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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1584, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in foreign countries and regions, many overseas people arrive in China by air. Currently, most of the new cases of COVID-19 were imported from overseas. Here, we evaluated the predictive effect of the level of blood albumin (ALB) and serum prealbumin (PA) level in overseas-imported cases on the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate and its value in guiding nutritional support for these travelers. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed serum levels of ALB and PA of 193 patients with imported COVID-19 admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center at the time of admission on April 8, 2020. RESULTS: Since the first overseas-imported case was admitted to Shanghai on March 5, 2020, 195 overseas-imported cases have been treated in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The disease was mild or moderate. A total of 193 patients (111 males and 82 females) entered our analysis and the disease was moderate in 108 patients and mild in 85 patients. Patients were aged 6 to 66 years (mean: 28 years). There was a strong negative correlation between the proportion of moderate type and ALB (P=0.0073); thus, patients with a lower level of ALB were more likely to be diagnosed with moderate type. The correlation coefficient was close to 0 in the scatter plot, indicating that there was no linear correlation between PA and the diagnosis of moderate type (P>0.05). There was a strong negative correlation between age and ALB level (P<0.001), while length of hospital stay did not show a linear correlation with ALB or PB levels (both P>0.05). Therefore, older patients had lower levels of ALB and were more likely to develop moderate COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The serum ALB level can be an early predictive indicator for the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate in cases imported overseas and may guide nutritional support.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 540-548, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study intended to investigate the dynamics of anti-spike (S) IgG and IgM antibodies in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Anti-S IgG/IgM was determined by a semi-quantitative fluorescence immunoassay in the plasma of COVID-19 patients at the manifestation and rehabilitation stages. The immunoreactivity to full-length S proteins, C-terminal domain (CTD), and N-terminal domain (NTD) of S1 fragments were determined by an ELISA assay. Clinical properties at admission and discharge were collected simultaneously. RESULTS: The positive rates of anti-S IgG/IgM in COVID-19 patients were elevated after rehabilitation compared to the in-patients. Anti-S IgG and IgM were not apparent until day 14 and day ten, respectively, according to Simple Moving Average analysis with five days' slide window deduction. More than 90% of the rehabilitation patients exhibited IgG and IgM responses targeting CTD-S1 fragments. Decreased total peripheral lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts were seen in COVID-19 patients at admission and recovered after the rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-S IgG and IgM do not appear at the onset with the decrease in T cells, making early serological screening less significant. However, the presence of high IgG and IgM to S1-CTD in the recovered patients highlights humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which might be associated with efficient immune protection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
5.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2059

ABSTRACT

A review. COVID-19 was outbroken in all over the world. The current clin. treatment is dependent on old drugs. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of all these drugs in COVID-19 are very limited, furthermore, there are some therapeutic factors (such as hemodialysis, and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)) affecting pharmacokinetic parameters. So it is very necessary to perform therapeutic drug monitoring, in order to improve clin. efficacy and decrease drug adverse reactions. In this work, we reviewed the TDM development of hydroxychloroquine, teicoplanin, arbidol, lopinavir (LPV)/Ritonavir (RTV), and vancomycin used in COVID-19 patients, including the TDM progress of these drugs in other diseases, concentration detection methods (mainly liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry), therapeutic window range, and the TDM development of these drugs in COVID-19 patients. This review can provide methodol. support for TDM research, and provide theor. basis for individualized medication of COVID-19.

8.
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Med. Sci. ; 5(40): 559-565, 20200528.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-647861

ABSTRACT

Objective • To explore the common clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)-infected local patients in Shanghai and their related influencing factors. Methods • A total of 320 patients admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January to March 2020 and diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) were selected. Clinical data of the patients were collected to analyze their characteristics. Using the statistical operation formula of R language, the correlation analysis of hospitalization days, days of increased hypersensitive C-reactive protein concentration (allergic days), days of lung CT improvement (CT days), and days required for nucleic acid turning negative with the main clinical manifestations and laboratory data was carried out. The correlation factors affecting the above four variables were analyzed. Results • Among the 320 patients, the proportions of mild type, moderate type, serious type and critical type were 6.25%, 83.44%, 6.88% and 3.44%, respectively; 91.25% of them had a history of exposure to Hubei. The proportions of fever, cough, sputum and fatigue were 79.06%, 46.56%, 21.56% and 15.31%, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-2(IL-2) and IL-6 were positively correlated with the above four variables, respectively (all P<0.05), albumin concentration was negatively correlated with allergic days (P=0.018), and CD4+ cell count was negatively correlated with CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (both P<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that procalcitonin (PCT) concentration was negatively correlated with hospitalization days, CT days and allergic days (both P<0.05), and disease type was positively correlated with hospitalization days, allergic days, CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (all P<0.05). Conclusion • Moderate type is common in the local patients in Shanghai; fever, cough and fatigue are common symptoms, and most of the patients are accompanied by lung CT abnormalities. The therapeutic effect and prognosis of these patients are closely related to disease type, concentrations of PCT and IL-6, as well as CD4+ cell count.

10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e323-e330, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260619

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to international concern. We aimed to establish an effective screening strategy in Shanghai, China, to aid early identification of patients with COVID-19. Methods: We did a multicentre, observational cohort study in fever clinics of 25 hospitals in 16 districts of Shanghai. All patients visiting the clinics within the study period were included. A strategy for COVID-19 screening was presented and then suspected cases were monitored and analysed until they were confirmed as cases or excluded. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Findings: We enrolled patients visiting fever clinics from Jan 17 to Feb 16, 2020. Among 53 617 patients visiting fever clinics, 1004 (1·9%) were considered as suspected cases, with 188 (0·4% of all patients, 18·7% of suspected cases) eventually diagnosed as confirmed cases. 154 patients with missing data were excluded from the analysis. Exposure history (odds ratio [OR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·74-6·33; p<0·0001), fatigue (OR 1·56, 1·01-2·41; p=0·043), white blood cell count less than 4 × 109 per L (OR 2·44, 1·28-4·64; p=0·0066), lymphocyte count less than 0·8 × 109 per L (OR 1·82, 1·00-3·31; p=0·049), ground glass opacity (OR 1·95, 1·32-2·89; p=0·0009), and having both lungs affected (OR 1·54, 1·04-2·28; p=0·032) were independent risk factors for confirmed COVID-19. Interpretation: The screening strategy was effective for confirming or excluding COVID-19 during the spread of this contagious disease. Relevant independent risk factors identified in this study might be helpful for early recognition of the disease. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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