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1.
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity ; 4(2):151-157, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241592

ABSTRACT

The United Nations Secretary-General Mechanism (UNSGM) for investigation of the alleged use of chemical and biological weapons is the only established international mechanism of this type under the UN. The UNGSM may launch an international investigation, relying on a roster of expert consultants, qualified experts, and analytical laboratories nominated by the member states. Under the framework of the UNSGM, we organized an external quality assurance exercise for nominated laboratories, named the Disease X Test, to improve the ability to discover and identify new pathogens that may cause possible epidemics and to determine their animal origin. The "what-if" scenario was to identify the etiological agent responsible for an outbreak that has tested negative for many known pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Three microbes were added to the samples, Dabie bandavirus, Mammarenavirus, and Gemella spp., of which the last two have not been taxonomically named or published. The animal samples were from Rattus norvegicus, Marmota himalayana, New Zealand white rabbit, and the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Of the 11 international laboratories that participated in this activity, six accurately identified pathogen X as a new Mammarenavirus, and five correctly identified the animal origin as R. norvegicus. These results showed that many laboratories under the UNSGM have the capacity and ability to identify a new virus during a possible international investigation of a suspected biological event. The technical details are discussed in this report.Copyright © 2022

2.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 46(1):72-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234574

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate against different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Prototype, Beta, Delta, Omicron) by changing the sequence of drug and virus introduction. Methods Prophylactic treatment: Vero E6 cells were treated with Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine sulfate (200.00, 150.00, 100.00, 50.00, 16.70, 5.55, 1.85, 0.62, 0.21 micromol.L-1) for 1 h, then the virus was added and incubated for another 2 h. The virus-drug mixture was repalced with fresh medium until the end of the experiment. Post-entry treatment: Vero E6 cells were incubated with virus for 2 h, then the virus was removed and the cells were cultured with drug-containing medium until the end of the experiment. Full-time treatment: Vero E6 cells were pretreated with the drug for 1 h ahead, then virus was added and incubated for another 2 h. The virus-drug mixture was discarded and the cells were cultured with drug-containing medium until the end of the experiment. After 72 h of culture, the cells were observed to see whether they became round and shed to determine the cytopathic situation, and the semi-maximum effect concentration (EC50) and drug selection index (SI) were calculated. Results Both drugs were less effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine sulfate showed good antiviral activity under both therapeutic and full-time treatment. EC50 of hydroxychloroquine sulfate was less than chloroquine, SI was greater than chloroquine, antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine sulfate was better than chloroquine. The antiviral effect of chloroquine (EC50 = 0.904 micromol.L-1) and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (EC50 = 0.143 micromol.L-1) was more significant against Omicron variant than other variants under therapeutic and full-time treatment conditions. Conclusion Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine sulfate showed good antiviral activity under both therapeutic and full-time treatment, and both drugs were significantly more active against the Omicron variant than the other variants.Copyright © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.

3.
Organization Science ; 33(4):1554-1573, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230913

ABSTRACT

In an era of globalization, it is commonly assumed that multicultural experiences foster leadership effectiveness. However, little research has systematically tested this assumption. We develop a theoretical perspective that articulates how and when multicultural experiences increase leadership effectiveness. We hypothesize that broad multicultural experiences increase individuals' leadership effectiveness by developing their communication competence. Because communication competence is particularly important for leading teams that are more multinational, we further hypothesize that individuals with broader multicultural experiences are particularly effective when leading more versus less multinational teams. Four studies test our theory using mixed methods (field survey, archival panel, field experiments) and diverse populations (corporate managers, soccer managers, hackathon leaders) in different countries (Australia, Britain, China, America). In Study 1, corporate managers with broader multicultural experiences were rated as more effective leaders, an effect mediated by communication competence. Analyzing a 25-year archival panel of English Premier League soccer managers, Study 2 replicates the positive effect of broad multicultural experiences using a team performance measure of leadership effectiveness. Importantly, this effect was moderated by team national diversity: soccer managers with broader multicultural experiences were particularly effective when leading teams with greater national diversity. Study 3 (digital health hackathon) and Study 4 (COVID-19 policy hackathon) replicate these effects in two field experiments, in which individuals with varying levels of multicultural experiences were randomly assigned to lead hackathon teams that naturally varied in national diversity. Overall, our research suggests that broad multicultural experiences help leaders communicate more competently and lead more effectively, especially when leading multinational teams.

