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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1196031, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236991

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), which is a recently discovered enteric coronavirus, is the major aetiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhoea and intestinal pathological damage in pigs, and it has caused significant economic losses to the swine industry. Nonstructural protein 5, also called 3C-like protease, cleaves viral polypeptides and host immune-related molecules to facilitate viral replication and immune evasion. Here, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV nsp5 significantly inhibits the Sendai virus (SEV)-induced production of IFN-ß and inflammatory cytokines. SADS-CoV nsp5 targets and cleaves mRNA-decapping enzyme 1a (DCP1A) via its protease activity to inhibit the IRF3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in order to decrease IFN-ß and inflammatory cytokine production. We found that the histidine 41 and cystine 144 residues of SADS-CoV nsp5 are critical for its cleavage activity. Additionally, a form of DCP1A with a mutation in the glutamine 343 residue is resistant to nsp5-mediated cleavage and has a stronger ability to inhibit SADS-CoV infection than wild-type DCP1A. In conclusion, our findings reveal that SADS-CoV nsp5 is an important interferon antagonist and enhance the understanding of immune evasion by alpha coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Interferon Type I , Animals , Swine , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Endopeptidases , Interferon Type I/metabolism
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 229: 115357, 2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263488

ABSTRACT

Ursodeoxycholic acid has gained increasing attention due to its recent discovery of the preventive effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been included in various pharmacopoeias as an old drug, and the latest European Pharmacopoeia lists nine potential related substances (impurities A∼I). However, existing methods in pharmacopoeias and literature can only quantify up to five of these impurities simultaneously, and the sensitivity is inadequate, as the impurities are isomers or cholic acid analogues lacking chromophores. Herein, a novel gradient RP-HPLC method coupled to charged aerosol detection (CAD) was developed and validated for the simultaneous separation and quantification of the nine impurities in ursodeoxycholic acid. The method proved sensitive and allowed the quantification of the impurities as low as 0.02 %. Relative correction factors of the nine impurities were all within the range of 0.8-1.2 in the gradient mode by optimizing chromatographic conditions and CAD parameters. In addition, this RP-HPLC method is fully compatible with LC-MS due to the volatile additives and high percentage of the organic phase, which can be directly used for the identification of impurities. The newly developed HPLC-CAD method was successfully applied to commercial bulk drug samples, and two unknown impurities were identified by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The effect of CAD parameters on the linearity and correction factors was also discussed in this study. Overall, the established HPLC-CAD method can improve the methods in current pharmacopoeias and literature and contributes to understanding the impurity profile for process improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Drug Contamination/prevention & control
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
4.
Infectious Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159000

ABSTRACT

Background Global evidence on the transmission of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be synthesized. Methods A search of 4 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases) as of January 24, 2021 was performed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Studies which reported the transmission rate among close contacts with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases were included, and transmission activities occurred were considered. The transmission rates were pooled by zero-inflated beta distribution. The risk ratios (RRs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results Of 4923 records retrieved and reviewed, 15 studies including 3917 close contacts with asymptomatic indexes were eligible. The pooled transmission rates were 1.79 per 100 person-days (or 1.79%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41%–3.16%) by asymptomatic index, which is significantly lower than by presymptomatic (5.02%, 95% CI 2.37%–7.66%;P<.001), and by symptomatic (5.27%, 95% CI 2.40%–8.15%;P<.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the household transmission rate of asymptomatic index was (4.22%, 95% CI 0.91%–7.52%), four times significantly higher than non-household transmission (1.03%, 95% CI 0.73%–1.33%;P=.03), and the asymptomatic transmission rate in China (1.82%, 95% CI 0.11%–3.53%) was lower than in other countries (2.22%, 95% CI 0.67%–3.77%;P=.01). Conclusions People with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection are at risk of transmitting the virus to their close contacts, particularly in household settings. The transmission potential of asymptomatic infection is lower than symptomatic and presymptomatic infections. This meta-analysis provides evidence for predicting the epidemic trend and promulgating vaccination and other control measures. Trial Registration Registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021269446;https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=269446

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20763, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133618

