Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 89
Filter
Add filters

Year range
3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296092

ABSTRACT

The recurrent outbreak of coronaviruses and variants underscores the need for broadly reactive antivirals and vaccines. Here, a novel broad-spectrum human antibody named 76E1 was isolated from a COVID-19 convalescent patient and showed broad neutralization activity against multiple α- and β-coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 variants and also exhibited the binding breath to peptides containing the epitope from γ- and δ- coronaviruses. 76E1 cross-protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 infection in both prophylactic and treatment models. The epitope including the fusion peptide and S2’ cleavage site recognized by 76E1 was significantly conserved among α-, β-, γ- and δ- coronaviruses. We uncovered a novel mechanism of antibody neutralization that the epitope of 76E1 was proportionally less exposed in the prefusion trimeric structure of spike protein but could be unmasked by binding to the receptor ACE2. Once the epitope exposed, 76E1 inhibited S2’ cleavage, thus blocked the membrane fusion process. Our data demonstrate a key epitope targeted by broadly-neutralizing antibodies and will guide next-generation epitope-based pan-coronavirus vaccine design.

4.
Public Health Nurs ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe how the prevention and controlling strategies have been experienced by COVID-19 patients in China, especially those who had passed through the suspected, diagnosed, hospitalized, and recovery stages of the disease. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative study followed the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. SAMPLES: COVID-19 patients were recruited from a COVID-19-designated facility in Shanghai, China, from April to June 2020, by the purposive sampling method. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews by cell phone were used and transcriptions were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis method. RESULTS: We recruited 26 COVID-19 patients. Three theme categories emerged from the data analysis. The first was "Consciously adhere to COVID-19-related controlling strategies." The second category was "Positive experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced a quick and adequate medical response, confident in the medical system, or received help from community workers. The third category was "Negative experiences of the COVID-19-related controlling strategies." These patients experienced psychological distress, stigma, privacy exposures, and inconveniences from the controlling strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to develop a culturally sensitive intervention to eliminate the psychological distress and stigma of patients with COVID-19 and to protect their privacy during and after the pandemic.

5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 164, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) variants of SARS-CoV-2 could impair antibody-mediated neutralization of the virus by host immunity; thus, prospective surveillance of antibody escape mutants and understanding the evolution of RBD are urgently needed. METHODS: Using the single B cell cloning technology, we isolated and characterized 93 RBD-specific antibodies from the memory B cells of four COVID-19 convalescent individuals in the early stage of the pandemic. Then, global RBD alanine scanning with a panel of 19 selected neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), including several broadly reactive NAbs, was performed. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of single natural mutation or co-mutations of concern at key positions of RBD on the neutralization escape and ACE2 binding function by recombinant proteins and pseudoviruses. RESULTS: Thirty-three amino acid positions within four independent antigenic sites (1 to 4) of RBD were identified as valuable indicators of antigenic changes in the RBD. The comprehensive escape mutation map not only confirms the widely circulating strains carrying important immune escape RBD mutations such as K417N, E484K, and L452R, but also facilitates the discovery of new immune escape-enabling mutations such as F486L, N450K, F490S, and R346S. Of note, these escape mutations could not affect the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD, among which L452R even enhanced binding. Furthermore, we showed that RBD co-mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y present in B.1.351 appear more resistant to NAbs and human convalescent plasma from the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to an additive effect. Conversely, double mutations E484Q and L452R present in B.1.617.1 variant show partial antibody evasion with no evidence for an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global view of the determinants for neutralizing antibody recognition, antigenic conservation, and RBD conformation. The in-depth escape maps may have value for prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants. Special attention should be paid to the accumulation of co-mutations at distinct major antigenic sites. Finally, the new broadly reactive NAbs described here represent new potential opportunities for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Biosci Trends ; 15(5): 345-349, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528987

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) continues to rage as a global pandemic. A number of potential therapeutic agents have been explored over the past year or two. However, numerous drugs that were expected to prove highly effective, such as lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir, have been found to have little benefit in large clinical trials. Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoids, Janus kinase inhibitors, and some antivirals have been found to provide significant benefits in terms of reducing viral load, reducing the time of nucleic acid conversion, or improving survival. For example, bamlanivimab and etesevimab, which are newly designed monoclonal antibodies against the surface spike protein S1 subunit receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, have a significant effect on reducing the viral load and the hospitalization rate of patients with mild COVID-19. Several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been widely administered worldwide and have provided good protection. Nevertheless, the increasingly hardy variants of the virus have raised the requirements for vaccine design. Perhaps RBD-based vaccines are a viable way to defend against variants, but this still needs to be verified in a large sample. Therefore, this paper provides an update on the treatment options for COVID-19 based on three previously proposed dimensions of drug screening: standard assays of existing broad-spectrum antivirals, screening of chemical libraries, and redevelopment of new, specific drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292335

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is implicated as a host cell receptor that causes infection in the pathogenesis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its genetic polymorphisms in the ACE2 gene may promote cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory injury in COVID-19. Hence, genetic background may potentially explain the broad inter-individual variation of disease susceptibility and/or severity. Methods The genetic susceptibility to COVID-19 by examining single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2 was analyzed in 196 patients with COVID-19 and 210 normal controls using TaqMan genotyping assay. Results We demonstrated that ACE2 SNP rs4646142, rs6632677, and rs2074192 were associated with COVID-19 (all P < 0.05), and the differences of ACE2 SNPs rs4646142 and rs6632677 were correlated with COVID-19 related systemic inflammatory injury and cardiovascular risk. Specially, rs4646142 was associated with high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), prealbumin (PAB), apolipoprotein A (APOA), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and acid glycoprotein (AGP). Rs6632677 was also associated with elevated CRP and haptoglobin (HPT). Conclusions Our results suggest that early identification of these individuals can provide a possible strategy for preventing the spread of the COVID-19, and ACE2 SNPs rs4646142 and rs6632677 may be a common genetic loci and optimal early identification genetic marker for COVID-19 with cardiovascular risks.

8.
Cell Res ; 31(11): 1148-1162, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493088

ABSTRACT

Increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive (SARS-CoV-2pos) subjects are detected at silent SARS-CoV-2 infection stage (SSIS). Yet, SSIS represents a poorly examined time-window wherein unknown immunity patterns may contribute to the fate determination towards persistently asymptomatic or overt disease. Here, we retrieved blood samples from 19 asymptomatic and 12 presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2pos subjects, 47 age/gender-matched patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and 27 normal subjects, and interrogated them with combined assays of 44-plex CyTOF, RNA-seq and Olink. Notably, both asymptomatic and presymptomatic subjects exhibited numerous readily detectable immunological alterations, while certain parameters including more severely decreased frequencies of CD107alow classical monocytes, intermediate monocytes, non-classical monocytes and CD62Lhi CD8+ Tnaïve cells, reduced plasma STC1 level but an increased frequency of CD4+ NKT cells combined to distinguish the latter. Intercorrelation analyses revealed a particular presymptomatic immunotype mainly manifesting as monocytic overactivation and differentiation blockage, a likely lymphocyte exhaustion and immunosuppression, yielding mechanistic insights into SSIS fate determination, which could potentially improve SARS-CoV-2 management.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2090-2097, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479918

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and threatens public health worldwide. The recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in patients after discharge from hospital signals a risk of transmission from such patients to the community and challenges the current discharge criteria of COVID-19 patients. A wide range of clinical specimens has been used to detect SARS-CoV-2. However, to date, a consensus has not been reached regarding the most appropriate specimens to use for viral RNA detection in assessing COVID-19 patients for discharge. An anal swab sample was proposed as the standard because of prolonged viral detection. In this retrospective longitudinal study of viral RNA detection in 60 confirmed COVID-19 patients, we used saliva, oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab (O/N swab) and anal swab procedures from admission to discharge. The conversion times of saliva and anal swab were longer than that of O/N swab. The conversion time of hyper sensitive-CRP was the shortest and correlated with that of CT scanning and viral detection. Some patients were found to be RNA-positive in saliva while RNA-negative in anal swab while the reverse was true in some other patients, which indicated that false negatives were inevitable if only the anal swab is used for evaluating suitability for discharge. These results indicated that double-checking for viral RNA using multiple and diverse specimens was essential, and saliva could be a candidate to supplement anal swabs to reduce false-negative results and facilitate pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Adult , Anal Canal/virology , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Patient Discharge , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Australas J Ageing ; 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial injury leads to higher mortality in COVID-19, but the causes and risk factors are variable. We evaluated the potential risk factors for myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients to improve treatment strategies and reduce mortality. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 325 COVID-19 patients in Shanghai, China. RESULTS: The median age in our cohort was 51 [range 15-88] years, 26 (8%) were critically ill, and 177 patients (19.7%) had myocardial injury. The myocardial injury group comprised older, more critically ill patients with hypertension, other comorbidities, history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use, lower peripheral blood lymphocyte count and higher D-dimer levels. Binary logistic regression analysis identified only age was an independent risk factor for myocardial injury (odds ratio 1.019; 95% confidence interval 1.003-1.036; age increase by 1 year = myocardial injury risk increase by 1.9%). CONCLUSION: Older age was associated with a higher incidence of myocardial injury for COVID-19 patients.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 269-275, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to adapt and modify the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Patient to develop the COVID-19 Stigma Instrument-Patient (CSI-P) and validate its psychometric characteristics, as well as explore how affected individuals in China experienced COVID-related stigma and its associated variables, including depressive symptomology and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: From September to October 2020, 151 COVID-19 survivors recruited in Shanghai, China, completed a set of measures of demographic characteristics, depression, stigma, and QOL. RESULTS: The 15-item CSI-P-2 achieved a Cronbach's α of 0.67 to 0.91. The six-factor structure was obtained by exploratory factor analysis. The mean score for the CSI-P-2 in Chinese COVID survivors was 8.14 ± 9.98. Regression analysis showed that survivors' age, comorbid diseases, education levels, and loneliness level were the factors influencing their COVID-19 stigma, explaining 37.80% of the total variance (F = 19.25, p < 0.001). Also, stigma's effect on QOL was significant in direct and indirect paths mediated by depressive symptomology. LIMITATIONS: First, this sample might limit the generalization of the findings to other Chinese-speaking regions. Second, future longitudinal or experimental studies are warranted for checking and further refinement of the scale. Finally, future studies are needed on the changing dynamics of stigma in different stages of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-item CSI-P-2 with six domains is an instrument with sound psychometric properties that can be used to measure COVID-19 stigma during the COVID-19 outbreak and, later, for COVID-19 survivors. Future studies should explore how to integrate the significant demographic and psychological characteristics influencing the experience of stigma work on this study into the development of stigma-reducing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , China , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211049739, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463196

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of lymphocyte subsets and other laboratory measurements in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic medical records of adult patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were reviewed retrospectively to obtain relevant data. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40.98 ± 15.95 years, with 58% of the patients being males. The cutoff values at the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality were CD4+ cells (267, 198, and 405), CD8+ cells (263, 203, and 182), and CD4+ /CD8+ cells (1.4, 1.8, and 1.4). The cutoffs below these values indicate the higher chances of disease progression. Higher CD4+ cell count led to lesser chances for ICU admission [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994 (0.991, 0.997); p = 0.0002] and mortality [OR (95% CI): 0.988 (0.979, 0.99); p = 0.001], higher CD8+ count was an independent risk factor for ICU admission. T-cell count positively correlated with total lymphocyte count and platelets, while negatively correlated with D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Among patients with non-severe COVID-19, median CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, total lymphocyte count, and platelets were 570, 362, 1.45, and 211, respectively, while median values decreased to 149, 106, 0.64, and 172, respectively, in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Lower T lymphocyte subsets were significantly associated with higher admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, and mortality among patients with COVID-19. A cutoff value of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality below CD4+ cells (267, 198, and 405), CD8+ cells (263, 203, 182), and CD4+/CD8+ cells (1.4, 1.8, 1.4) may help identify patients at high risk of disease progression. The continuous evaluation of laboratory indices may help with dismal prognosis and prompt intervention to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 89, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been declared by World Health Organization as a worldwide pandemic. However, there are many unknowns about the antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we present both single-cell TCR-seq and RNA-seq to analyze the dynamics of TCR repertoire and immune metabolic functions of blood T cells collected from recently discharged COVID-19 patients. We found that while the diversity of TCR repertoire was increased in discharged patients, it returned to basal level ~1 week after becoming virus-free. The dynamics of T cell repertoire correlated with a profound shift of gene signatures from antiviral response to metabolism adaptation. We also demonstrated that the top expanded T cell clones (~10% of total T cells) display the key anti-viral features in CD8+ T cells, confirming a critical role of antigen-specific T cells in fighting against SARS-CoV-2. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients, and also has implications in developing a T-cell-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis ; 17(10):1308-1316, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1435836

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported in 8%-16% of patients with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Digoxin is one of the main drugs to treat CVD. Objective: The clinician conducted therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of digoxin according to the drug usage on patients to monitor the concentration of digoxin, so as to avoid its toxic and side effects, and provide a theoretical reference for clinical usage of digoxin in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A method for quantifying digoxin concentration in plasma with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. After simple protein precipitation of plasma with methanol, digoxin and its internal standard (digoxin-d3) were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. Results: Plasma digoxin in the range of 0.2 - 10 ng/mL had good linearity. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with inter-run accuracies ranging from 91.3% to 107.4% and precision less than 13%. Nine plasma samples (5 at valley concentration and 4 at follow-up after stopping dosing) from three patients with COVID-19 were tested. The mean plasma digoxin concentration was 0.73 ng/mL (ranged from 0 to 1.31 ng/mL). Digoxin was detected at the concentration of 0.93 ng/mL after stopping drug administration for 14 days. Conclusion: In this study, we established a simple UPLC-MS/MS method using protein-precipitation to perform TDM of digoxin in patients with COVID-19, and found that about 56% of digoxin plasma concentration was within the treatment window (0.8 - 2.0 ng/mL). Digoxin can be remained in the body for nearly 14 days in severe patients with COVID-19 after stopping dosing.

15.
Biosci Trends ; 15(5): 341-344, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378489

ABSTRACT

Induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a serious crisis for healthcare systems worldwide. COVID-19 vaccine coverage has increased in many countries, but the COVID-19 epidemic has rapidly expanded, with a daily increase of 30,390 COVID-19 cases and 9,761 deaths since August 12, 2021. This article provides a brief overview of growing concerns about a rebound of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Delta variant and public health epidemic control measures that have recently been relaxed. As of August 13, 2021, 465,679 cases of COVID-19 due to the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected in over 120 countries. Epidemic control measures were relaxed in some areas, such as allowing large gatherings and improper criteria for ending self-isolation. Even in China, where the epidemic was tightly controlled with strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), new COVID-19 cases, and asymptomatic cases in particular, spiked in the first 13 days of August. More importantly, most of those cases were local, while most of the cases accounting for the previous increase were imported. Therefore, relaxed epidemic control measures and asymptomatic infections possibly caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 may increase the risk of virus transmission. Accordingly, suggestions for COVID-19 containment, such as encouraging vaccination of the general population, using Internet of Things technology (loT) to reduce the possibility of contact with the asymptomatic infected, and enhancing disease surveillance, have been offered here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1638-1648, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341090

ABSTRACT

MW33 is a fully humanized IgG1κ monoclonal neutralizing antibody, and may be used for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation Phase 1 study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of MW33. Healthy adults aged 18-45 years were sequentially enrolled into the 4, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg dose groups and infused with MW33 over 60 ± 15 min and followed for 85 days. All 42 enrolled participants completed the MW33 infusion, and 40 participants completed the 85-day follow-up period. 34 participants received a single infusion of 4 (n = 2), 10 (n = 8), 20 (n = 8), 40 (n = 8), and 60 mg/kg (n = 8) of MW33. 27 subjects in the test groups experienced 78 adverse events (AEs) post-dose, with an incidence of 79.4% (27/34). The most common AEs included abnormal laboratory test results, vascular and lymphatic disorders, and infectious diseases. The severity of AEs was mainly Grade 1 (92 AEs), and three Grade 2 and one Grade 4. The main PK parameters, maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞) in 34 subjects showed a linear kinetic relationship in the range of 10-60 mg/kg. The plasma half-life was approximately 25 days. The positive rates of serum ADAs and antibody titres were low with no evidence of an impact on safety or PK. In conclusion, MW33 was well-tolerated, demonstrated linear PK, with a lower positive rate of serum ADAs and antibody titres in healthy subjects.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04427501.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04533048.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04627584.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(7): e1319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326764

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific humoral responses and T-cell responses in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to understand the natural protective immune responses and to facilitate the development of vaccines. Methods: We conducted a combined assessment of the changes in neutralising antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses over time in 27 patients up to 7 months after infection. Results: The neutralising antibody remained detectable in 96.3% of the patients at their second visit at about 7 months post-onset of symptoms. However, their humoral responses, including titres of the spike receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralising antibody, decreased significantly compared with those at first clinic visit. By contrast, the proportions of spike-specific CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, in COVID-19 patients after recovery were persistently higher than those in healthy controls. No significant change was observed in the proportion of spike-specific CD4+ T cells in patients who had recovered from COVID-19 within 7 months. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immune responses persisted, while the neutralising antibodies decayed. Further studies are needed to extend the longevity of neutralising antibodies and to evaluate whether these T cells are sufficient to protect patients from reinfection.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 653794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325515

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 testing in specimens collected from the anterior nasal vestibules of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 30 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from March 14, 2020 to March 21, 2020. Paired specimens were collected from both the anterior nasal vestibule and the oropharynx from all patients. All specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Results: Of the 30 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 17 patients (56.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 when oropharyngeal specimens were used, while 20 patients (66.7%) tested positive when nasal swab specimens were used. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the two methods. Conclusions: Respiratory swabs collected from the nasal vestibule offer a less invasive alternative to oropharyngeal swabs for specimen collection in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and have adequate sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nasopharynx , Specimen Handling
19.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 118-123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global threat. Although non-pharmaceutical interventions have been rigorously and widely implemented, living conditions caused by the pandemic will last until highly effective vaccines are successfully improved and globally administered. Several first-generation COVID-19 vaccines were approved at the end of 2020. However, the COVID-19 pandemic is persisting worldwide. To be clear, the efficiency and the coverage of current vaccines are insufficient, but newly emerging and rapidly spreading variants are the most pressing concern. A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine worth mentioning, NVX-CoV2373, has demonstrated 90% overall efficacy as well as a high level of efficacy against circulating variants in Phase 3 clinical trials. Currently, NVX-CoV2373 is the only vaccine that has proven successful against variants during Phase 3/4 trials. Therefore, developing the next generation of vaccines is a promising strategy to ultimately prevail against SARS-CoV-2. This review provides up-to-date information on COVID-19 vaccines in terms of their efficacy and new platforms and the progression of COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, this review also summarizes the efficacy of approved COVID-19 vaccines against variants. Lastly, this review highlights the global challenges for COVID-19 vaccines in development and vaccination, and it discusses opportunities for development of future COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
20.
Biosci Trends ; 15(3): 192-195, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285511

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a serious public health burden. As the COVID-19 epidemic in China would coincide with a seasonal outbreak of influenza, there were serious concerns about whether influenza would be aggravated by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pandemic. This article provides a brief overview of the impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic on influenza activity in China. The percentage of positive influenza tests decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the first stage of the COVID-19 outbreak, the percentage of positive influenza tests reached to a peak of 47.7%. At the second stage, the percentage of positive influenza tests was dramatically decreased from 40.4% to 14.0%. Thereafter, it remains at a low level of less than 6.2%. In addition, the possible causes of this phenomenon have been summarized, including prevention and control measures and ecological competition. Lastly, this article suggests that the public health approach to preventing COVID-19 may also help to control other respiratory infectious diseases. Public health measures need to be maintained even in the later stages of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seasons
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...