4.
Journal of Urology ; 209(Supplement 4):e119, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In New York State, March 16, 2020 marked the end of any in-restaurant dining due to the COVID- 19 pandemic. The general population was forced to do more cooking at home and less dining out. Dietary modifications like this are considered first line therapy for calcium stone formers due to an effort to reduce dietary sodium intake which is known to affect lithogenic risk factors including hypernatriuria and hypercalciuria. This study aims to see if dietary changes made during the pandemic changed the risk of stone disease as evidenced in 24-hour urine studies and if these changes ceased after the end of widespread shutdowns. METHOD(S): All patients with nephrolithiasis seen for an outpatient visit from April 1, 2020-December 31, 2020 were queried and included if they had a 24-hour urine study pre-COVID (before March 16, 2020) and during-COVID (March 16, 2020-December 31, 2020);a post- COVID study was included if available (January 1, 2021- October 31, 2022). Values were compared using paired, 2-tailed t-tests. RESULT(S): 93 patients (54 males, 39 females, mean age 60.1) were studied pre-COVID, during-COVID, and post-COVID time periods with 24-hour urine studies. Stone analysis revealed calcium oxalate (61%), calcium phosphate (15%), uric acid (15%), other (9%). The 24-hour urine revealed a significant reduction in urinary sodium (uNa) and urinary calcium (uCa) in these patients. uNa levels decreased from 166.15+/-7.5 mEq/L pre-COVID to 149.09+/-7.6 mEq/L during- COVID (p=0.015) and maintained improved at 138.55+/-6.83 mEq/L post-COVID era (p=0.0035). uCa levels decreased from 214.18+/-13.05 mEq/L pre-COVID to 191.48+/-13.03 mEq/L during- COVID levels (p=0.010) and remained improved at 185.33+/-12.61 mEq/L post-COVID (p=0.012). There were no significant differences in 24-hour urine total volume, magnesium, or citrate levels. CONCLUSION(S): During the COVID-19 lockdown, dietary choices limited to home cooked meals allowed patients to better identify their food choices. This study demonstrates that known urinary risk factors for lithogenesis, such as urinary sodium and calcium, improved during the lockdown and these improvements were maintained even after restrictions in restaurants were lifted. Moving forward, it will be imperative to monitor patient's 24-hour urine to ensure these dietary modifications are continued in the postpandemic era and to see if these improved urinary parameters will impact stone formation in these patients.

5.
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism-Research Planning and Management ; 41, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311655

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the mobility, accessibility, and behaviors of visitors dramatically. Under the impact of COVID-19, the social carrying capacity and emotion dynamics in parks and recreation areas are expected to change due to the uncertainty of health risks associated with visitors' behaviors. This study con-ducted an on-site visitor survey at Leiqiong Global Geological Park, a national park located in urban-proximate areas in Haikou, China. This study aims to examine factors impacting visitors' perceived crowding and emotions under varying levels of visitor use in urban national parks in the context of COVID-19. Study results suggest that visitors have the highest level of motivation for scenery and culture viewing and are generally satisfied with the environmental quality and design and COVID-19 prevention strategies and implementation efforts within the park. Moreover, this study suggests that the level of crowding and COVID-19 prevention strategies and imple-mentation can affect visitors' emotions in urban natioanl parks significantly. These findings highlight the importance of enforcing the social carrying capacity limits and COVID-19 prevention strategies for urban parks and protected areas to mitigate physical and mental health risks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Management implication: This study is one of the pilot studies that examines the social carrying capacity and emotion dynamics in urban national parks under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study results identify the thresholds of social carrying capacity and visitors' positive emotions based on the indicator of People Per View (PPV). Moreover, COVID-19 prevention strategies (e.g., mask-wearing and social distancing) can reduce visitors' perceived crowding and enhance positive emotions. These findings suggest that urban national parks should monitor visitor use levels based on the social carrying capacity framework to reduce visitors' perceived crowding and maintain positive emotions in the post-COVID-19 era.

6.
American Behavioral Scientist ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2299154

ABSTRACT

Ethnic and racial disparities in the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic raise significant concerns. This study analyzes social media discourses toward four ethnic communities in the United States during the pandemic and reveals disparities in pandemic experiences among them. A total of 488,029 tweets mentioning one of the four ethnic communities, that is, Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans, were investigated by a structural topic modeling approach with emotional expressions and time as covariates in the topic model. The results demonstrate that discourses about Asian, Hispanics, and Native American communities were often induced by pandemic-related events, concerning topics beyond one's community, and reflecting an experience of implicit racism and an adoption of technical supports from health systems. Meanwhile, discourses about Blacks were racially related, discussing topics within the community, and reflecting an experience of explicit racism and an adoption of psychological supports from ingroup. We discuss the implications of our findings on ethnic health disparities. © 2023 SAGE Publications.

7.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2299153

ABSTRACT

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Ancient Chinese herbal formulas are effective for diseases caused by viral infection, and their effects on COVID-19 are currently being examined. To directly evaluate the role of Chinese herbs in inhibiting replication of SARS-CoV-2, we investigated how the phytochemicals from Chinese herbs interact with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Total 1025 compounds were screened, and then 181compounds were selected for molecular docking analysis. Four phytochemicals licorice glycoside E, diisooctyl phthalate, (-)-medicocarpin, and glycyroside showed good binding affinity with RdRp. The best complex licorice glycoside E/RdRp forms 3 hydrogen bonds, 4 hydrophobic interactions, 1 pair of Pi-cation/stacking, and 4 salt bridges. Furthermore, docking complexes licorice glycoside E/RdRp and diisooctyl phthalate/RdRp were optimized by molecular dynamics simulation to obtain the stable conformation. These studies indicate that they are promising as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 46(1):72-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2256191

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate against different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Prototype, Beta, Delta, Omicron) by changing the sequence of drug and virus introduction. Methods Prophylactic treatment: Vero E6 cells were treated with Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine sulfate (200.00, 150.00, 100.00, 50.00, 16.70, 5.55, 1.85, 0.62, 0.21 µmol·L−1) for 1 h, then the virus was added and incubated for another 2 h. The virus-drug mixture was repalced with fresh medium until the end of the experiment. Post-entry treatment: Vero E6 cells were incubated with virus for 2 h, then the virus was removed and the cells were cultured with drug-containing medium until the end of the experiment. Full-time treatment: Vero E6 cells were pretreated with the drug for 1 h ahead, then virus was added and incubated for another 2 h. The virus-drug mixture was discarded and the cells were cultured with drug-containing medium until the end of the experiment. After 72 h of culture, the cells were observed to see whether they became round and shed to determine the cytopathic situation, and the semi-maximum effect concentration (EC50) and drug selection index (SI) were calculated. Results Both drugs were less effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine sulfate showed good antiviral activity under both therapeutic and full-time treatment. EC50 of hydroxychloroquine sulfate was less than chloroquine, SI was greater than chloroquine, antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine sulfate was better than chloroquine. The antiviral effect of chloroquine (EC50 = 0.904 µmol·L−1) and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (EC50 = 0.143 µmol·L−1) was more significant against Omicron variant than other variants under therapeutic and full-time treatment conditions. Conclusion Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine sulfate showed good antiviral activity under both therapeutic and full-time treatment, and both drugs were significantly more active against the Omicron variant than the other variants. © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.

9.
Acta Medica Philippina ; 56(19):79-86, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2252270

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The delivery sector has experienced a remarkable expansion in recent years, owing mainly to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, numerous elements, like practices, regulations, and health and safety conditions, impact their efficiency. Similarly, the issues and complaints of delivery services, notably its on-the-ground workers/ riders, have grown. Objective. This research aims to describe delivery riders' work-related health and safety conditions in the Philippines. Method. An online survey was conducted for delivery riders to inquire about working conditions, and health and safety issues. Eighty survey respondents were included via snowball sampling. The survey focused on seven variables: precautions at work, health risks due to work, accident involvement, bad driving practices, road conditions, potential dangers for riders, and employer regulations and support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Most riders are low-income married men who have finished at least high school and work more than eight hours a day, six days a week. Most of them also work for food delivery businesses during the day. The findings show a general adherence to traffic and safety laws, a propensity to push oneself to work despite poor conditions, and a lack of company support for riders' health, safety, and other requirements. The regular delivery rider's everyday difficulties include dirt roads, a lack of traffic signals, the presence of wandering animals and irresponsible pedestrians, and an insistence on showing up to work despite weather or health concerns. Furthermore, responders have high esteem for and thoroughly grasp local traffic laws. Conclusion. Although the riders are generally perceived to comply with safety standards, their employers' rules and support indicate that delivery firms are deficient in providing adequate safety and health measures for their workers. There is low importance on strategies to prevent transmission and contraction of COVID-19, such as vaccinations, testing, face masks, face shields, and sanitizers, among others. © 2022 University of the Philippines Manila. All rights reserved.

10.
Information Technology and People ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2269796

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ubiquitous social media has become a primary channel for information dissemination, social interactions and recreational activities. However, it remains unclear how social media usage influences nonpharmaceutical preventive behavior of individuals in response to the pandemic. This paper aims to explore the impacts of social media on COVID-19 preventive behaviors based on the theoretical lens of empowerment. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, survey data has been collected from 739 social media users in China to conduct structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Findings: The results indicate that social media empowers individuals in terms of knowledge seeking, knowledge sharing, socializing and entertainment to promote preventive behaviors at the individual level by increasing each person's perception of collective efficacy and social cohesion. Meanwhile, social cohesion negatively impacts the relationship between collective efficacy and individual preventive behavior. Originality/value: This study provides insights regarding the role of social media in crisis response and examines the role of collective beliefs in the influencing mechanism of social media. The results presented herein can be used to guide government agencies seeking to control the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited.

11.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; 19(4):352-355, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2268819

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the cure rate of critically ill patients in Wuhan epidemic area and reduce the fatality rate, the state have dispatched medical staffs from the whole country to support Wuhan and treat critically ill patients in dedicated facilities. A medical team from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, consisting of 133 medical staffs major in critical care medicine, respiralogy, infection, cardiology, and general surgery, entirely took over the critical care unit of the East Hospital of the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, and formed a multidisciplinary collaboration team with local medical staffs to treat patients together. Up to March 13th in 2020, the author's medical team has admitted a total of 109 patients, of which 48 had been discharged up on recovery. Critically ill patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 mainly have elder age, comorbidities, complicated conditions, and difficult diagnosis and treatment. The author and the author's team combined with clinical practice, share experience and strategies of general surgery related issues in the treatment of critically ill patients, providing reference for collegues in general surgery.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

12.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; 2 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2268720

ABSTRACT

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Several studies have confirmed that intestinal microflora dysbiosis correlates with the severity of COVID-19 patients. Clinical meta-analysis and our data show that the circulating miRNAs like miRNA-146 and the levels of serum cytokines in the peripheral blood are closely related to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. Despite the widespread use of traditional herbal medicine for COVID-19 in China, the mechanisms remain largely uncovered. Aim of the study: We conducted an observational case-control study to verify the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Qushi Jianpi Hewei Decoction (QJHD) for mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, and investigated the potential biomolecular mechanisms through metagenomics and transcriptomic sequencing methods. Material(s) and Method(s): QJHD was given orally twice a day individually for 14 to 28 days. A total of 10 patients were enrolled in the study and given QJHD. We observed advantages in clinical cure time rate, and the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms as compared with reports in the literature. The metagenomics sequencing data of fecal microflora and transcriptomic sequencing data of blood cell in patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection patients were selected compared to the healthy control donors. Result(s): No serious adverse events were reported. Meanwhile, the transcriptome analysis showed a decrease of the hsa-miR-21-5p expression in peripheral blood without QJHD. The species composition analysis showed an increase in the expression of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract;The interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression also in COVID-19 patient decreased in peripheral blood compared with healthy control donors. And we found an improvement in these parameters in patients taking QJHD. Conclusion(s): Our findings show that QJHD could improve clinical outcomes of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients, probably through beneficial immunomodulatory effects by regulating Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal tract and hsa-miR-21 and IL-10 expression in peripheral blood. (chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030305)Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)

13.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 35(2):97-104, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2288487

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) is a class B infectious disease, which is prevented and controlled according to class A infectious diseases. Recently, children's NCP cases have gradually increased, and children's fever outpatient department has become the first strategic pass to stop the epidemic.Strengthening the management of the fever diagnosis process is very important for early detection of suspected children, early isolation, early treatment and prevention of cross-infection. This article proposes prevention and control strategies for fever diagnosis, optimizes processes, prevents cross-infection, health protection and disinfection of medical staff, based on the relevant diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control programs of the National Health and Health Commission and on the diagnosis and treatment experience of experts in various provinces and cities. The present guidance summarizes current strategies on pre-diagnosis;triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in common fever, suspected and confirmed children, which provide practical suggestions on strengthening the management processes of children's fever in outpatient department during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

14.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 15(6), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287158

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the employee lifecycle management (ELM) sphere, leading to the adoption of new human resource (HR) technologies and policies. This study investigates the impact of megatrends, artificial intelligence, digital technologies, and innovation on ELM and human resource management (HRM) policies in China, Russia, and Indonesia. Data were collected through structured interviews and publicly available information from companies in these countries between 2021 and 2022. The study evaluates the effects of artificial intelligence (AI), digital transformation (DT), and innovations on the sustainable development of ELM and identifies differences in technological responses to ELM in companies depending on their level of digital maturity. The results show that the majority of companies have continued the process of ELM digital transformation, but the percentage varies based on the scope of activity, labor, and readiness of the country to implement new technologies. The study reveals that large companies in each analyzed country with over 10,000 employees have a greater need and opportunity to implement HR digital transformation, whereas small companies with up to 100 people can operate without automation. In addition, the findings of this study provide propositions for designing how AI and innovations contribute to ELM. This article contributes to the current debate in the literature by substantiating the positive impact of AI, digital technology, and innovation on ELM and HRM strategies, offering practical applications for companies to improve productivity. Overall, this study highlights the importance of adopting innovative HR technologies in response to global challenges and workplace trends. © 2023 by the authors.

15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(3): 379-385, 2023 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254739

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristic of a COVID-19 outbreak caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant BF.7 and other provinces imported in Shenzhen and analyze transmission chains and characteristics. Methods: Field epidemiological survey was conducted to identify the transmission chain, analyze the generation relationship among the cases. The 2019-nCoV nucleic acid positive samples were used for gene sequencing. Results: From 8 to 23 October, 2022, a total of 196 cases of COVID-19 were reported in Shenzhen, all the cases had epidemiological links. In the cases, 100 were men and 96 were women, with a median of age, M (Q1, Q3) was 33(25, 46) years. The outbreak was caused by traverlers initial cases infected with 2019-nCoV who returned to Shenzhen after traveling outside of Guangdong Province.There were four transmission chains, including the transmission in place of residence and neighbourhood, affecting 8 persons, transmission in social activity in the evening on 7 October, affecting 65 persons, transmission in work place on 8 October, affecting 48 persons, and transmission in a building near the work place, affecting 74 persons. The median of the incubation period of the infection, M (Q1, Q3) was 1.44 (1.11, 2.17) days. The incubation period of indoor exposure less than that of the outdoor exposure, M (Q1, Q3) was 1.38 (1.06, 1.84) and 1.95 (1.22, 2.99) days, respcetively (Wald χ2=10.27, P=0.001). With the increase of case generation, the number and probability of gene mutation increased. In the same transmission chain, the proportion of having 1-3 mutation sites was high in the cases in the first generation. Conclusions: The transmission chains were clear in this epidemic. The incubation period of Omicron variant BF.7 infection was shorter, the transmission speed was faster, and the gene mutation rate was higher. It is necessary to conduct prompt response and strict disease control when epidemic occurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
16.
Resources Policy ; 80, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2246633

ABSTRACT

Risk and return are two fundamentals that have an impact on an investor's or hedger's investing choices. Based on the proposed synchronous movement intensity index, this paper aims to improve the hedging performance by adjusting the model-driven hedge ratio and realize the trade-off between return and risk in futures hedging. First, without loss of generality, we forecast crude oil spot and futures volatility using 10 GARCH-type models, including three linear models and seven nonlinear models, to obtain the ex-ante hedging ratio under the minimum variance framework. Then, we develop a novel and tractable method to identify the market state based on the index of consistency intensity, in which the index portrays the synchronous degree of stock price movements in the energy sector. Last but not least, we propose the hedge ratio adjustment criteria based on the identified state, and adjust the ratio driven by GARCH-type models of futures in accordance with the market state. Empirical results of crude oil futures markets indicate that the proposed state-dependent hedging model is superior to the commonly used models in terms of three criteria including mean of returns, variance, and ratio of mean to variance of returns for measuring hedging effect. We apply the DM test to make a statistical inference and discover that while the mean and the ratio of mean to variance of returns are increasing, the variance and hedging effectiveness of the hedged portfolio based on the modified methods are not significantly affected. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed method is robust to different market conditions, including significant rising or falling trends, large basis, and COVID-19 pandemic. We also test the robustness of the proposed method with respect to the baseline model, quantile, and evaluation window. Overall, this paper provides a more realistic approach for crude oil risk managers to hedge crude oil price risk, some corresponding implications are also concluded. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

17.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; 26(Supplement 1):375.0, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2237321

ABSTRACT

Background: Under the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic, more medical resources are assigned to the prevention and control of the pandemic, while relatively less attention is paid to patients with chronic diseases. Previous studies reported that COVID-19 deaths were mainly observed among male patients with multiple comorbidities, and the major comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, and chronic bronchitis, all of which are chronic diseases. As one of the most common chronic diseases that occurs in male, no report regarding how COVID-19 impacts gout patients psychologically due to the general susceptibility, their mental state and willingness to adhere to ULT treatment and the actual ULT adherence so far. This study aims to assess urate-lowering therapy adherence and the relationship with medication beliefs, self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 pandemic-related concern in Chinese gout patients during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method(s): The cross-sectional study employed a total of 101 gout patients receiving urate-lowering therapy to evaluate adherence, medication beliefs, self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 pandemic-related concern via a mobile app-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. Result(s): 101 valid responses were included in the statistical analysis. Patients' adherence rate to urate-lowering therapy during the COVID-19 outbreak was 22.8%, higher than that in normal periods (9.6%). Compared with adherent groups, non-adherent gout patients had shorter disease duration, lower self-efficacy, lower Necessity about urate-lowering therapy score, higher Concerns about urate-lowering therapy score, and smaller Necessity-Concerns differential. Depression and anxiety rates (3.0% and 5.0%, respectively) during the COVID-19 break were lower than that in normal periods. Additionally, depression, anxiety, as well as COVID-19 pandemic-related concern (27.7%) were not related to ULT adherence. Conclusion(s): Adherence rate to urate-lowering therapy in Chinese gout patients during the COVID-19 outbreak was 13.2%, higher than normal times, but still very poor. Except for a little concern about being more susceptible to the virus, patients' mental state is relatively good. While the country puts great efforts in COVID-19 prevention and control, attention must also be paid to the medication management of patients with chronic diseases such as gout.

19.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198778

ABSTRACT

Urine source separation, a kind of new sewage management concept, has made great progress in technology development and application in the past 30 years. However, understanding of the potential microbial risks in reuse of urine derived fertilizer products (UDFPs) in agriculture is still lacking. Outbreak of pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and more deadly disease caused by Monkeypox strongly sounds the alarm bell to the attention on pathogens in urine and their fate in UDFPs. Therefore, this study presented a comprehensive review on pathogens inactivation in nutrient recovery technologies. The review suggests that technologies using alkaline or heating treatment can effectively reduce pathogens in UDFPs. However, technologies with characteristics such as membrane rejection of nutrients or nutrient adsorption may even concentrate pathogens in their fertilizer products. Based on an overall assessment, connections of technologies and the pathogens inactivation in their UDFPs have been established. This would help to provide a perspective on development of urine treatment technology and management of microbial risks in reusing urine nutrients in agriculture.

20.
Asian Review of Accounting ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191294

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper investigates whether sustainability performance (SP) protects financial performance (FP) for firms in both developed and emerging economies during the COVID-19-induced economic downturn. Design/methodology/approach: Using a recent sample of firms in 34 countries between 2003 and 2021, the authors employ ordinary least squares regressions, moderations and the Heckman two-step method to test the hypotheses. Findings: Firms with strong SP have higher FP in developed and emerging economies in the upcoming year. During the COVID-19 crisis in 2020–2021, the impact of sustainability on FP is pronounced in developed but not in emerging economies. Furthermore, cross-listings expose firms in emerging economies to high-standard institutional mechanisms in developed economies. Thus, sustainable firms in emerging economies cross-listed on European stock exchanges are more profitable. Practical implications: For regulators and standard setters, the global-level comparative analysis helps them find solutions that may assist firms in improving SP globally (e.g. mandatory reporting) and enduring crises resiliently. For institutional investors, the study reveals the relatively different impact of sustainability risk for firms in developed and emerging economies. For practitioners and private sector firms, this study contributes to the dialogue on what makes firms more resilient in COVID-19. Although COVID-19 might be temporary, the lessons learned could protect firms from future crises. Originality/value: The authors contribute to the contingency perspective between sustainability and financial performance by providing recent empirical evidence in a global setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors demonstrate how different external institutional mechanisms (rule-based governance and relation-based governance) and cross-listing affect the SP-FP relationship during a crisis. The authors extend the knowledge in crisis management literature with a comparative study and fill the research gap on how SP affects FP for firms in emerging economies compared to developed economies. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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