ABSTRACT

This meta-analysis aims to synthesize global evidence on the risk of reinfection among people previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science as of April 5, 2021. We conducted: (1) meta-analysis of cohort studies containing data sufficient for calculating the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection; (2) systematic review of case reports with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases. The reinfection incidence was pooled by zero-inflated beta distribution. The hazard ratio (HR) between reinfection incidence among previously infected individuals and new infection incidence among infection-naïve individuals was calculated using random-effects models. Of 906 records retrieved and reviewed, 11 studies and 11 case reports were included in the meta-analysis and the systematic review, respectively. The pooled SARS-CoV-2 reinfection incidence rate was 0.70 (standard deviation [SD] 0.33) per 10,000 person-days. The incidence of reinfection was lower than the incidence of new infection (HR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17). Our meta-analysis of studies conducted prior to the emergency of the more transmissible Omicron variant showed that people with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection could be re-infected, and they have a lower risk of infection than those without prior infection. Continuing reviews are needed as the reinfection risk may change due to the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , PubMed
6.
Arch Virol ; 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014164

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly threatened public health. Human herd immunity induced by vaccination is essential to fight the epidemic. Therefore, highly immunogenic and safe vaccines are necessary to control SARS-CoV-2, whose S protein is the antigenic determinant responsible for eliciting antibodies that prevent viral entry and fusion. In this study, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine expressing the S protein, named pVAX-S-OP, which was optimized according to the human-origin codon preference and using polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid as an adjuvant. pVAX-S-OP induced specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c and hACE2 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we observed 1.43-fold higher antibody titers in mice receiving pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant than in those receiving pVAX-S-OP alone. Interferon gamma production in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group was 1.58 times (CD3+CD4+IFN-gamma+) and 2.29 times (CD3+CD8+IFN-gamma+) lower than that in the pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant group but higher than that in the control group. The pVAX-S-OP vaccine was also observed to stimulate a Th1-type immune response. When, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, qPCR detection of N and E genes showed that the viral RNA loads in pVAX-S-OP-immunized mice lung tissues were 104 times and 106 times lower than those of the PBS control group, which shows that the vaccine could reduce the amount of live virus in the lungs of hACE2 mice. In addition, pathological sections showed less lung damage in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group. Taken together, our results demonstrated that pVAX-S-OP has significant immunogenicity, which provides support for developing SARS-CoV-2 DNA candidate vaccines.

8.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221104365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902321

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered a global public health crisis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs. However, the effect of PPIs on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients remains unclear. Methods: All COVID-19 patients admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into PPIs and non-PPIs groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the effects of PPIs on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients, including transfer to intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms potentially associated with acid and the routes, types, median total dosage, and duration of PPIs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Of the 3024 COVID-19 patients included, 694 and 2330 were in PPIs and non-PPIs groups, respectively. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that PPIs significantly increased the risk of reaching the composite endpoint in COVID-19 patients (OR = 10.23, 95% CI = 6.90-15.16, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, other medications, and severe/critical COVID-19, PPIs were independently associated with an increased risk of reaching the composite endpoint (OR = 7.00, 95% CI = 4.57-10.71, p < 0.001). This association remained significant in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and those who received an intravenous omeprazole alone, but not those who received oral lansoprazole or rabeprazole alone. It was not influenced by dosage or duration of PPIs. Conclusion: The use of intravenous PPIs alone during hospitalization may be associated with worse clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1805566

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the spread of deadly virus globally compels individuals to reevaluate death and dying, and this forced awareness of death influences adaptation to a changing environment. Several studies have employed artificial laboratory settings of mortality salience or subliminal death primes to increase mortality awareness and mortality threat perception. However, few studies have used natural settings to activate a larger ecological network of perceived mortality threats. To understand such natural environment conditions under which individuals feel most fearful for their safety and lives, the goal of this study is to examine whether changes in overall fear of death varied according to individual distinctions in life history (LH) strategy and current environmental status under the COVID-19 pandemic. Residents of Hubei, China (N = 202) reported their fear of death subject scores once during and once after the mandatory lockdown period. The results revealed that LH was associated with fear of death, and the current environment moderated this association, suggesting that slow LH strategy was predictive of more intense death fear at lower levels of mortality threat in a given environment than at higher levels of this threat. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement In the present study, we compared individual differences in life-history behavioral and cognitive profiles in influencing death fear during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We explored the moderating role of environmental unpredictability in the relationship between fear of death and LH during and after compulsory lockdown. This study employed natural environments to activate a more comprehensive network of death-related concepts as the global spread of the virus progresses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

10.
Hemodial Int ; 26(3): 369-376, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The immunogenicity of vaccines is known to be attenuated in patients with end-stage kidney disease due to uremia. Patients on dialysis were excluded from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials; thus, the effectiveness of vaccines for this population is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore whether Asian dialysis patients can effectively produce an immune response after being vaccinated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. DESIGN SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: In this prospective cohort study, we included Asian hemodialysis patients who received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. At 3 weeks after the first dose of vaccination, we assessed the humoral immune response by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titers. The primary outcome was the seropositive rate following vaccination, defined as an antibody titer greater than or equal to 0.8 U/ml. Factors associated with seropositivity were explored in multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: In total, 434 participants were included. The mean age was 64 years, the mean dialysis vintage was 6 years, and 61% of the participants were men. At a mean time of 22 days from vaccination, 56% of the participants were seropositive. The vast majority (88%) had low antibody titers (< 15 U/ml). The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that older age (every increase of 10 years, odds ratio [OR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, p = 0.03) was negatively associated with seropositivity and that higher Kt/V (every increase of 0.1, OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, p = 0.03) and higher serum albumin level (every increase of 0.1 g/dl, OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.18, p = 0.02) were positively associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian hemodialysis patients, the seropositive rate was low, and most had low antibody titers after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Younger age, better dialysis adequacy, and higher albumin levels were associated with seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis
11.
authorea preprints; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.164864917.70580039.v1

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the COVID-19 pandemic, a “new normal” on how surgeons and intensivists perform tracheotomy in COVID-19 patients is essential. We aim to summarize the recommendations and present the supporting evidence of these recommendations. Methods A search of published works on tracheotomy, tracheostomy, COVID-19, novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE/Cochrane Library. Articles relevant to the practice of tracheotomy on patients with COVID-19 were selected. The articles were then reviewed and divided into 4 key categories: 1) Personal protective equipment (PPE) in COVID-19 positive patients, 2) Adjunctive measures of airway management before definitive intervention in COVID-19 positive patients; 3) Timing of tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients; and 4) Perioperative considerations in performing tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients. Results and key points Firstly, enhanced PPE is recommended during tracheotomy of COVID-19 positive patients. Secondly, adjunctive airway management before definitive intervention includes the use of high flow nasal cannulas (HFNC). Thirdly, non-invasive ventilation via continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) machines are not recommended. Fourth, the general consensus suggests that timing of tracheotomy should be at least 10 days after intubation. Finally, percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) is likely to be associated with a lower risk of transmission of the virus to healthcare workers (HCW) than a surgical tracheotomy (ST). Other key precautions would include minimizing the use of diathermy. Conclusions The “new normal” workflow summarizes the ideal recommendations across published societal guidelines. Enhanced PPE should be recommended whenever possible. Adjunctive measures before definitive intervention of COVID-19 patients should be limited to the use of HFNC, and CPAP/BiPAP should be avoided. Tracheotomy should be performed after 10 days, although the long term sequelae of tracheal stenosis and pulmonary fibrosis should be ascertained with this approach.

12.
Evol Psychol Sci ; 8(1): 20-29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739471

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise and raised many questions. One of the questions is whether infectious diseases indeed drive fast life history (LH) as the extent research suggests. This paper challenges this assumption and raises a different perspective. We argue that infectious diseases enact either slower or faster LH strategies and the related disease control behavior depending on disease severity. We tested and supported the theorization based on a sample of 662 adult residents drawn from all 32 provinces and administrative regions of mainland China. The findings help to broaden LH perspectives and to better understand unusual social phenomena arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Nano Res ; 15(4): 3323-3337, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616263

ABSTRACT

The emergence of human coronaviruses (HCoVs), especially the current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), engender severe threats to public health globally. Despite the outstanding breakthrough of new vaccines and therapeutic medicines in the past years, HCoVs still undergo unpredictable mutations, thus demanding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Benefitting from the unique physicochemical properties and multiple nano-bio interactions, nanomaterials hold promising potential to fight against various HCoVs, either by providing sensitive and economic nanosensors for rapid viral detection, or by developing translatable nanovaccines and broad-spectrum nanomedicines for HCoV treatment. Herein, we systemically summarized the recent applications of nanoagents in diagnostics and therapeutics for HCoV-induced diseases, as well as their limitations and perspectives against HCoV variants. We believe this review will promote the design of innovative theranostic nanoagents for the current and future HCoV-caused pandemics.

14.
Nano research ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601958

ABSTRACT

The emergence of human coronaviruses (HCoVs), especially the current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), engender severe threats to public health globally. Despite the outstanding breakthrough of new vaccines and therapeutic medicines in the past years, HCoVs still undergo unpredictable mutations, thus demanding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Benefitting from the unique physicochemical properties and multiple nano-bio interactions, nanomaterials hold promising potential to fight against various HCoVs, either by providing sensitive and economic nanosensors for rapid viral detection, or by developing translatable nanovaccines and broad-spectrum nanomedicines for HCoV treatment. Herein, we systemically summarized the recent applications of nanoagents in diagnostics and therapeutics for HCoV-induced diseases, as well as their limitations and perspectives against HCoV variants. We believe this review will promote the design of innovative theranostic nanoagents for the current and future HCoV-caused pandemics.

15.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211067496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594491

ABSTRACT

A total of 95 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the orthopedics department within half a year of the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected between January 23, 2020 and July 23, 2020. Data such as patients' demographics, type of injury, location, side of lesions, mechanism of injury, injury site, and surgical management were collected and subsequently analyzed. On the one hand, the total number of emergency visits due to hand injury during the COVID-19 outbreak decreased by 37%, compared to the same period in the previous year. On the other hand, work resumption injuries increased by 40%. Injuries within the resumption period occurred predominantly at work (64.7%) and were significantly higher than the same period in 2019 (37.3%) (P < .001). Machine-related injuries were the most frequent injuries seen in our hospital (58.8%). The majority of cases were from cut injuries (82.4%), with fingers being the most common site of these injuries. Simple fractures and dislocations were also reported during the study. Most injuries were classified as either minor or moderate (90%) during the outbreak. However, during the resumption of work, major injuries were more prevalent (40%). The proportion of major injuries this year's work resumption stage (40%) has almost doubled compared to the previous year (21.8%, P = .006). The resumption of work following the COVID-19 outbreak is a time of high-risk for hand injuries. The overall number of patients with hand injuries admitted into our department has decreased compared to the corresponding period last year. However, workplace injuries, particularly machine-related ones, considerably increased during the first six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. As a result, the proportion of major injuries drastically increased. Emergency and surgical health care providers should be aware of this pattern of hand injuries during this untypical time in order to effectively prepare and plan services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Injuries , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(28): 8388-8403, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. AIM: To develop and validate a risk stratification tool for the early prediction of intensive care unit (ICU) admission among COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHODS: The training cohort included COVID-19 patients admitted to the Wuhan Third Hospital. We selected 13 of 65 baseline laboratory results to assess ICU admission risk, which were used to develop a risk prediction model with the random forest (RF) algorithm. A nomogram for the logistic regression model was built based on six selected variables. The predicted models were carefully calibrated, and the predictive performance was evaluated and compared with two previously published models. RESULTS: There were 681 and 296 patients in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The patients in the training cohort were older than those in the validation cohort (median age: 63.0 vs 49.0 years, P < 0.001), and the percentages of male gender were similar (49.6% vs 49.3%, P = 0.958). The top predictors selected in the RF model were neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, age, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatinine, D-dimer, albumin, procalcitonin, glucose, platelet, total bilirubin, lactate and creatine kinase. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the RF model were 91%, 88% and 93%, respectively, higher than those for the logistic regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of our model was much better than those of two other published methods (0.90 vs 0.82 and 0.75). Model A underestimated risk of ICU admission in patients with a predicted risk less than 30%, whereas the RF risk score demonstrated excellent ability to categorize patients into different risk strata. Our predictive model provided a larger standardized net benefit across the major high-risk range compared with model A. CONCLUSION: Our model can identify ICU admission risk in COVID-19 patients at admission, who can then receive prompt care, thus improving medical resource allocation.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759152, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497097

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, the prevalence of GI symptoms and their association with outcomes remain controversial in COVID-19 patients. Methods: All COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were collected. Disease severity and outcomes were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without GI symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of GI symptoms with the composite endpoint and death in COVID-19 patients. A composite endpoint was defined as transfer to intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and death. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 2,552 COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of GI symptoms was 21.0% (537/2,552). Diarrhea (8.9%, 226/2,552) was the most common GI symptom. Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher proportions of severe COVID-19 and worse outcomes than those without. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that GI symptoms were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.426, 95% CI = 1.608-3.661; P < 0.001) and death (OR = 2.137, 95% CI = 1.209-3.778; P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, sex, and severe/critical COVID-19, GI symptoms were still independently associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.029, 95% CI = 1.294-3.182; P = 0.002), but not death (OR = 1.726, 95% CI = 0.946-3.150; P = 0.075). According to the type of GI symptoms, GI bleeding was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (OR = 8.416, 95% CI = 3.465-20.438, P < 0.001) and death (OR = 6.640, 95% CI = 2.567-17.179, P < 0.001), but not other GI symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, acid reflux and/or heartburn, or abdominal pain). Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and may be associated with their worse outcomes. Notably, such a negative impact of GI symptoms on the outcomes should be attributed to GI bleeding.

18.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(3): 595-607, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373855

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is but one of many instances of environmental adversities that have recurred in human history. Biobehavioral resource allocation strategies, known as fast (reproduction-focused) versus slow (development-focused) life history (LH) tradeoff strategies, evolved to deal with environmental challenges such as infectious diseases. Based on 141 young people and their mothers observed prior to (ages 9 and 13) and during (age 20) COVID-19, we investigated longitudinal relations involving slow LH strategies. The results support the adaptive role of slow LH strategies in reducing COVID-related increases in externalizing problems. In addition, the effect of early adversity on COVID-related increases in externalizing was mediated, and the effect on COVID-related increases in internalizing was moderated, by slow LH strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life History Traits , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5554500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the advantages of preoperative digital design of skin flaps to repair fingertip defects during the COVID-19 pandemic. We combined digital design with a 3D-printed model of the affected finger for preoperative communication with fingertip defect patients under observation in a buffer ward. METHODS: From December 2019 to January 2021, we obtained data from 25 cases of 30 fingertip defects in 15 males and 10 females, aged 20-65 years old (mean 35 ± 5 years). All cases were treated by digitally designing preoperative fingertip defect flaps combined with a 3D-printed model. Preoperative 3D Systems Sense scanning was routinely performed, 3-matic 12.0 was used to measure the fingertip defect area ranging from 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm to 2.0 cm × 5.0 cm, and the skin flap was designed. The flap area was 1.6 cm × 3.6 cm to 2.1 cm × 5.1 cm. CURA 15.02.1 was used to set parameters, and the 3D model of the affected finger was printed prior to the operation. Full-thickness skin grafts were taken from donor areas for repair. RESULTS: No vascular crises occurred in any of the 25 cases, and all flaps survived. The postoperative follow-up occurred over 3-12 months. All patients were evaluated 3 months after operation according to the trial standard of hand function evaluation of the Chinese Hand Surgery Society. The results showed that 20 cases had excellent outcomes (80%), four cases had good outcomes (16%), and one case had a fair outcome (4%). The excellent and good rate was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, fingertip defects were treated with preoperative digital design of fingertip defect flaps combined with 3D printing. Precision design saves surgery time and improves the success rate of surgery and the survival rates of skin flaps. In addition, 3D model simulations improve preoperative communication efficiency, and the personalized design improves patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Finger Injuries/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Pandemics , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Preoperative Care/methods , Skin Transplantation/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Plastic Surgery Procedures/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Transplantation/psychology , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Surgical Flaps/innervation , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing/physiology
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25497, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262269

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients frequently develop liver biochemical abnormality. However, liver biochemical abnormality in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis is under-recognized.Patients hospitalized during COVID-19 pandemic in China (ie, from February to April 2020) were screened. All of 17 COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital were identified. Meanwhile, 17 age-, sex-, and severity-matched COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis admitted to this hospital were selected as a control group; all of 14 cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were selected as another control group. Incidence of liver biochemical abnormality and decompensated events were primarily compared.Among the COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 76.50% and 84.60%, respectively; 7 (41.20%) had decompensated events at admission; 1 was transferred to intensive care unit due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Among the COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 58.80% (P = .271) and 60.00% (P = .150), respectively. Among the cirrhotic patients without COVID-19, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 69.20% (P = .657) and 81.80% (P = .855), respectively; 11 (78.60%) had decompensated events at admission (P = .036). None died during hospitalization among the three groups.Liver biochemical abnormality is common in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis. Management of decompensated events in cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 should not be neglected during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , China , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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