Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211056564, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239891

ABSTRACT

Few patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Prolonged VV-ECMO support necessitates repeated oxygenator replacement, increasing the risk for complications. Transient hypoxemia, induced by VV-ECMO stop needed for this procedure, may induce transient myocardial ischemia and acutely declining cardiac output in critically ill patients without residual pulmonary function. This is amplified by additional activation of the sympathetic nervous system (tachycardia, pulmonary vasoconstriction, and increased systemic vascular resistance). Immediate reinjection of the priming solution of the new circuit and induced acute iatrogenic anemia are other potentially reinforcing factors. The case of a critically ill patient presented here provides an instructive illustration of the hemodynamic relationships occurring during VV-ECMO support membrane oxygenator exchange.

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30212, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202462

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Awake prone positioning (aPP) in non-intubated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia improves oxygenation and reduces the intubation rate, but no early predictors for success or failure of the strategy have been described. The main objective of this study was to assess whether response to the first aPP in terms of PaO2/FiO2, alveolar-arterial gradient (Aa-O2), respiratory rate and PaCO2 could predict the need for intubation. As secondary objective, we assessed the effects of aPP on the same parameters for all the sessions considered together. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients suffering from acute respiratory failure with moderate to severe hypoxaemia for whom aPP was performed for at least 45 minutes based on the prescription of the clinician in charge according to predefined criteria. Respiratory rate, blood gases and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2), before and after the first aPP were compared between patients who were subsequently intubated or not. Effects of all the aPP sessions together were also analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the study period. Among them, 50 received aPP lasting at least 45 minutes. Because 17 denied consent for data analysis and 2 were excluded because of a "do not intubate order", 31 patients (for a total of 116 aPP sessions without any severe adverse events reported) were included. Among them, 10 (32.3%) were intubated. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 60 ± 12 years. At ICU admission, respiratory rate was 26 ± 7/minute, median PaO2/FiO2 94 (interquartile range [IQR] 74-116) mm Hg and median Aa-O2 412 (IQR 286-427) mm Hg (markedly increased). Baseline characteristics did not statistically differ between patients who subsequently needed intubation or not. During the first aPP, PaO2/FiO2 increased and Aa-O2 decreased. When comparing patients who later where intubated or not, we observed, in the non intubated group only, a clinically significant decrease in median Aa-O2, from 294 (280-414) to 204 (107-281) mm Hg, corresponding to a 40% (26-56%) reduction, and a PaO2/FiO2 increase, from 103 (84-116) to 162 (138-195), corresponding to an increase of 48% (11-93%). The p value is <0.005 for both. When all the aPP sessions (n = 80) were considered together, aPP was associated with a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 from 112 (80-132) to 156 (86-183) mm Hg (p <0.001) and Aa-O2 decrease from 304 (244-418) to 224 (148-361) mm Hg (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Awake pronation in spontaneously breathing patients is feasible, and improves PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2. Response to the first session seems to be associated with lower intubation rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
4.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(4): e12712, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858915

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 suffered initially from high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), with possible associations between therapeutic anticoagulation and better clinical outcomes in observational studies. Objective: To test whether therapeutic anticoagulation improves clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19. Patients/Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, we recruited acutely ill medical COVID-19 patients with D-dimer >1000 ng/ml or critically ill COVID-19 patients in four Swiss hospitals, from April 2020 until June 2021, with a 30-day follow-up. Participants were randomized to in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation versus low-dose anticoagulation in acutely ill participants/intermediate-dose anticoagulation in critically ill participants, with enoxaparin or unfractionated heparins. The primary outcome was a centrally adjudicated composite of 30-day all-cause mortality, VTE, arterial thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with screening for proximal deep vein thrombosis. Results: Among 159 participants, 55.3% were critically ill and 94.3% received corticosteroids. Before study inclusion, pulmonary embolism had been excluded in 71.7%. The primary outcome occurred in 4/79 participants randomized to therapeutic anticoagulation and 4/80 to low/intermediate anticoagulation (5.4% vs. 5.0%; risk difference +0.4%; adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.18-3.21), including three deaths in each group. All primary outcomes and major bleeding (n = 3) occurred in critically ill participants. There was no asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis and no difference in major bleeding. Conclusions: Among patients with severe COVID-19 treated with corticosteroids and with exclusion of pulmonary embolism at hospital admission for most, risks of mortality, thrombotic outcomes, and DIC were low at 30 days. The lack of benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation was too imprecise for definite conclusions.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266751

ABSTRACT

About 15 years ago, Patient Blood Management (PBM) emerged as a new paradigm in perioperative medicine and rapidly found support of all major medical societies and government bodies. Blood products are precious, scarce and expensive and their use is frequently associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. Recommendations and guidelines on the topic are published in an increasing rate. The concept aims at using an evidence-based approach to rationalize transfusion practices by optimizing the patient's red blood cell mass in the pre-, intra- and postoperative periods. However, elegant as a concept, the implementation of a PBM program on an institutional level or even in a single surgical discipline like cardiac surgery, can be easier said than done. Many barriers, such as dogmatic ideas, logistics and lack of support from the medical and administrative departments need to be overcome and each center must find solutions to their specific problems. In this paper we present a narrative overview of the challenges and updated recommendations for the implementation of a PBM program in cardiac surgery.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264478

ABSTRACT

Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) results in COVID-19, a disease primarily affecting the respiratory system to provoke a spectrum of clinical manifestations, the most severe being acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A significant proportion of COVID-19 patients also develop various cardiac complications, among which dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) appears particularly common, especially in severe forms of the disease, and which is associated with a dismal prognosis. Echocardiographic studies indeed reveal right ventricular dysfunction in up to 40% of patients, a proportion even greater when the RV is explored with strain imaging echocardiography. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction in COVID-19 include processes increasing the pulmonary vascular hydraulic load and others reducing RV contractility, which precipitate the acute uncoupling of the RV with the pulmonary circulation. Understanding these mechanisms provides the fundamental basis for the adequate therapeutic management of RV dysfunction, which incorporates protective mechanical ventilation, the prevention and treatment of pulmonary vasoconstriction and thrombotic complications, as well as the appropriate management of RV preload and contractility. This comprehensive review provides a detailed update of the evidence of RV dysfunction in COVID-19, its pathophysiological mechanisms, and its therapy.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL