-19 serological assays and are collaboratively working to harmonize these assays using reference materials to establish standardized reporting units. This will facilitate clinical interpretation of serology results and cross-comparison of research data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336071

ABSTRACT

Summary The rising case numbers of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 subvariants has generated serious concern about the course of the pandemic. Here we examine the neutralization resistance, infectivity, processing, and fusogenicity of spike from the BA.4/5 and BA.2.12.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with other Omicron subvariants and Delta. Critically, we found that the new Omicron subvariants BA.4/5 and BA.2.12.1 were more resistant to neutralization by mRNA-vaccinated and boosted health care worker sera and Omicron-BA.1-wave patient sera than were the BA.1 and BA.2 variants. Interestingly, Delta-wave patient sera neutralized more efficiently against not only Delta but also BA.4/5 and BA.2.12.1 variants that also contain substitutions at position L452, similar to Delta. The BA.4/5 and BA.2.12.1 variants also exhibited higher fusogenicity, and increased spike processing, dependent on the L452 substitution. These results highlight the key role of the L452R and L452Q mutations in BA.4/5 and BA.2.12.1 subvariants.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(8): 1093-1102.e3, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803742

ABSTRACT

Recent reports of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant sub-lineages, BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2, have reignited concern over potential escape from vaccine- and infection-induced immunity. We examine the sensitivity of these sub-lineages and other major variants to neutralizing antibodies from mRNA-vaccinated and boosted individuals, as well as recovered COVID-19 patients, including those infected with Omicron. We find that all Omicron sub-lineages, especially BA.1 and BA.1.1, exhibit substantial immune escape that is largely overcome by mRNA vaccine booster doses. While Omicron BA.1.1 escapes almost completely from neutralization by early-pandemic COVID-19 patient sera and to a lesser extent from sera of Delta-infected patients, BA.1.1 is sensitive to Omicron-infected patient sera. Critically, all Omicron sub-lineages, including BA.2, are comparably neutralized by Omicron patient sera. These results highlight the importance of booster vaccine doses for protection against all Omicron variants and provide insight into the immunity from natural infection against Omicron sub-lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329544

ABSTRACT

Background: In October 2020, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was established to study the immune response to COVID-19, and to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological testing and associated technologies. SeroNet is comprised of 25 participating research institutions partnering with the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) and the SeroNet Coordinating Center. Since its inception, SeroNet has supported collaborative development and sharing of COVID-19 serological assay procedures and has set forth plans for assay harmonization. Methods: To facilitate collaboration and procedure sharing, a detailed survey was sent to collate comprehensive assay details and performance metrics on COVID-19 serological assays within SeroNet. In addition, FNLCR established a protocol to calibrate SeroNet serological assays to reference standards, such as the U.S. SARS-CoV-2 serology standard reference material and First WHO International Standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (20/136), to facilitate harmonization of assay reporting units and cross-comparison of study data. Results: SeroNet institutions reported development of a total of 27 ELISA methods, 13 multiplex assays, 9 neutralization assays, and use of 12 different commercial serological methods. FNLCR developed a standardized protocol for SeroNet institutions to calibrate these diverse serological assays to reference standards. Conclusions: SeroNet institutions have established a diverse array of COVID-19 serological assays to study the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 virus and vaccines. Calibration of SeroNet serological assays to harmonize results reporting will facilitate future pooled data analyses and study cross-comparisons.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(637): eabn8057, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685483

ABSTRACT

The waning efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, combined with the continued emergence of variants resistant to vaccine-induced immunity, has reignited debate over the need for booster vaccine doses. To address this, we examined the neutralizing antibody response against the spike protein of five major SARS-CoV-2 variants, D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529), in health care workers (HCWs) vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Serum samples were collected before vaccination, 3 weeks after first vaccination, 1 month after second vaccination, and 6 months after second vaccination. Minimal neutralizing antibody titers were detected against Omicron pseudovirus at all four time points, including for most patients who had SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections. Neutralizing antibody titers against all other variant spike protein-bearing pseudoviruses declined markedly from 1 to 6 months after the second mRNA vaccine dose, although SARS-CoV-2 infection boosted vaccine responses. In addition, mRNA-1273-vaccinated HCWs exhibited about twofold higher neutralizing antibody titers than BNT162b2-vaccinated HCWs. Together, these results demonstrate possible waning of antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants that is dependent on prior infection status and the mRNA vaccine received. They also show that the Omicron variant spike protein can almost completely escape from neutralizing antibodies elicited in recipients of only two mRNA vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
10.
Ann Epidemiol ; 67: 50-60, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568496

ABSTRACT

Purpose To estimate the prevalence of current and past COVID-19 in Ohio adults. Methods We used stratified, probability-proportionate-to-size cluster sampling. During July 2020, we enrolled 727 randomly-sampled adult English- and Spanish-speaking participants through a household survey. Participants provided nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples to detect current and past COVID-19. We used Bayesian latent class models with multilevel regression and poststratification to calculate the adjusted prevalence of current and past COVID-19. We accounted for the potential effects of non-ignorable non-response bias. Results The estimated statewide prevalence of current COVID-19 was 0.9% (95% credible interval: 0.1%-2.0%), corresponding to ∼85,000 prevalent infections (95% credible interval: 6,300-177,000) in Ohio adults during the study period. The estimated statewide prevalence of past COVID-19 was 1.3% (95% credible interval: 0.2%-2.7%), corresponding to ∼118,000 Ohio adults (95% credible interval: 22,000-240,000). Estimates did not change meaningfully due to non-response bias. Conclusions Total COVID-19 cases in Ohio in July 2020 were approximately 3.5 times as high as diagnosed cases. The lack of broad COVID-19 screening in the United States early in the pandemic resulted in a paucity of population-representative prevalence data, limiting the ability to measure the effects of statewide control efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ohio/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292812

ABSTRACT

Rapid and specific antibody testing is crucial for improved understanding, control, and treatment of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Herein, we describe and apply a rapid, sensitive, and accurate virus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The new assay is based on an HIV-1 lentiviral vector that contains a secreted intron Gaussia luciferase or secreted Nano-luciferase reporter cassette, pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, and is validated with a plaque reduction assay using an authentic, infectious SARS-CoV-2 strain. The new assay was used to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum from individuals with a broad range of COVID-19 symptoms, including intensive care unit (ICU) patients, health care workers (HCWs), and convalescent plasma donors. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were observed among ICU patients, followed by general hospitalized patients, HCWs and convalescent plasma donors. Our study highlights a wide phenotypic variation in human antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, and demonstrates the efficacy of a novel lentivirus pseudotype assay for high-throughput serological surveys of neutralizing antibody titers in large cohorts.

12.
mBio ; 12(5): e0251021, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450587

ABSTRACT

The sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) to neutralizing antibodies has largely been studied in the context of key receptor binding domain (RBD) mutations, including E484K and N501Y. Little is known about the epistatic effects of combined SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. We now investigate the neutralization sensitivity of variants containing the non-RBD mutation Q677H, including B.1.525 (Nigerian isolate) and Bluebird (U.S. isolate) variants. The effect on neutralization of Q677H was determined in the context of the RBD mutations and in the background of major VOCs, including B.1.1.7 (United Kingdom, Alpha), B.1.351 (South Africa, Beta), and P1-501Y-V3 (Brazil, Gamma). We demonstrate that the Q677H mutation increases viral infectivity and syncytium formation, as well as enhancing resistance to neutralization for VOCs, including B.1.1.7 and P1-501Y-V3. Our work highlights the importance of epistatic interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations and the continued need to monitor Q677H-bearing VOCs. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, is rapidly evolving to be more transmissible and to evade acquired immunity. To date, most investigations of SARS-CoV-2 variants have focused on RBD mutations. However, the impact of non-RBD mutations and their synergy with studied RBD mutations are poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of the non-RBD Q677H mutation arising in many SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including VOCs. We demonstrate that the Q677H mutation enhances viral infectivity and confers neutralizing antibody resistance, particularly in the background of other SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Leukemia ; 35(7): 1864-1872, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216445

ABSTRACT

Standard treatment options in classic HCL (cHCL) result in high response rates and near normal life expectancy. However, the disease itself and the recommended standard treatment are associated with profound and prolonged immunosuppression, increasing susceptibility to infections and the risk for a severe course of COVID-19. The Hairy Cell Leukemia Foundation (HCLF) has recently convened experts and discussed different clinical strategies for the management of these patients. The new recommendations adapt the 2017 consensus for the diagnosis and management with cHCL to the current COVID-19 pandemic. They underline the option of active surveillance in patients with low but stable blood counts, consider the use of targeted and non-immunosuppressive agents as first-line treatment for cHCL, and give recommendations on preventive measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Consensus , Humans , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/complications , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
14.
JCI Insight ; 5(22)2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841828

ABSTRACT

Rapid and specific antibody testing is crucial for improved understanding, control, and treatment of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Herein, we describe and apply a rapid, sensitive, and accurate virus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The assay is based on an HIV-1 lentiviral vector that contains a secreted intron Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) or secreted nano-luciferase reporter cassette, pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, and is validated with a plaque-reduction assay using an authentic, infectious SARS-CoV-2 strain. The assay was used to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum from individuals with a broad range of COVID-19 symptoms; patients included those in the intensive care unit (ICU), health care workers (HCWs), and convalescent plasma donors. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were observed among ICU patients, followed by general hospitalized patients, HCWs, and convalescent plasma donors. Our study highlights a wide phenotypic variation in human antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrates the efficacy of a potentially novel lentivirus pseudotype assay for high-throughput serological surveys of neutralizing antibody titers in large cohorts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL