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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689222

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-684336

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease Methods We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group) The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital This study is registered with chictr org cn, ChiCTR2000030262 Findings A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5 0 days (IQR 3 0–9 0) in the experimental group versus 8 5 days (IQR 3 0–17 0) in the control group (p<0 05) In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4 5 days [IQR 2 0–7 0]) than the control group did (10 0 days [IQR 6 0–21 0])(p<0 005), in viral RNA reversion of 6 0 days (IQR 2 0–13 0) in the experimental group vs 9 5 days (IQR 3 0–23 0) in the control group (p < 0 05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12 0 days (IQR 7 0–20 0) in the experimental group vs 15 0 days (IQR 10 0–25 0) in the control group (p<0 001), respectively Interpretation Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2 Funding National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission

4.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620942129, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) was reported in Wuhan, China, and has now rapidly swept around the world. Much research has been carried out since the outbreak, but few studies have focused on the dysfunction of the adaptive immunity. METHODS: In this retrospective and multi-center study, 373 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Affiliated Hospital of Putian University were recruited. Demographic, clinical, radiological features, and laboratory data were recorded and analyzed at admission and at discharge. Results of immunological tests were followed up until the patients were discharged. RESULTS: Of the 373 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 322 were in the non-severe group and 51 were in the severe group. Number of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and total lymphocytes declined remarkably upon admission and elevated when the patients were discharged. At admission, counts of total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and levels of C3 and C4 in the severe group were lower than those in the non-severe group, whereas the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in the severe group. Counts of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and total lymphocytes were negatively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 might target adaptive immunity and cause a decrease in lymphocytes, especially T cells and subsets. Physicians should pay close attention to the adaptive immunity of patients upon admission. Monitoring NLR, T lymphocytes, and subsets would help physicians with the proper diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
5.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651760

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection that caused the COVID-19 pandemic quickly spread worldwide within two months. Rapid diagnosis of the disease and isolation of patients are effective ways to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19. Therefore, a sensitive immunofluorescent assay method was developed for rapid detection of special IgM and IgG of COVID-19 in human serum within 10 min. The recombinant nucleocapsid protein of 2019 novel coronavirus was used as capture antigen. Lanthanide, Eu(III) fluorescent microsphere, was used to qualitatively/semiquantitatively determine the solid phase immunochromatographic assay. A total of 28 clinical positive and 77 negative serum or plasma samples were included in the test. Based on the analysis of serum or plasma from COVID-19 patients and healthy people, the sensitivity and specificity of the immunochromatographic assay were calculated as 98.72% and 100% (IgG), and 98.68% and 93.10% (IgM), respectively. The results demonstrated that rapid immunoassay has high sensitivity and specificity and was useful for rapid serodiagnosis of COVID-19.

6.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644806

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic and garnered international attention. Although the clinical features of COVID-19 related liver injury have been investigated, there have been no reports and studies on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients co-infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). This study aimed to evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2/HBV co-infection could influence liver function and the disease outcome. All 326 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (The COVID-19 designated hospital in Shanghai, China) from January 20, 2020 to February 24, 2020 were enrolled and followed up until February 29 in this study. The clinical, laboratory data and the length of stay were collected and analyzed retrospectively. 20 patients with HBV co-infection (6.1%) and 306 patients (93.9%) without HBV infection showed no differences in the level of liver function parameters. However, compared with HBsAg- patients [145.4 mg/L (103.9-179.2)], HBsAg+ patients had a lower level of prealbumin [(102.3 mg/L (76.22-160.2), P=.0367]. There were also no significant differences for the discharge rate and the length of stay between two groups. Taken together, we found no evidence that SARS-CoV-2/HBV co-infection could aggravate liver injury or extend duration of hospitalization.

7.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humans are generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of COVID-19. The screening of infected people in the population still mainly depends on clinical symptoms. However, there is limited research on the characteristics of clinical symptoms in different populations, especially in imported cases. METHODS: To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 494 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in Shanghai from January 20, 2020, to March 31, 2020, we compared the clinical manifestations in different populations and their influencing factors in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: (1) Of the 494 patients, 453 (91.7%) had different symptoms at admission, and 39 (7.89%) patients were asymptomatic. (2) We compared the symptoms of patients according to different stratifications and found the following results: a. The proportion of dyspnea was significantly higher in male patients than in female patients (P < 0.05). b. The proportions of a stuffy nose, sore throat, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly higher in children than in adult patients (P < 0.05). c. The proportions of fever, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and fatigue were significantly higher in local cases than in imported cases. In comparison, the proportions of nasal congestion, stuffy nose, sore throat, headache, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly lower in imported cases than in imported cases (P < 0.05). d. The proportions of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and dyspnea were significantly higher in severely ill patients than in those with mild symptoms (P < 0.05). (3) Thirty-one asymptomatic patients were significantly younger than symptomatic patients, and they had a higher proportion of imported cases, white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte (LYM) count levels, and fewer abnormal CT cases than the group of symptomatic patients (P < 0.05). (4) The number of days since the onset of the disease needed for the symptoms to disappear was associated with the epidemiological history (imported cases), the number of days until the pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test turned negative, the days of hospitalization, the days of onset, and the WBC and LYM count levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The majority of COVID-19 patients (91.7%) had early symptoms. whereas 7.89% of COVID-19 patients were asymptomatic. Younger patients had fewer symptoms, mainly the upper respiratory symptoms, and the illness condition was milder, which was more common in imported cases. Elderly male patients had severe symptoms when admitted. The number of days needed for the patient's symptoms to disappear was closely related to the number of days necessary for the pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test to turn negative.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1537-1545, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611841

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is prevalent around the world. We aimed to describe epidemiological features and clinical course in Shanghai. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 325 cases admitted at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, between January 20 and February 29, 2020. Results: 47.4% (154/325) had visited Wuhan within 2 weeks of illness onset. 57.2% occurred in 67 clusters; 40% were situated within 53 family clusters. 83.7% developed fever during the disease course. Median times from onset to first medical care, hospitalization and negative detection of nucleic acid by nasopharyngeal swab were 1, 4 and 8 days. Patients with mild disease using glucocorticoid tended to have longer viral shedding in blood and feces. At admission, 69.8% presented with lymphopenia and 38.8% had elevated D-dimers. Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan. Severe-critical patients were 8% with a median time from onset to critical disease of 10.5 days. Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen. The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion: COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported. Rapid identification, and effective control measures helped to contain the outbreak and prevent community transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
9.
Allergy ; 2020 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread globally outside China. We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood eosinophil (EOS) as a marker in the course of the virus infection to improve the efficiency of diagnosis and evaluation of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 227 pneumonia patients who visited the fever clinics in Shanghai General Hospital and 97 hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were involved in a retrospective research study. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data were collected. The trend of EOS level in COVID-19 patients and comparison among patients with different severity were summarized. RESULTS: The majority of COVID-19 patients (71.7%) had a decrease in circulating EOS counts, which was significantly more frequent than other types of pneumonia patients. EOS counts had good value for COVID-19 prediction, even higher when combined with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Patients with low EOS counts at admission were more likely to have fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath, with more lesions in chest CT and radiographic aggravation, and longer length of hospital stay and course of disease than those with normal EOS counts. Circulating EOS level gradually increased over the time, and was synchronous with the improvement in chest CT (12 days vs 13 days, P = .07), later than that of body temperature (12 days vs 10 days, P = .014), but earlier than that of the negative conversion of nucleic acid assays (12 days vs 17 days, P = .001). CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood EOS counts may be an effective and efficient indicator in diagnosis, Evaluation, and prognosis monitoring of COVID-19 patients.

11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820934376, 2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter case series. SETTING: Five tertiary care hospitals (3 in China, 1 in France, 1 in Germany). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 394 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19-positive patients were screened, and those with olfactory or gustatory dysfunction were included. Data including demographics, COVID-19 severity, patient outcome, and the incidence and degree of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction were collected and analyzed. The Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to quantify olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. All subjects at 1 hospital (Shanghai) without subjective olfactory complaints underwent objective testing. RESULTS: Of 394 screened subjects, 161 (41%) reported olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction and were included. Incidence of olfactory and/or gustatory disorders in Chinese (n = 239), German (n = 39), and French (n = 116) cohorts was 32%, 69%, and 49%, respectively. The median age of included subjects was 39 years, 92 of 161 (57%) were male, and 10 of 161 (6%) were children. Of included subjects, 10% had only olfactory or gustatory symptoms, and 19% had olfactory and/or gustatory complaints prior to any other COVID-19 symptom. Of subjects with objective olfactory testing, 10 of 90 demonstrated abnormal chemosensory function despite reporting normal subjective olfaction. Forty-three percent (44/102) of subjects with follow-up showed symptomatic improvement in olfaction or gustation. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory and/or gustatory disorders may represent early or isolated symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. They may serve as a useful additional screening criterion, particularly for the identification of patients in the early stages of infection.

12.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 161-167, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593589

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a serious public health threat to the whole world, and the number of infected is still rising dramatically at this moment. Several studies have confirmed that cytokine storms play a critical role in causing a case to worsen from mild to severe or critical. The current treatment for cytokine storms is limited, so the international medical community is focusing on a specific and effective remedy. Jaktinib hydrochloride is a broad spectrum JAK inhibitor. It can inhibit cytokine-induced immune activation by multiple mechanisms and also slow viral proliferation by inhibiting AAK1 without causing unacceptable toxicity. Jaktinib hydrochloride has great potential for the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(6): 438, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Since its first report in December 2019, despite great efforts made in almost every country worldwide, this disease continues to spread globally, especially in most parts of Europe, Iran, and the United States. Here, we update the recent understanding in clinical characteristics, diagnosis strategies, as well as clinical management of COVID-19 in China as compared to Italy, with the purpose to integrate the China experience with the global efforts to outline references for prevention, basic research, treatment as well as final control of the disease. Being the first two countries we feel appropriate to evaluate the evolution of the disease as well as the early result of the treatment, in order to offer a different baseline to other countries. It is also interesting to compare two countries, with a very significant difference in population, where the morbidity and mortality has been so different, and unrelated to the size of the country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Young Adult
14.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 52(2): 397-406, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) has shown tremendous clinical potential for screening, diagnosis, and surveillance of COVID-19. However, safety concerns are warranted due to repeated exposure of X-rays over a short period of time. Recent advances in MRI suggested that ultrashort echo time MRI (UTE-MRI) was valuable for pulmonary applications. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of UTE-MRI for assessing COVID-19. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: In all, 23 patients with COVID-19 and with an average interval of 2.81 days between hospital admission and image examination. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T; Respiratory-gated three-dimensional radial UTE pulse sequence. ASSESSMENT: Image quality score. Patient- and lesion-based interobserver and intermethod agreement for identifying the representative image findings of COVID-19. STATISTICAL TESTS: Wilcoxon-rank sum test, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W), intraclass coefficients (ICCs), and weighted kappa statistics. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the image quality of CT and UTE-MRI (CT vs. UTE-MRI: 4.3 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.5, P = 0.09). Moreover, both patient- and lesion-based interobserver agreement of CT and UTE-MRI for evaluating the image signs of COVID-19 were determined as excellent (ICC: 0.939-1.000, P < 0.05; Kendall's W: 0.894-1.000, P < 0.05.). In addition, the intermethod agreement of two image modalities for assessing the representative findings of COVID-19 including affected lobes, total severity score, ground glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, GGO with consolidation, the number of crazy paving pattern, and linear opacities, as well as pseudocavity were all determined as substantial or excellent (kappa: 0.649-1.000, P < 0.05; ICC: 0.913-1.000, P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: Pulmonary MRI with UTE is valuable for assessing the representative image findings of COVID-19 with a high concordance to CT. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:397-406.

15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Infection ; 48(4): 577-584, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a simple algorithm to help early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients with severe progression tendency. METHODS: The univariable and multivariable analysis were computed to identify the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. The prediction model was established in a retrospective training set of 322 COVID-19 patients and was re-evaluated in a prospective validation set of 317 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The multivariable analysis identified age (OR = 1.061, p = 0.028), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR = 1.006, p = 0.037), and CD4 count (OR = 0.993, p = 0.006) as the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. Consequently, the age-LDH-CD4 algorithm was derived as (age × LDH)/CD4 count. In the training set, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of age-LDH-CD4 model was significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively). In the prospective validation set, the AUROC of age-LDH-CD4 model was also significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.75, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively). The age-LDH-CD4 ≥ 82 has high sensitive (81%) and specific (93%) for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with severe progression tendency. CONCLUSIONS: The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and warrants further validation.

17.
Nature ; 583(7816): 437-440, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326050

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China)1; it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/complications , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virulence/genetics , Virus Shedding , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 121-131, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244962

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient presentations requiring otolaryngology consultation and provide recommendations for protective measures based on the experience of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) departments in 4 Chinese hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design. Retrospective case series. Setting. Multicenter. Subjects and Methods. Twenty hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring ENT consultation from 3 designated COVID-19 hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Shenzhen were identified. Data on demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms and severity, consult reason, treatment, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use were collected and analyzed. Infection control strategies implemented for ENT outpatients and emergency room visits at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reported. Results. Median age was 63 years, 55% were male, and 95% were in severe or critical condition. Six tracheotomies were performed. Posttracheotomy outcomes were mixed (2 deaths, 2 patients comatose, all living patients still hospitalized). Other consults included epistaxis, pharyngitis, nasal congestion, hyposmia, rhinitis, otitis externa, dizziness, and tinnitus. At all hospitals, powered air-supply filter respirators (PAPRs) were used for tracheotomy or bleeding control. PAPR or N95-equivalent masks plus full protective clothing were used for other complaints. No inpatient ENT providers were infected. After implementation of infection control strategies for outpatient clinics, emergency visits, and surgeries, no providers were infected at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 patients require ENT consultation for many reasons, including tracheotomy. Otolaryngologists play an indispensable role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients but, due to their work, are at high risk of exposure. Appropriate protective strategies can prevent infection of otolaryngologists.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Otolaryngology/standards , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies
19.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 215-219, 2020 May 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-242643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). RESULTS: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1,9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1,4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0,2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0,3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
20.
Theranostics ; 10(12): 5613-5622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203318

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly develop respiratory failure or even die, underscoring the need for early identification of patients at elevated risk of severe illness. This study aims to quantify pneumonia lesions by computed tomography (CT) in the early days to predict progression to severe illness in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included confirmed COVID-19 patients. Three quantitative CT features of pneumonia lesions were automatically calculated using artificial intelligence algorithms, representing the percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (PGV), semi-consolidation volume (PSV), and consolidation volume (PCV) in both lungs. CT features, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and d-dimer, on day 0 (hospital admission) and day 4, were collected to predict the occurrence of severe illness within a 28-day follow-up using both logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: We included 134 patients, of whom 19 (14.2%) developed any severe illness. CT features on day 0 and day 4, as well as their changes from day 0 to day 4, showed predictive capability. Changes in CT features from day 0 to day 4 performed the best in the prediction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87~0.99; C-index=0.88, 95% CI 0.81~0.95). The hazard ratios of PGV and PCV were 1.39 (95% CI 1.05~1.84, P=0.023) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.17~2.38, P=0.005), respectively. CT features, adjusted for age and gender, on day 4 and in terms of changes from day 0 to day 4 outperformed APACHE-II, NLR, and d-dimer. Conclusions: CT quantification of pneumonia lesions can early and non-invasively predict the progression to severe illness, providing a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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